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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352145/integrating-modality-specific-expectancies-for-the-deployment-of-spatial-attention
#1
Paola Mengotti, Frank Boers, Pascasie L Dombert, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel
The deployment of spatial attention is highly sensitive to stimulus predictability. Despite evidence for strong crossmodal links in spatial attentional systems, it remains to be elucidated how concurrent but divergent predictions for targets in different sensory modalities are integrated. In a series of behavioral studies, we investigated the processing of modality-specific expectancies using a multimodal cueing paradigm in which auditory cues predicted the location of visual or tactile targets with modality-specific cue predictability...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350419/an-integrated-framework-for-the-role-of-oxytocin-in-multistage-social-decision-making
#2
REVIEW
Matthew Piva, Steve W C Chang
Interest in the effects of oxytocin on social behavior has persisted even as an overarching theory describing these effects has remained largely elusive. Some of the earliest studies on the effects of oxytocin on social decision-making indicated that oxytocin might enhance prosocial actions directed toward others. This led to development of the prosocial hypothesis, which stipulates that oxytocin specifically enhances prosocial choices. However, further work indicated that oxytocin administration could elicit antisocial behaviors as well in certain social situations, highlighting the importance of context-dependent effects...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347715/cusps-enable-line-attractors-for-neural-computation
#3
Zhuocheng Xiao, Jiwei Zhang, Andrew T Sornborger, Louis Tao
Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343415/paradigms-for-restoration-of-somatosensory-feedback-via-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
Cristian Pasluosta, Patrick Kiele, Thomas Stieglitz
The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342394/identification-of-linear-and-nonlinear-sensory-processing-circuits-from-spiking-neuron-data
#5
Dorian Florescu, Daniel Coca
Inferring mathematical models of sensory processing systems directly from input-output observations, while making the fewest assumptions about the model equations and the types of measurements available, is still a major issue in computational neuroscience. This letter introduces two new approaches for identifying sensory circuit models consisting of linear and nonlinear filters in series with spiking neuron models, based only on the sampled analog input to the filter and the recorded spike train output of the spiking neuron...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341797/visual-dependence-affects-postural-sway-responses-to-continuous-visual-field-motion-in-individuals-with-cerebral-palsy
#6
Yawen Yu, Richard T Lauer, Carole A Tucker, Elizabeth D Thompson, Emily A Keshner
The current study aimed to explore the impact of visual dependence on sensorimotor coupling of postural sway and visual motion in adults and teens with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that individuals with CP would exhibit greater magnitudes of sway than healthy individuals, and the presence of visual dependence (VD) would produce instability in the direction of visual motion. Participants stood in a virtual environment in which the visual scene remained static or continuously rotated 30 degree/second in pitch-up or pitch-down...
January 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339793/skin-inspired-highly-stretchable-and-conformable-matrix-networks-for-multifunctional-sensing
#7
Qilin Hua, Junlu Sun, Haitao Liu, Rongrong Bao, Ruomeng Yu, Junyi Zhai, Caofeng Pan, Zhong Lin Wang
Mechanosensation electronics (or Electronic skin, e-skin) consists of mechanically flexible and stretchable sensor networks that can detect and quantify various stimuli to mimic the human somatosensory system, with the sensations of touch, heat/cold, and pain in skin through various sensory receptors and neural pathways. Here we present a skin-inspired highly stretchable and conformable matrix network (SCMN) that successfully expands the e-skin sensing functionality including but not limited to temperature, in-plane strain, humidity, light, magnetic field, pressure, and proximity...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339774/erratum-sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#8
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep42197.
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336136/international-clinical-protocol-on-vestibular-disorders-dizziness
#9
Kostiantyn Trinus, Claus-Frenz Claussen
26-28 May at 43 Congress of Neurootological and Equilibriometric Society (Budapest, Hungary) International Clinical Protocol on Vestibular Disorders (Dizziness) being discussed and accepted as Consensus Document. Cochrane reports estimates that dizziness has prevalence of 22.9% in the last 12 months and an incidence of 3.1%. Only 1.8% of adults consulted a physician in the last 12 months. Cochrane reviews suggest that the evidence base for dizziness evaluation is weak, thus necessitates the creation of evidence-based document...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331232/incorporating-behavioral-and-sensory-context-into-spectro-temporal-models-of-auditory-encoding
#10
REVIEW
Stephen V David
For several decades, auditory neuroscientists have used spectro-temporal encoding models to understand how neurons in the auditory system represent sound. Derived from early applications of systems identification tools to the auditory periphery, the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) and more sophisticated variants have emerged as an efficient means of characterizing representation throughout the auditory system. Most of these encoding models describe neurons as static sensory filters. However, auditory neural coding is not static...
December 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#11
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329044/neurological-soft-signs-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-disorder-a-case-control-study
#12
Tareq Al Sagheer, Shafika Assaad, Georges Haddad, Dory Hachem, Chadia Haddad, Souheil Hallit
Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with neurological soft signs (NSS), including motor, sensory, and inhibitory dysfunction. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of NSS and explore the association of sociodemographic characteristics with the occurrence of NSS in patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression compared to healthy controls. A case-control study included a sample of 50 bipolar and unipolar patients and 50 healthy controls. NSS subscales of the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) were administered to each participant...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323112/signaling-ammonium-across-membranes-through-an-ammonium-sensor-histidine-kinase
#13
Tobias Pflüger, Camila F Hernández, Philipp Lewe, Fabian Frank, Haydyn Mertens, Dmitri Svergun, Manfred W Baumstark, Vladimir Y Lunin, Mike S M Jetten, Susana L A Andrade
Sensing and uptake of external ammonium is essential for anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, and is typically the domain of the ubiquitous Amt/Rh ammonium transporters. Here, we report on the structure and function of an ammonium sensor/transducer from the anammox bacterium "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" that combines a membrane-integral ammonium transporter domain with a fused histidine kinase. It contains a high-affinity ammonium binding site not present in assimilatory Amt proteins. The levels of phosphorylated histidine in the kinase are coupled to the presence of ammonium, as conformational changes during signal recognition by the Amt module are transduced internally to modulate the kinase activity...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321712/sensorimotor-integration-during-motor-learning-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies
#14
REVIEW
Zeliha Matur, A Emre Öge
The effect of sensory signals coming from skin and muscle afferents on the sensorimotor cortical networks is entitled as sensory-motor integration (SMI). SMI can be studied electrophysiologically by the motor cortex excitability changes in response to peripheral sensory stimulation. These changes include the periods of short afferent inhibition (SAI), afferent facilitation (AF), and late afferent inhibition (LAI). During the early period of motor skill acquisition, motor cortex excitability increases and changes occur in the area covered by the relevant zone of the motor cortex...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317216/multisensory-temporal-binding-window-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Han-Yu Zhou, Xin-Lu Cai, Michael Weigl, Peter Bang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Multisensory temporal integration could be compromised in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and may play an important role in perceptual and cognitive impairment in these two disorders. This review aimed to quantitatively compare the sensory temporal acuity between healthy controls and the two clinical groups (ASD and SSD). Impairment of sensory temporal integration was robust and comparable in both patients with SSD (Hedges' g=0.91, 95%CI[0.62-1.19]; Z=6.21, p<...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317192/abnormal-cortical-brain-integration-of-somatosensory-afferents-in-als
#16
Sina Sangari, Alain Giron, Guillaume Marrelec, Pierre-François Pradat, Véronique Marchand-Pauvert
OBJECTIVES: Infraclinical sensory alterations have been reported at early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While previous studies mainly focused on early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), late SEPs, which reflect on cortical pathways involved in cognitive-motor functions, are relatively underinvestigated. Early and late SEPs were compared to assess their alterations in ALS. METHODS: Median and ulnar nerves were electrically stimulated at the wrist, at 9 times the perceptual threshold, in 21 ALS patients without clinical evidence of sensory deficits, and 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317063/trigeminal-long-term-potentiation-as-a-cellular-substrate-for-migraine
#17
Dong-Ho Youn
Most previous studies suggest that the subnucleus caudalis (Vc) of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp) plays a key role in the generation and maintenance of migraine, a type of primary headache, by participating in the trigeminovascular system. Furthermore, the excitability of the Vc with the stimulation of the peripheral nociceptive fibers innervating the intracranial vessels or dura matter is regarded as a main cellular substrate for migraine. Here, a revised hypothesis is introduced, reinforcing the previous hypothesis and complementing it...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314788/gradual-enhancement-of-ethyl-acetate-production-through-promoter-engineering-in-chinese-liquor-yeast-strains
#18
Jian Dong, Kun-Qiang Hong, Ai-Li Hao, Cui-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Meng Fu, Peng-Fei Wang, Dong-Guang Xiao
As content and proportion of ethyl acetate is critical to the flavor and quality of beverages, the concise regulation of the ethyl acetate metabolism is a major issue in beverage fermentations. In the present study, for ethyl acetate yield regulation, we finely modulated the expression of ATF1 through precise and seamless insertion of serially truncated PGK1 promoter from the 3'end by 100bp steps in the Chinese liquor yeast, CLy12a. The three engineered promoters carrying 100-, 200- and 300-bp truncations exhibited reduced promoter strength but unaffected growth...
January 5, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307713/integration-of-plasticity-mechanisms-within-a-single-sensory-neuron-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans-actuates-a-memory
#19
Josh D Hawk, Ana C Calvo, Ping Liu, Agustin Almoril-Porras, Ahmad Aljobeh, María Luisa Torruella-Suárez, Ivy Ren, Nathan Cook, Joel Greenwood, Linjiao Luo, Zhao-Wen Wang, Aravinthan D T Samuel, Daniel A Colón-Ramos
Neural plasticity, the ability of neurons to change their properties in response to experiences, underpins the nervous system's capacity to form memories and actuate behaviors. How different plasticity mechanisms act together in vivo and at a cellular level to transform sensory information into behavior is not well understood. We show that in Caenorhabditis elegans two plasticity mechanisms-sensory adaptation and presynaptic plasticity-act within a single cell to encode thermosensory information and actuate a temperature preference memory...
January 2, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#20
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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