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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#1
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#2
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#3
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#4
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#5
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903641/body-sway-adaptation-to-addition-but-not-withdrawal-of-stabilizing-visual-information-is-delayed-by-a-concurrent-cognitive-task
#6
Jean-Louis Honeine, Oscar Crisafulli, Marco Schieppati
Aim of this study was to test the effects of a concurrent cognitive task on the promptness of the sensorimotor integration and reweighting processes following addition and withdrawal of vision. Fourteen subjects stood in tandem while vision was passively added and removed. Subjects performed a cognitive task, consisting of counting backwards in steps of three, or were 'mentally idle'. We estimated the time interval, following addition and following withdrawal of vision, at which body sway began to change. We also estimated the time constant of the exponential change in body oscillation until the new level of sway was reached, consistent with the current visual state...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902718/metal-sounds-stiffer-than-drums-for-ears-but-not-always-for-hands-low-level-auditory-features-affect-multisensory-stiffness-perception-more-than-high-level-categorical-information
#7
Juan Liu, Hiroshi Ando
Most real-world events stimulate multiple sensory modalities simultaneously. Usually, the stiffness of an object is perceived haptically. However, auditory signals also contain stiffness-related information, and people can form impressions of stiffness from the different impact sounds of metal, wood, or glass. To understand whether there is any interaction between auditory and haptic stiffness perception, and if so, whether the inferred material category is the most relevant auditory information, we conducted experiments using a force-feedback device and the modal synthesis method to present haptic stimuli and impact sound in accordance with participants' actions, and to modulate low-level acoustic parameters, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#8
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901172/conformational-states-of-hamp-domains-interacting-with-sensory-rhodopsin-membrane-systems-an-integrated-all-atom-and-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics-simulation-approach
#9
Bikash Ranjan Sahoo, Toshimichi Fujiwara
Understanding the downstream signaling mechanism of sensory rhodopsin and its cognate transducer complex (srII-htrII) has long been a challenge in the field of photoreceptor research. Here, an integration of all-atom and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in different srII-htrII complex states is carried out. It is shown that the cytoplasmic four-helix HAMP dimer gives rise to a gear-box model interaction with discrete hydrophobic packing in Natronomonas pharaonis (Np). Structural analysis in all-atom and CG-MD reveals a stable conformational state in the physiological environment (323 K and 1...
November 30, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899280/behavioural-phenotype-of-histamine-h4-receptor-knockout-mice-focus-on-central-neuronal-functions
#10
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Robin L Thurmond, Emanuela Masini, Nicoletta Galeotti
The functional expression of H4 receptors (H4R) within neurons of the central nervous system has been recently reported, but their role is poorly understood. The present study aims to elucidate the role of neuronal H4R by providing the first description of the behavioural phenotype of H4R-deficient (H4R knockout, H4R-KO) mice. Mice lacking H4R underwent behavioural studies to evaluate locomotor activity, pain perception, anxiety, depression, memory and feeding behaviour. H4R-KO mice showed a significant increase in ambulation in an open field as well as in exploratory activity in the absence of any modification of motor coordination...
November 27, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897242/cortical-synaptic-and-dendritic-spine-abnormalities-in-a-presymptomatic-tdp-43-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Matthew J Fogarty, Paul M Klenowski, John D Lee, Joy R Drieberg-Thompson, Selena E Bartlett, Shyuan T Ngo, Massimo A Hilliard, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes
Layer V pyramidal neurons (LVPNs) within the motor cortex integrate sensory cues and co-ordinate voluntary control of motor output. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) LVPNs and spinal motor neurons degenerate. The pathogenesis of neural degeneration is unknown in ALS; 10% of cases have a genetic cause, whereas 90% are sporadic, with most of the latter showing TDP-43 inclusions. Clinical and experimental evidence implicate excitotoxicity as a prime aetiological candidate. Using patch clamp and dye-filling techniques in brain slices, combined with high-resolution confocal microscopy, we report increased excitatory synaptic inputs and dendritic spine densities in early presymptomatic mice carrying a TDP-43(Q331K) mutation...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#12
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893564/instrumented-test-of-sensory-integration-for-balance-a-validation-study
#13
Lynn Freeman, Geetanjali Gera, Fay B Horak, Mary T Blackinton, Mark Besch, Laurie King
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal postural sway is associated with an increase in risk of falls but is difficult for clinicians to accurately quantify without access to laboratory equipment. Instrumenting clinical outcome measures using body-worn movement monitors is a low-cost alternative. This is the first study to compare the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (i-mCTSIB) to the laboratory test of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) with dynamic posturography in a group of participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and subtle balance limitations...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893272/action-effects-are-coded-as-transitions-from-current-to-future-stimulation-evidence-from-compatibility-effects-in-tracking
#14
Wilfried Kunde, Constantin Schmidts, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort
There is ample evidence that motor actions are stored in terms of, and controlled by, the sensory effects that these actions produce. At present it is unclear, though, whether action control is governed by intended sensory changes (e.g., the transition from darkness to brightness when switching on a light) or only by intended sensory end states (e.g., the light being on). The present study explored the role of sensory changes for action control. To address this issue, participants engaged in a spatial tracking task...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891754/patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-are-hypersensitive-to-acid-but-hyposensitive-to-other-stimuli-compared-with-healthy-controls
#15
C Lottrup, A L Krarup, H Gregersen, P Ejstrud, A M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hyposensitivity has been observed in Barrett's esophagus and may contribute to its pathophysiology. However, studies are few, in particular those assessing different sensory modalities. We aimed to compare esophageal sensitivity to multimodal stimulation in patients with Barrett's esophagus and in healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with Barrett's esophagus and 12 healthy controls were examined. A multimodal probe was placed in the lower esophagus...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889918/inner-ear-labyrinth-anatomy-of-monotremes-and-implications-for-mammalian-inner-ear-evolution
#16
Julia A Schultz, Ulrich Zeller, Zhe-Xi Luo
The monophyletic clade Monotremata branches early from the rest of the mammalian crown group in the Jurassic and members of this clade retain many ancestral mammalian traits. Thus, accurate and detailed anatomical descriptions of this group can offer unique insight into the early evolutionary history of Mammalia. In this study, we examine the inner ear anatomy of two extant monotremes, Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Tachyglossus aculeatus, with the primary goals of elucidating the ancestral mammalian ear morphology and resolving inconsistencies found within previous descriptive literature...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#17
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889137/microbial-decontamination-of-onion-powder-using-microwave-powered-cold-plasma-treatments
#18
Jung Eun Kim, Yeong Ji Oh, Mee Yeon Won, Kwang-Sik Lee, Sea C Min
The effects of microwave-integrated cold plasma (CP) treatments against spores of Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus brasiliensis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on onion powder were investigated. The growth of B. cereus, A. brasiliensis, and E. coli O157:H7 in the treated onion powder was assessed during storage at 4 and 25 °C, along with the physicochemical and sensory properties of the powder. Onion powder inoculated with B. cereus was treated with CP using helium as a plasma-forming gas, with simultaneous exposure to low microwave density at 170 mW m(-2) or high microwave density at 250 mW m(-2)...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889097/axonal-degeneration-is-regulated-by-a-transcriptional-program-that-coordinates-expression-of-pro-and-anti-degenerative-factors
#19
Maya Maor-Nof, Erez Romi, Hadas Sar Shalom, Valeria Ulisse, Calanit Raanan, Aviv Nof, Dena Leshkowitz, Roland Lang, Avraham Yaron
Developmental neuronal cell death and axonal elimination are controlled by transcriptional programs, of which their nature and the function of their components remain elusive. Here, we identified the dual specificity phosphatase Dusp16 as part of trophic deprivation-induced transcriptome in sensory neurons. Ablation of Dusp16 enhanced axonal degeneration in response to trophic withdrawal, suggesting that it has a protective function. Moreover, axonal skin innervation was severely reduced while neuronal elimination was increased in the Dusp16 knockout...
November 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888414/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-vestibular-migraine
#20
Roberta Messina, Maria A Rocca, Bruno Colombo, Roberto Teggi, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
New advances in understanding the pathophysiology of vestibular migraine (VM) have suggested a large overlap between migraine and vestibular pathways. We explored the regional distribution of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormalities in VM patients in comparison to migraine patients with (MWA) and without aura (MWoA) and their correlations with patients' clinical manifestations. Using a 3.0 Tesla scanner, brain T2-weighted and 3D T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 19 VM, 19 MWA, 19 MWoA and 20 age-matched controls...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurology
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