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Xianhai Zhao, Nian Liu, Na Shang, Wei Zeng, Berit Ebert, Carsten Rautengarten, Qing-Yin Zeng, Huiling Li, Xiaoyang Chen, Cherie Beahan, Antony Bacic, Joshua L Heazlewood, Ai-Min Wu
UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) is synthesized by UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylases, also termed UDP-Xyl synthases (UXSs). The Arabidopsis genome encodes six UXSs, which fall into two groups based upon their subcellular location: the Golgi lumen and the cytosol. The latter group appears to play an important role in xylan biosynthesis. Cytosolic UDP-Xyl is transported into the Golgi lumen by three UDP-Xyl transporters (UXT1, 2, and 3). However, while single mutants affected in the UDP-Xyl transporter 1 (UXT1) showed a substantial reduction in cell wall xylose content, a double mutant affected in UXT2 and UXT3 had no obvious effect on cell wall xylose deposition...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Venu Srinivas, Yumiko Nakajima, Kazuhiko Sato, Shigeru Shimada
Hydrosilylation of various sulfur-containing olefins with (RO)3 SiH has been achieved using iridium catalysts [IrX(cod)]2 (X = Cl, SPh). The catalysis is applicable to the chemoselective hydrosilylation of thioacetate, which enables the preparation of an industrially important silane coupling agent.
January 5, 2018: Organic Letters
Bin Yu, Xiaolin Wang, Shuai Wei, Tao Fu, Emmanuel Enoch Dzakah, Ahmed Waqas, Walter W Walthall, Ge Shan
Both transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation and plasticity. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 19 GABAergic motor neurons (MNs) called D MNs, which are divided into two subgroups: DD and VD. DD, but not VD, MNs reverse their cellular polarity in a developmental process called respecification. UNC-30 and UNC-55 are two critical transcription factors in D MNs. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation with CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of GFP fusion, we uncovered the global targets of UNC-30 and UNC-55...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
Wenjie Yu, Xiao Li, Steven Eliason, Miguel Romero-Bustillos, Ryan J Ries, Huojun Cao, Brad A Amendt
The Iroquois genes (Irx) appear to regulate fundamental processes that lead to cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation during development. In this report, the Iroquois homeobox 1 (Irx1) transcription factor was functionally disrupted using a LacZ insert and LacZ expression demonstrated stage-specific expression during embryogenesis. Irx1 is highly expressed in the brain, lung, digits, kidney, testis and developing teeth. Irx1 null mice are neonatal lethal and this lethality it due to pulmonary immaturity...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Aleksandra Suchanecka, Marcin Słomka, Anna Siewierska-Górska, Ewa Kępka, Dominik Strapagiel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many loci associated with body mass index (BMI) in many different populations. Variants in the FTO locus are reported to be one of the strongest genetic predictors of obesity. Recent publications pointed also to a topologically associated domain (TAD) which is identified as a novel region affecting BMI. The TAD area encompasses the IRXB cluster (IRX3, IRX5, IRX6), FTO and RPGRIP1L genes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between variation of the FTO and IRX genes and obesity in Poles...
2017: PloS One
Shengjie Zhang, Sawyer D Foyle, Alexander Okrut, Andrew Solovyov, Alexander Katz, Bruce C Gates, David A Dixon
The low-energy isomers of Irx (CO)y (NHC)z (x = 1, 2, 4) are investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and correlated molecular orbital theory at the coupled cluster CCSD(T) level. The structures, relative energies, ligand dissociation energies, and natural charges are calculated. The energies of tetrairidium cluster are predicted at the CAM-B3LYP level that best fit the CCSD(T) results compared with the other four functionals in the benchmark calculations. The NHC's behave as stronger σ donors compared with CO's and have higher ligand dissociation energies (LDEs)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sheila Cardeña-Núñez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Lucía Rodríguez-Gallardo, Faustino Marín, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The vertebrate inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensorial structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The molecular patterning of the developing otic epithelium creates various positional identities, consequently leading to the stereotyped specification of each neurosensory and non-sensory element of the membranous labyrinth. The Iroquois (Iro/Irx) genes, clustered in two groups (A: Irx1, Irx2, and Irx4; and B: Irx3, Irx5, and Irx6), encode for transcriptional factors involved directly in numerous patterning processes of embryonic tissues in many phyla...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Elvin Yildiz, Meltem Tunca Toklu, Ece Turan Vural, Nursal Melda Yenerel, Handan Bardak, Esra Turkseven Kumral, Yavuz Bardak
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accommodative response to different accommodative stimulus and to determine the changes in ocular higher-order aberrations with accommodation in keratoconus patients fitted with mini scleral lenses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 15 keratoconus patients wearing mini scleral lenses (Misa Scleral Lens-Microlens, Arnhem, the Netherlands) and 15 keratoconus patients wearing rigid gas permeable lenses. Hartmannn Shack aberrometer (IRX-3; Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France) was used for the evaluation of accommodation...
September 7, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Kathrin Landgraf, Markus Scholz, Peter Kovacs, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified variants within the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) locus as the strongest predictors of obesity amongst all obesity-associated gene loci. Recent evidence suggests that variants in FTO directly affect human adipocyte function through targeting IRX3 and IRX5 and thermogenesis regulation. AIM: We addressed the relevance of this proposed FTO-IRX pathway in adipose tissue (AT) of children. RESULTS: Expression of IRX3 was higher in adipocytes compared to SVF...
2016: PloS One
Corey J Cain, Nathalie Gaborit, Wint Lwin, Emilie Barruet, Samantha Ho, Carine Bonnard, Hanan Hamamy, Mohammad Shboul, Bruno Reversade, Hülya Kayserili, Benoit G Bruneau, Edward C Hsiao
Cranial malformations are a significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Iroquois homeobox transcription factors (IRX) are expressed early in bone tissue formation and facilitate patterning and mineralization of the skeleton. Mice lacking Irx5 appear grossly normal, suggesting that redundancy within the Iroquois family. However, global loss of both Irx3 and Irx5 in mice leads to significant skeletal malformations and embryonic lethality from cardiac defects. Here, we study the bone-specific functions of Irx3 and Irx5 using Osx-Cre to drive osteoblast lineage-specific deletion of Irx3 in Irx5(-/-) mice...
December 2016: Bone Reports
Pei Wang, Chunbo Zhuang, Da Huang, Keshu Xu
Iroquois homeobox (IRX) gene family, which plays essential roles in embryonic development, has recently been reported to be involved in tumor progression. However, the association of IRX3, a member of the IRX family, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not previously been studied. In the present study, we found that IRX3 was upregulated in HCC cell lines (HepG2 and SMMC7721). We investigated the regulatory mechanism of IRX3 in HCC cells. Western blot and luciferase reporter assays identified that IRX3 is a direct target of miR-377...
July 2016: Oncology Reports
Emre Aksoy, Aurélien Vigneron, XiaoLi Bing, Xin Zhao, Michelle O'Neill, Yi-Neng Wu, James D Bangs, Brian L Weiss, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies are biological vectors of African trypanosomes, the protozoan parasites responsible for causing human and animal trypanosomiases across sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, no vaccines are available for disease prevention due to antigenic variation of the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSG) that coat parasites while they reside within mammalian hosts. As a result, interference with parasite development in the tsetse vector is being explored to reduce disease transmission. A major bottleneck to infection occurs as parasites attempt to colonize tsetse's midgut...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cristina M Justice, Kevin Bishop, Blake Carrington, Jim C Mullikin, Kandice Swindle, Beth Marosy, Raman Sood, Nancy H Miller, Alexander F Wilson
Because of genetic heterogeneity present in idiopathic scoliosis, we previously defined clinical subsets (a priori) from a sample of families with idiopathic scoliosis to find genes involved with spinal curvature. Previous genome-wide linkage analysis of seven families with at least two individuals with kyphoscoliosis found linkage (P-value = 0.002) in a 3.5-Mb region on 5p13.3 containing only three known genes, IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4 In this study, the exons of IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4, the conserved noncoding elements in the region, and the exons of a nonprotein coding RNA, LOC285577, were sequenced...
June 1, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Wei Zeng, Edwin R Lampugnani, Kelsey L Picard, Lili Song, Ai-Min Wu, Isabela M Farion, Jia Zhao, Kris Ford, Monika S Doblin, Antony Bacic
Heteroxylans are abundant components of plant cell walls and provide important raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. A number of studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have suggested that the IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), IRX10, and IRX14 proteins, as well as their homologs, are involved in xylan synthesis via a Golgi-localized complex termed the xylan synthase complex (XSC). However, both the biochemical and cell biological research lags the genetic and molecular evidence. In this study, we characterized garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem xylan biosynthesis genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14A, and AoIRX14B) by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana We reconstituted and partially purified an active XSC and showed that three proteins, AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A, are necessary for xylan xylosyltranferase activity in planta...
May 2016: Plant Physiology
Oliver Vöcking, Ioannis Kourtesis, Harald Hausen
BACKGROUND: Development of cerebral eyes is generally based on fine-tuned networks and closely intertwined with the formation of brain and head. Consistently and best studied in insects and vertebrates, many signaling pathways relaying the activity of eye developmental factors to positional information in the head region are characterized. Though known from several organisms, photoreceptors developing outside the head region are much less studied and the course of their development, relation to cerebral eyes and evolutionary origin is in most cases unknown...
2015: EvoDevo
Diane M Da Silva, Andrew W Woodham, Paul H Naylor, James E Egan, Neil L Berinstein, W Martin Kast
Langerhans cells (LCs) are the antigen-presenting cells of the epithelial layer and are responsible for initiating immune responses against skin and mucosa-invading viruses. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated suppression of LC function is a crucial mechanism of HPV immune evasion, which can lead to persistent infection and development of several human cancers, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. The cell-derived cytokine-based biologic, IRX-2, consists of multiple well-defined cytokines and is broadly active on various immune cell subsets...
May 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Kiwon Ban, Brian Wile, Kyu-Won Cho, Sangsung Kim, Ming-Ke Song, Sang Yoon Kim, Jason Singer, Anum Syed, Shan Ping Yu, Mary Wagner, Gang Bao, Young-Sup Yoon
Isolation of ventricular cardiomyocytes (vCMs) has been challenging due to the lack of specific surface markers. Here we show that vCMs can be purified from differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using molecular beacons (MBs) targeting specific intracellular mRNAs. We designed MBs (IRX4 MBs) to target mRNA encoding Iroquois homeobox protein 4 (Irx4), a transcription factor specific for vCMs. To purify mESC vCMs, IRX4 MBs were delivered into cardiomyogenically differentiating mESCs, and IRX4 MBs-positive cells were FACS-sorted...
December 8, 2015: Stem Cell Reports
Amjad Askary, Lindsey Mork, Sandeep Paul, Xinjun He, Audrey K Izuhara, Suhasni Gopalakrishnan, Justin K Ichida, Andrew P McMahon, Sonja Dabizljevic, Rodney Dale, Francesca V Mariani, J Gage Crump
An early event in skeletal joint development is the specification of articular chondrocytes at the joint surface. Articular chondrocytes are distinct in producing lower levels of cartilage matrix and not being replaced by bone, yet how they acquire these properties remains poorly understood. Here, we show that two members of the Iroquois transcriptional repressor family, Irx7 and Irx5a, function to block chondrocyte maturation at the developing hyoid joint of zebrafish. These Irx factors suppress the production of cartilage matrix at the joint in part by preventing the activation of a col2a1a enhancer by Sox9a...
November 9, 2015: Developmental Cell
Siwei He, Alison Philbrook, Rebecca McWhirter, Christopher V Gabel, Daniel G Taub, Maximilian H Carter, Isabella M Hanna, Michael M Francis, David M Miller
Neural circuits are actively remodeled during brain development, but the molecular mechanisms that trigger circuit refinement are poorly understood. Here, we describe a transcriptional program in C. elegans that regulates expression of an Ig domain protein, OIG-1, to control the timing of synaptic remodeling. DD GABAergic neurons reverse polarity during larval development by exchanging the locations of pre- and postsynaptic components. In newly born larvae, DDs receive cholinergic inputs in the dorsal nerve cord...
October 5, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Natalia Barrios, Esther González-Pérez, Rosario Hernández, Sonsoles Campuzano
During development, proper differentiation and final organ size rely on the control of territorial specification and cell proliferation. Although many regulators of these processes have been identified, how both are coordinated remains largely unknown. The homeodomain Iroquois/Irx proteins play a key, evolutionarily conserved, role in territorial specification. Here we show that in the imaginal discs, reduced function of Iroquois genes promotes cell proliferation by accelerating the G1 to S transition. Conversely, their increased expression causes cell-cycle arrest, down-regulating the activity of the Cyclin E/Cdk2 complex...
August 2015: PLoS Genetics
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