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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548905/brca-associated-cancers-role-of-imaging-in-screening-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Michelle V Lee, Venkata S Katabathina, Michyla L Bowerson, Marina I Mityul, Anup S Shetty, Khaled M Elsayes, Aparna Balachandran, Priya R Bhosale, Ann E McCullough, Christine O Menias
Harmful mutations of the BRCA tumor suppressor genes result in a greater lifetime risk for malignancy-breast and ovarian cancers in particular. An increased risk for male breast, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, pancreatic, prostate, and colon cancers also has been reported. The BRCA gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and tends to be highly penetrant; thus, there is an increased incidence of these cancers in affected families. Compared with sporadic tumors, BRCA-associated malignancies have unique manifestations, clinical features, and pathologic profiles...
May 26, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548617/sporadic-pediatric-meningiomas-a-neuroradiological-and-neuropathological-study-of-15-cases
#2
Kristin Huntoon, Charles P Pluto, Lynne Ruess, Daniel R Boué, Christopher R Pierson, Jerome A Rusin, Jeffrey Leonard
OBJECTIVE Sporadic meningiomas have been classified in many different ways. Radiographically, these lesions can be described as occurring in either typical or atypical locations. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any histopathological differences between sporadic meningiomas that arise in these varying locations in children. METHODS The neuroimaging, histopathological findings, and clinical records in patients with sporadic pediatric meningiomas not associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2 or prior radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546067/are-there-consistent-behavioral-differences-between-sexes-and-male-color-morphs-in-pelvicachromis-pulcher
#3
Cheryl M Sedlak Seaver, Peter L Hurd
Adult sex ratios in the kribensis cichlid (Pelvicachromis pulcher) are influenced by environmental conditions during early development. These environmental sex-determining factors may also organize life-long variation in social behavior within each sex. If this is true, then individual differences in behavior may be, at least in part, expressions of the relative strength of sexual differentiation of that individual. As adults, kribensis males take on one of four alternative color morphs. Males of the yellow morph tend toward breeding monogamously and are produced at higher frequency under female-biasing environmental conditions, while males of the red morph tend more towards breeding polygynously and are produced more frequently by male-biasing early environments...
May 10, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543664/comparison-of-male-conflict-behavior-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-and-bonobos-pan-paniscus-with-specific-regard-to-coalition-and-post-conflict-behavior
#4
Martin Surbeck, Christophe Boesch, Cédric Girard-Buttoz, Catherine Crockford, Gottfried Hohmann, Roman M Wittig
Coalitions among males during within group conflicts have a strong influence on the competitive and social environment within social groups. To evaluate possible variation in the occurrence of such coalitions in our closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, we compared male aggression and coalitionary behavior in two natural communities, one of each species, with a similar size and composition. Furthermore we compared affiliative behavior that might be related to coalition formation among males. We found higher frequencies of aggression and a greater likelihood to form coalitions during within-group conflicts among wild male chimpanzees at Taï compared to wild male bonobos at LuiKotale...
June 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543273/differential-dispersal-and-the-allee-effect-create-power-law-behavior-distribution-of-spot-infestations-during-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#5
James A Powell, Martha J Garlick, Barbara J Bentz, Nicholas Friedenberg
Mountain pine beetles (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) are aggressive insects attacking Pinus host trees. Pines use defensive resin to overwhelm attackers, creating an Allee effect requiring beetles to attack en masse to successfully reproduce. MPB kill hosts, leaving observable, dying trees with red needles. Landscape patterns of infestation depend on MPB dispersal, which decreases with host density. Away from contiguously impacted patches (low beetle densities), infestations are characterized by apparently random spots (of 1-10 trees)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542739/afternoon-cortisol-provides-a-link-between-self-regulated-anger-and-peer-reported-aggression-in-typically-developing-children-in-the-school-context
#6
Eva Oberle, Kaitlyn McLachlan, Nicole L A Catherine, Ursula Brain, Kimberly A Schonert-Reichl, Joanne Weinberg, Tim F Oberlander
Aggression jeopardizes positive development in children and predicts social and academic maladjustment in school. The present study determined the relationships among anger dysregulation (a marker of emotion regulation), cortisol activity (a biomarker of stress), and peer-nominated aggression in typically developing children in their everyday classroom setting (N = 151, Mean age = 10.86, SD =.74). Salivary cortisol was collected at 09:15, 11:45, and 14:45 hr across 4 consecutive days. Children provided self-reports of anger regulation; peers reported proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539645/the-inherent-vice-in-the-anti-angiogenic-theory-may-cause-the-highly-metastatic-cancer-to-spread-more-aggressively
#7
Denian Wang, Chun Tan, Fei Xiao, Lan Zou, Lijun Wang, Yong'gang Wei, Hanshuo Yang, Wei Zhang
Although anti-angiogenic (AA) therapy is widely used in clinical practice, it is often challenged by insufficient efficacy and intrinsic resistance. Some studies have reported that AA therapy can even increase tumor metastasis. However, whether this is due to a specific AA drug causing a specific tumor to metastasize or because the anti-angiogenic theory has some "inherent vice" that may inevitably lead to tumor dissemination remains a mystery. Herein, we designed a model that completely blocks tumor blood supply using a physical barrier to examine tumor behavior in such circumstances...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539103/possible-oxcarbazepine-inductive-effects-on-aripiprazole-metabolism-a-case-report
#8
Ian R McGrane, Joshua G Loveland, Jose de Leon
Oxcarbazepine is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inducer, which is structurally similar to carbamazepine. Although lacking Food and Drug Administration approval, oxcarbazepine is sometimes prescribed to treat aggressive behavior in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These youths may also be taking second-generation antipsychotics, some of which are substrates of the CYP3A4 metabolic pathway. The combination of these medications may result in decreased serum antipsychotic concentrations, potentially reducing effectiveness...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537235/-serotonergic-genes-in-the-development-of-anxiety-depression-like-state-and-pathology-of-aggressive-behavior-in-male-mice-rna-seq-data
#9
N N Kudryavtseva, D A Smagin, I L Kovalenko, A G Galyamina, G B Vishnivetskaya, V N Babenko, Yu L Orlov
In course of daily agonistic interactions, mice tend to stratify into those with chronic social defeats and those that repeatedly display aggression, which lead to the development of mixed anxiety/depression-like state and the pathology of aggressive behavior, respectively. Using the data of whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq), the changes in the expression of serotonergic genes involved in the synthesis, inactivation, and reception of serotonin, as well as of the Creb1 (transcription factor) gene and the Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) gene were detected in the striatum (STR), ventral tegmental area (VTA), midbrain raphe nuclei (MRN), hypothalamus (HYP), and hippocampus (HIP) of defeated and aggressive male mice...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536686/mandible-metastasis-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-mimicking-a-residual-cyst
#10
Renata Mendonça Moraes, Fabio Abreu Alves, Bruna Fernandes do Carmo Carvalho, Felipe D'Almeida Costa, Rodrigo Nascimento Lopes, Graziella Chagas Jaguar
Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an uncommon tumor characterized by an aggressive behavior with early metastasis, usually to the contralateral lung, liver, brain, and bones. There are only five cases of this particular tumor metastasizing to the oral cavity described in the English literature. We present the case of metastatic SCLC in the mandible with radiographic findings resembling a residual cyst. A 66-year-old man with previous diagnosis and treatment for a SCLC was referred to the Stomatology Department with a history of persistent pain in the mandible 1 year after the inferior right pre-molar tooth extraction...
January 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536685/small-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-nasopharynx-a-rare-case-report
#11
Daniela Azevedo, Elisabete Rios, Lurdes Vendeira, Cristina Sarmento
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma rarely appears primarily in the head and neck and exhibits aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. The pathologist has a significant role in the diagnosis, and a consensual treatment still does not exist. The authors report the case of a middle-aged male patient who presented repeated episodes of massive epistaxis. The diagnostic work-up disclosed the diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy...
January 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536639/survivin-a-molecular-target-for-therapeutic-interventions-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Zakir Khan, Abdul Arif Khan, Hariom Yadav, Godavarthi B K S Prasad, Prakash Singh Bisen
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer worldwide. The treatment of locally advanced disease generally requires various combinations of radiotherapy, surgery, and systemic therapy. Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, most of the patients relapse. Identification of molecules that sustain cancer cell growth and survival has made molecular targeting a feasible therapeutic strategy. Survivin is a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family, which is overexpressed in most of the malignancies including SCC and totally absent in most of the normal tissues...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536553/succumbing-to-the-call-of-violence-sex-linked-development-of-appetitive-aggression-in-relation-to-familial-and-organized-violence
#13
Mareike Augsburger, Danie Meyer-Parlapanis, Thomas Elbert, Corina Nandi, Manassé Bambonye, Anselm Crombach
Appetitive aggression is the attraction to violent behavior, which can peak in the experience of a combat high. In various war and conflict scenarios, members of armed groups have reported developing a desire to hunt and even kill humans. More recently, we reported that the phenomenon has also been observed in female ex-combatants with varying participation in warfare. Despite recent investigations on risk factors for appetitive aggression, sex-specific pathways in the development of appetitive aggression have not yet been delineated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536492/insights-into-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumors-burden
#14
Taíssa Maíra Thomaz Araújo, Williams Fernandes Barra, André Salim Khayat, Paulo Pimentel de Assumpção
Type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) are usually small lesions, restricted to mucosal and sub-mucosal layers of corpus and fundus, with low aggressive behavior, for the majority of cases. Nevertheless, some cases present aggressive behavior. The increasing incidence of gNETs brings together a new relevant problem: how to identify potentially aggressive type 1 gNETs. The challenging problem seems to be finding out signs or features able to predict potentially aggressive cases, allowing a tailored approach, since the involved societies dedicated to provide guidelines for management of these neoplasms apparently failed in producing staging systems able to accurately predict prognosis of these tumors...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535945/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-psychometric-properties-among-referred-and-non-referred-portuguese-female-juveniles
#15
Pedro Pechorro, James V Ray, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Saul Neves Jesus
The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits delineates a subgroup of male youth with severe conduct disorder and antisocial behavior, but little research has been done among female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to simultaneously examine the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) in incarcerated female youth and community youth. The results support the use of the ICU in terms of its factor structure, and internal consistency despite the fact an item had to be removed from the Callousness dimension...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535830/externalizing-behavior-severity-in-youths-with-callous-unemotional-traits-corresponds-to-patterns-of-amygdala-activity-and-connectivity-during-judgments-of-causing-fear
#16
Elise M Cardinale, Andrew L Breeden, Emily L Robertson, Leah M Lozier, John W Vanmeter, Abigail A Marsh
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits characterize a subgroup of youths with conduct problems who exhibit low empathy, fearlessness, and elevated externalizing behaviors. The current study examines the role of aberrant amygdala activity and functional connectivity during a socioemotional judgment task in youths with CU traits, and links these deficits to externalizing behaviors. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in 18 healthy youths and 30 youths with conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits as they evaluated the acceptability of causing another person to experience each of several emotions, including fear...
May 24, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534655/pain-and-adverse-behavior-in-declawed-cats
#17
Nicole K Martell-Moran, Mauricio Solano, Hugh Gg Townsend
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of onychectomy (declawing) upon subsequent development of back pain and unwanted behavior in cohorts of treated and control cats housed in two different locations. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. In total, there was 137 declawed and 137 non-declawed cats, of which 176 were owned cats (88 declawed, 88 non-declawed) and 98 were shelter cats (49 declawed and 49 non-declawed). All cats were physically examined for signs of pain and barbering...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534509/a-novel-interaction-of-pak4-with-ppar%C3%AE-to-regulate-nox1-and-radiation-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioma
#18
D Kesanakurti, D Maddirela, Y K Banasavadi-Siddegowda, T-H Lai, Z Qamri, N K Jacob, D Sampath, S Mohanam, B Kaur, V K Puduvalli
Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM) is, in part, attributed to increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced tumor cell dissemination in adjacent brain parenchyma after ionizing radiation (IR). EMT is associated with aggressive behavior, increased stem-like characteristics and treatment resistance in malignancies; however, the underlying signaling mechanisms that regulate EMT are poorly understood. We identified grade-dependent p21-activated kinases 4 (PAK4) upregulation in gliomas and further determined its role in mesenchymal transition and radioresistance...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533977/serotonergic-activation-during-courtship-and-aggression-in-the-brown-anole-anolis-sagrei
#19
Jacob T Hartline, Alexandra N Smith, David Kabelik
The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in social behavior regulation is not fully understood. While 5-HT release in nuclei of the social behavior network has generally been associated with inhibition of aggressive behavior across multiple classes of vertebrates, less is known about its effects on sexual, especially non-copulatory courtship display behaviors. Furthermore, most research has examined effects at 5-HT release sites, while studies examining the behavioral relevance of source cell populations have generated contradictory findings...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533307/sox11-promotes-tumor-protective-microenvironment-interactions-through-cxcr4-and-fak-regulation-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#20
Patricia Balsas, Jara Palomero, Álvaro Eguileor, Marta Leonor Rodriguez, Maria Carmela Vegliante, Ester Planas-Rigol, Marta Sureda-Gómez, Maria C Cid, Elias Campo, Virginia Amador
SOX11 overexpression in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) has been associated with more aggresive behavior and worse outcome. However, SOX11 oncogenic pathways driving MCL tumor progression are poorly known. Here, we demonstrate that SOX11 binds to regulatory regions of two important genes for microenvironment-signals in cancer, (C-X-C motif) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and PTK2 (encoding for focal adhesion kinase (FAK)). Moreover, SOX11-positive xenograft and human primary MCL tumors overexpress cell migration and stromal stimulation gene signatures compared to their SOX11-negative counterparts...
May 22, 2017: Blood
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