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aggressive behavior

Liang Lv, Yu Hu, Senlin Yin, Mengmeng Wang, Peizhi Zhou, Nannan Zhang, Weichao Ma, Shizhen Zhang, Shu Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Atypical pituitary adenomas were relatively more malignant lesions defined by WHO criteria. However, not all of them show clinically aggressive behavior. Thus, the current WHO criteria of atypical adenoma didn't seem to be enough to distinguish clinically aggressive adenoma. Therefore, we would like to identify other clinical factors in a cohort of atypical pituitary adenomas to a better identification of clinical aggressiveness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In order to verify predictors of clinically aggressive phenotype among atypical pituitary adenomas, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of consecutive 49 cases...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Barbara Stanley, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Christa Labouliere, Steven Roose
Traditionally, the study of personality disorders had been based on psychoanalytic or behavioral models. Over the past two decades, there has been an emerging neuroscience model of borderline personality disorder (BPD) grounded in the concept of BPD as a condition in which dysfunctional neural circuits underlie its pathological dimensions, some of which include emotion dysregulation (broadly encompassing affective instability, negative affectivity, and hyperarousal), abnormal interpersonal functioning, and impulsive aggression...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Peter K Deschamps, Esmee E Verhulp, Bram Orobio de Castro, Walter Matthys
The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), parents and teachers of 104 six- and seven-year-old children completed the Instrument for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. At T1, parents and teachers also reported empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Lauren E Davis, Samidha Tripathi
Self-enucleation is a severe form of self-injurious behavior which presents as an ophthalmologic and psychiatric emergency. It is usually known to occur with untreated psychosis, however, there have been reports of self-enucleation across various psychopathologies. We review a case documenting self-enucleation in the forensic setting in a patient with an unusual presentation and cluster of psychotic symptoms. Literature was reviewed using PubMed/Medline databases with key terms: "forensic science," "forensic psychiatry," "auto-enucleation," "self-enucleation," "Oedipism," "self-harm...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Rachel M Tache, Sharon F Lambert, Jody M Ganiban, Nicholas S Ialongo
Research suggests that neighborhood risks are associated with internalizing symptoms for adolescents high on temperament characteristics related to the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). However, it is unclear whether newer conceptualizations of the BIS distinguishing fear from anxiety operate similarly. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the BIS attenuates community violence exposure effects on externalizing problems. The current study examined whether the BIS or the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) moderated associations between community violence exposure and internalizing and externalizing problems...
February 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Miguel Rito, Yoshitsugu Mitani, Diana Bell, Fernanda Viviane Mariano, Salman T Almalki, Kristen B Pytynia, Isabel Fonseca, Adel K El-Naggar
Basal cell salivary neoplasms display similar cyto-morphologic features and are classified into adenoma and adenocarcinoma based on the presence or absence of tumor invasion at diagnosis. These neoplasms also share considerable phenotypic resemblance and co-exist with certain dermal adnexal tumors harboring the CYLD gene mutations inferring common genetic association. We sequenced the CYLD gene in both basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas and correlated the findings with CYLD, NF-κB, and β-catenin expression levels and clinicopathologic factors...
February 20, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Debora Cutuli, Erica Berretta, Paola Caporali, Patricia Sampedro-Piquero, Paola De Bartolo, Daniela Laricchiuta, Francesca Gelfo, Matteo Pesoli, Francesca Foti, Stefano Farioli Vecchioli, Laura Petrosini
Potentiating social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations the Environmental Enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity experienced by individuals. Growing evidence demonstrates that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects behavioral and neural developmental trajectories of the offspring. To discover how the accumulation of early maternal complex experiences may inform and shape the social behavior of the following generation, we examined the effects of pre-reproductive enrichment of dams (post-natal days 21-72) on the play performances of their male and female adolescent offspring...
February 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ziteng Zhang, Ming Ma, Ronghang Hu, Baobin Xu, Ling Zong, Haixiang Wei, Yanhong Meng
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide; however, clinical and pathological parameters have limited ability in discriminating between clinically significant and indolent ESCC. Since RasGRP3 transcript levels have prognostic value in discriminating ESCC with different clinical aggressiveness, we decided to investigate its putative oncogenic role in ESCC. We found that RasGRP3 was highly expressed in ESCC cells. Suppression of endogenous RasGRP3 expression in esophageal cell lines reduced Ras-GTP formation as well as AKT phosphorylation...
February 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Robert Walter Eisinger, Anthony S Fauci
The goal of ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic is theoretically achievable and would require addressing this global health catastrophe on individual and global levels by providing optimal prevention strategies and treatment regimens for individual persons living with or at risk for HIV, as well as ending the pandemic as an epidemiologic and global health phenomenon. However, from a practical standpoint, the pathway to ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic will be difficult and will require aggressive implementation of the biomedical research advances that have been made in the areas of treatment and prevention; development of additional tools, such as a moderately effective HIV vaccine; and attention to critical behavioral and social determinants...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ruth Castillo-Gualda, Rosario Cabello, Marta Herrero, Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Adolescents' aggressive behavior is a growing social problem with important implications for psychosocial adjustment. The teaching of emotional skills has an important impact on reducing aggression in schools. However, little scientific evidence has shown the explanatory mechanism through which this training reduces aggression during adolescence. This article aims to provide evidence for the effectiveness of a 3-year longitudinal intervention among adolescents in nine Spanish schools. A total of 476 adolescents participated...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Darby Saxbe, Hannah Lyden, Sarah I Gimbel, Matthew Sachs, Larissa B Del Piero, Gayla Margolin, Jonas T Kaplan
Using longitudinal data from 21 adolescents, we assessed family aggression (via mother, father, and youth report) in early adolescence, externalizing behavior in mid-adolescence, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in late adolescence. Amygdalae were manually traced, and used as seed regions for resting state analyses. Both family aggression and subsequent externalizing behavior predicted larger right amygdala volumes and stronger amygdala-frontolimbic/salience network connectivity and weaker amygdala-posterior cingulate connectivity...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Alexis M Garcia, Paulo A Graziano, Katie C Hart
This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% boys, Mage = 4.92) with at-risk/clinically elevated levels of EBP participated in an 8-week summer treatment program (STP-PreK). Total number of minutes spent daily in TO for intentional aggression (IA) and repeated non-compliance (RNC) were recorded during the initial (T1) and final (T2) phases of the STP-PreK. After accounting for severity of EBP and levels of TO at T1, higher levels of CU traits predicted greater total levels of TO at T2...
February 19, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Yaojie Fu, Shanshan Liu, Shan Zeng, Hong Shen
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases worldwide. It is refractory to conventional treatments, and consequently has a documented 5-year survival rate as low as 7%. Increasing evidence indicates that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), one of the stromal components in tumor microenvironment (TME), play a crucial part in the desmoplasia, carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, metastasis associated with PDAC. Despite the current understanding of PSCs as a "partner in crime" to PDAC, detailed regulatory roles of PSCs and related microenvironment remain obscure...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Anna Delprato, Brice Bonheur, Marie-Paule Algéo, Alba Murillo, Esha Dhawan, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Wim E Crusio
Aggression between male conspecifics is a complex social behavior that is likely modulated by multiple gene variants. In this study the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains (RIS) were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors associated with intermale aggression. Four hundred and fifty-seven males from 55 strains (including the parentals) were observed at an age of 13 +/- 1 week in a resident-intruder test following 10 days of isolation. Attack latency was measured directly within a 10 minute time period and the test was repeated 24 hours later...
February 19, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Bryan R Hansen, Nancy A Hodgson, Chakra Budhathoki, Laura N Gitlin
PURPOSE: To describe caregiver challenges with and confidence managing three aggressive behavior types in persons with dementia: verbal aggression, destroying property, and threatening to hurt others. DESIGN AND METHOD: Secondary analysis of baseline data from the 2001-2004 Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II (REACH II) initiative. RESULTS: One or more aggressive behaviors within 1 week were reported by more than a third of caregivers, with most expressing upset but fewer expressing confidence managing the behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Ana Maria Gutierrez-Angel, Iris Enriqueta Martinez-Juarez, Laura Elena Hernandez-Vanegas, Daniel Crail-Melendez
BACKGROUND: Few studies are focused on the quality of life (QOL) of primary caregivers and the effects of the clinical variables of epilepsy and patient psychiatric comorbidity on primary caregivers. PURPOSE: Our main objective was to describe QOL and level of burden (LB) in caregivers of people with epilepsy (PWE) at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. A secondary purpose was to determine if LB and QOL were different between caregivers of patients with neuropsychiatric comorbidity and caregivers of patients without neuropsychiatric comorbidity...
February 15, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Irene Gullo, Vitor Devezas, Manuela Baptista, Luzia Garrido, Sérgio Castedo, Rui Morais, Xiaogang Wen, Elisabete Rios, Jorge Pinheiro, Inȇs Pinto-Ribeiro, Rui M Ferreira, John Preto, João Santos-Antunes, Margarida Marques, Miquel Campos, Filipe Almeida, Maria do Céu Espinheira, Jorge Amil Dias, Céu Figueiredo, Carla Oliveira, Eunice Trindade, Fátima Carneiro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The time-course for the development of clinically significant hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is unpredictable. Little is known about the progression from pre-clinical, indolent lesions to widely invasive, aggressive phenotypes. Gastro-endoscopy often fails to detect early lesions and risk-reducing/prophylactic total gastrectomy (PTG) is the only curative approach. We present a HDGC family with early-onset disease, in which clinical and histological findings provided insight into the understanding of different HDGC phenotypes...
February 15, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Azza M Abdu Allah, Sally M El-Hefnway, Alshimaa M Alhanafy, Ahmed M Zahran, Heba E Kasem
Leptin plays an important role in carcinogenesis as leptin/leptin receptor signaling promotes the angiogenesis, proliferation, and inhibits epithelial cell apoptosis. Variants in the leptin receptor gene have potential associations with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We aimed to investigate association of rs1137101 (A/G) polymorphism at LEPR gene with risk of RCC and patients survival. 123 individuals were classified into group I: 73 RCC patients and group II: 50 healthy controls. Genotyping of the Gln223Arg (A/G) polymorphism rs1137101 at LEPR gene was analyzed using allelic discrimination assay by Real-Time PCR technique...
February 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
A B Câmara-de-Souza, M T K Toyoshima, M L Giannella, D S Freire, C P Camacho, D M Lorenço, M S Rocha, T Bacchella, R Jureidini, M C C Machado, M Q Almeida, M A A Pereira
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic tumor and, usually, a benign disease but can be a malignant one and, sometimes, a highly aggressive disease. The aim of this study was to determine differences between benign and malignant tumors. METHODS: Retrospective study of 103 patients with insulinoma treated in a tertiary center. It was analyzed demographic, clinical, laboratory, localization and histologic analysis of tumor and follow up data of subjects in order to identify differences between individuals benign and malignant disease...
February 1, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
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