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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930688/the-heterochronic-gene-lin-14-controls-axonal-degeneration-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-neurons
#1
Fiona K Ritchie, Rhianna Knable, Justin Chaplin, Rhiannon Gursanscky, Maria Gallegos, Brent Neumann, Massimo A Hilliard
The disproportionate length of an axon makes its structural and functional maintenance a major task for a neuron. The heterochronic gene lin-14 has previously been implicated in regulating the timing of key developmental events in the nematode C. elegans. Here, we report that LIN-14 is critical for maintaining neuronal integrity. Animals lacking lin-14 display axonal degeneration and guidance errors in both sensory and motor neurons. We demonstrate that LIN-14 functions both cell autonomously within the neuron and non-cell autonomously in the surrounding tissue, and we show that interaction between the axon and its surrounding tissue is essential for the preservation of axonal structure...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928963/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-roles-of-whole-genome-duplications-in-evolution
#2
REVIEW
Carol MacKintosh, David E K Ferrier
Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs)- paleopolyploidy events-are key to solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery' of how flowering plants evolved and radiated into a rich variety of species. The vertebrates also emerged from their invertebrate ancestors via two WGDs, and genomes of diverse gymnosperm trees, unicellular eukaryotes, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and even a rodent carry evidence of lineage-specific WGDs. Modern polyploidy is common in eukaryotes, and it can be induced, enabling mechanisms and short-term cost-benefit assessments of polyploidy to be studied experimentally...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927958/defective-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius-in-mecp2-null-mice-a-model-of-rett-syndrome
#3
Chao-Yin Chen, Jacopo Di Lucente, Yen-Chu Lin, Cheng-Chang Lien, Michael A Rogawski, Izumi Maezawa, Lee-Way Jin
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2) gene. GABAergic dysfunction has been implicated contributing to the respiratory dysfunction, one major clinical feature of RTT. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the first central site integrating respiratory sensory information that can change the nature of the reflex output. We hypothesized that deficiency in Mecp2 gene reduces GABAergic neurotransmission in the NTS...
September 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923485/functional-data-analysis-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-recorded-in-the-awake-rat
#4
Ondrej Pokora, Jan Kolaicek, Tzai-Wen Chiu, Wei Qiu
Evoked potentials (EPs) reflect neural processing and are widely used to study sensory perception. However, methods of analyzing EP have been limited mostly to the conventional ensemble averaging of EP response trials to a repeated stimulus, and less so to single-trials analysis. Here we applied a new approach - functional data analysis (FDA) - to study auditory EP in the rat model of tinnitus, in which overdoses of salicylate (SS) are known to alter sound perception characteristically, as the same way as in humans...
September 15, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923289/impact-of-ocean-acidification-on-the-early-development-and-escape-behavior-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#5
Xiaojie Wang, Lulu Song, Yi Chen, Haoyu Ran, Jiakun Song
Ocean acidification is predicted to affect a wide diversity of marine organisms. However, no studies have reported the effects of ocean acidification on Indian Ocean fish. We have used the Indian Ocean medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a model species for a marine fish that lives in coastal waters. We investigated the impact of ocean acidification on the embryonic development and the stereotyped escape behavior (mediated by the Mauthner cell) in newly hatched larvae. Newly fertilized eggs of medaka were reared in seawater at three different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2): control at 450 μatm, moderate at 1160 μatm, and high at 1783 μatm...
September 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921729/long-range-cortical-dynamics-a-perspective-from-the-mouse-sensorimotor-whisker-system
#6
REVIEW
Jianguang Ni, Jerry L Chen
In the mammalian neocortex, the capacity to dynamically route and coordinate the exchange of information between areas is a critical feature of cognitive function, enabling processes such as higher-level sensory processing and sensorimotor integration. Despite the importance attributed to long-range connections between cortical areas, their exact operations and role in cortical function remain an open question. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding long-range cortical circuits through work focused on the mouse sensorimotor whisker system...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921711/foxp-expression-identifies-a-kenyon-cell-subtype-in-the-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-linking-them-to-fruitfly-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-neurons
#7
Adriana Schatton, Constance Scharff
The arthropod mushroom bodies (MB) are a higher order sensory integration center. In insects, they play a central role in associative olfactory learning and memory. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), the highly ordered connectivity of heterogeneous MB neuron populations has been mapped using sophisticated molecular genetic and anatomical techniques. The MB-core subpopulation was recently shown to express the transcription factor FoxP with relevance for decision-making. Here we report the development and adult distribution of a FoxP-expressing neuron population in the MB of honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) using in situ hybridization and a custom-made antiserum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919664/developmental-coordination-disorders-and-sensory-processing-and-integration-incidence-associations-and-co-morbidities
#8
Susan Allen, Jackie Casey
INTRODUCTION: Children with developmental coordination disorder or sensory processing and integration difficulties face challenges to participation in daily living. To date there has been no exploration of the co-occurrence of developmental coordination disorders and sensory processing and integration difficulties. METHOD: Records of children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - V criteria for developmental coordination disorder (n = 93) age 5 to 12 years were examined...
September 2017: British Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#9
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918260/organization-of-sensory-feature-selectivity-in-the-whisker-system
#10
Michael R Bale, Miguel Maravall
Our sensory receptors are faced with an onslaught of different environmental inputs. Each sensory event or encounter with an object involves a distinct combination of physical energy sources impinging upon receptors. In the rodent whisker system, each primary afferent neuron located in the trigeminal ganglion innervates and responds to a single whisker and encodes a distinct set of physical stimulus properties - features - corresponding to changes in whisker angle and shape and the consequent forces acting on the whisker follicle...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917007/specific-properties-of-the-si-and-sii-somatosensory-areas-and-their-effects-on-motor-control-a-system-neurophysiological-study
#11
Julia Friedrich, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Sensorimotor integration is essential for successful motor control and the somatosensory modality has been shown to have strong effects on the execution of motor plans. The primary (SI) and the secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices are known to differ in their neuroanatomical connections to prefrontal areas, as well as in their involvement to encode cognitive aspects of tactile processing. Here, we ask whether the area-specific processing architecture or the structural neuroanatomical connections with prefrontal areas determine the efficacy of sensorimotor integration processes for motor control...
September 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#12
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915093/sport-skill-specific-expertise-biases-sensory-integration-for-spatial-referencing-and-postural-control
#13
Michalis Thalassinos, Giorgos Fotiadis, Fotini Arabatzi, Brice Isableu, Vassilia Hatzitaki
The authors asked how sport expertise modulates visual field dependence and sensory reweighting for controlling posture. Experienced soccer athletes, ballet dancers, and nonathletes performed (a) a Rod and Frame test and (b) a 100-s bipedal stance task during which vision and proprioception were successively or concurrently disrupted in 20-s blocks. Postural adaptation was assessed in the mean center of pressure displacement, root mean square of center of pressure velocity and ankle muscles integrated electromyography activity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914737/evidence-of-semantic-processing-impairments-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Katheryn A Q Cousins, Murray Grossman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Category-specific impairments caused by brain damage can provide important insights into how semantic concepts are organized in the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that disease to sensory and motor cortices can impair perceptual feature knowledge important to the representation of semantic concepts. This evidence supports the grounded cognition theory of semantics, the view that lexical knowledge is partially grounded in perceptual experience and that sensory and motor regions support semantic representations...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912959/research-protocol-for-a-complex-intervention-to-support-hearing-and-vision-function-to-improve-the-lives-of-people-with-dementia
#15
Iracema Leroi, Annie Pye, Christopher J Armitage, Anna Pavlina Charalambous, Fofi Constantinidou, Catherine Helmer, Ines Himmelsbach, Sarah Marié, Jahanara Miah, Suzanne Parsons, Jemma Regan, Chryssoula Thodi, Lucas Wolski, Abebaw Mengistu Yohannes, Piers Dawes
BACKGROUND: Hearing and vision impairments are among the most common and disabling comorbidities in people living with dementia. Intervening to improve sensory function could be a means by which the lives of people living with dementia may be improved. However, very few studies have tried to ameliorate outcomes in dementia by improving sensory function. This paper describes the multi-step development of a new intervention designed to support hearing and vision function in people living with dementia in their own homes...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912703/the-influence-of-external-forces-on-wrist-proprioception
#16
Francesca Marini, Sara Contu, Chris W Antuvan, Pietro Morasso, Lorenzo Masia
Proprioception combines information from cutaneous, joint, tendon, and muscle receptors for maintaining a reliable internal body image. However, it is still a matter of debate, in both neurophysiology and psychology, to what extent such body image is modified or distorted by a changing haptic environment. In particular, what is worth investigating is the contribution of external forces on our perception of body and joint configuration. The proprioceptive acuity of fifteen young participants was tested with a Joint Position Matching (JPM) task, performed with the dominant wrist under five different external forces, in order to understand to what extent they affect proprioceptive acuity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912440/the-generalization-of-auditory-accommodation-to-altered-spectral-cues
#17
Christopher J G Watson, Simon Carlile, Heather Kelly, Kapilesh Balachandar
The capacity of healthy adult listeners to accommodate to altered spectral cues to the source locations of broadband sounds has now been well documented. In recent years we have demonstrated that the degree and speed of accommodation are improved by using an integrated sensory-motor training protocol under anechoic conditions. Here we demonstrate that the learning which underpins the localization performance gains during the accommodation process using anechoic broadband training stimuli generalize to environmentally relevant scenarios...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912157/approaching-the-ground-truth-revealing-the-functional-organization-of-human-multisensory-stc-using-ultra-high-field-fmri
#18
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory and bimodal) of its neurons...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#19
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910410/the-function-of-drosophila-larval-class-iv-dendritic-arborization-sensory-neurons-in-the-larval-pupal-transition-is-separable-from-their-function-in-mechanical-nociception-responses
#20
Hannah E Brown, Trishna Desai, Allison J Murphy, Harshida Pancholi, Zachary W Schmidt, Hannah Swahn, Eric C Liebl
The sensory and physiological inputs which govern the larval-pupal transition in Drosophila, and the neuronal circuity that integrates them, are complex. Previous work from our laboratory identified a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction between the genes encoding the Rho-GEF Trio and the zinc-finger transcription factor Sequoia that interfered with the larval-pupal transition. Specifically, we reported heterozygous mutations in sequoia (seq) dominantly exacerbated the trio mutant phenotype, and this seq-enhanced trio mutant genotype blocked the transition of third instar larvae from foragers to wanderers, a requisite behavioral transition prior to pupation...
2017: PloS One
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