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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748486/nonlinear-processing-of-a-multicomponent-communication-signal-by-combination-sensitive-neurons-in-the-anuran-inferior-colliculus
#1
Norman Lee, Katrina M Schrode, Mark A Bee
Diverse animals communicate using multicomponent signals. How a receiver's central nervous system integrates multiple signal components remains largely unknown. We investigated how female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) integrate the multiple spectral components present in male advertisement calls. Typical calls have a bimodal spectrum consisting of formant-like low-frequency (~0.9 kHz) and high-frequency (~2.7 kHz) components that are transduced by different sensory organs in the inner ear. In behavioral experiments, only bimodal calls reliably elicited phonotaxis in no-choice tests, and they were selectively chosen over unimodal calls in two-alternative choice tests...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747870/neural-entrainment-and-sensorimotor-synchronization-to-the-beat-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-an-eeg-study
#2
Lincoln J Colling, Hannah L Noble, Usha Goswami
Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization) shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditory perception of the beat which in turn affect auditory-motor mapping, or may reflect an independent motor deficit. Here, we used a new methodology in EEG based on measuring beat-related steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs, Nozaradan et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747662/inference-of-neuronal-functional-circuitry-with-spike-triggered-non-negative-matrix-factorization
#3
Jian K Liu, Helene M Schreyer, Arno Onken, Fernando Rozenblit, Mohammad H Khani, Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy, Stefano Panzeri, Tim Gollisch
Neurons in sensory systems often pool inputs over arrays of presynaptic cells, giving rise to functional subunits inside a neuron's receptive field. The organization of these subunits provides a signature of the neuron's presynaptic functional connectivity and determines how the neuron integrates sensory stimuli. Here we introduce the method of spike-triggered non-negative matrix factorization for detecting the layout of subunits within a neuron's receptive field. The method only requires the neuron's spiking responses under finely structured sensory stimulation and is therefore applicable to large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746815/higher-order-areas-of-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#4
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Recent anatomical and physiological studies of the mouse visual cortex have revealed a similarly complex network of specialized higher-order areas...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743971/muscle-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-pathways-and-biomarkers-involved-in-extreme-ultimate-ph-and-meat-defect-occurrence-in-chicken
#5
Stéphane Beauclercq, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Christophe Praud, Estelle Godet, Anne Collin, Sophie Tesseraud, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Marie Bourin, Marco Moroldo, Frédéric Martins, Sandrine Lagarrigue, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Cécile Berri
The processing ability and sensory quality of chicken breast meat are highly related to its ultimate pH (pHu), which is mainly determined by the amount of glycogen in the muscle at death. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen and meat pHu variations and to identify predictive biomarkers of these traits, a transcriptome profiling analysis was performed using an Agilent custom chicken 8 × 60 K microarray. The breast muscle gene expression patterns were studied in two chicken lines experimentally selected for high (pHu+) and low (pHu-) pHu values of the breast meat...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743454/convergence-of-primary-sensory-cortex-and-cerebellar-nuclei-pathways-in-the-whisker-system
#6
REVIEW
Carmen B Schäfer, Freek E Hoebeek
To safely maneuver through the environment the brain needs to compare active sensory information with ongoing motor programs. This process occurs at various levels in the brain: at the lower level, i.e. in the spinal cord, reflexes are generated for the most primitive motor responses; at the intermediate level, i.e., in the brainstem, various nuclei co-process sensory- and motor-related inputs; and, at the higher level cerebellum and thalamo-cortical networks individually compute suitable commands for fine-tuned motor output...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#7
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739482/brain-responses-to-40-hz-binaural-beat-and-effects-on-emotion-and-memory
#8
Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736172/early-integration-of-temperature-and-humidity-stimuli-in-the-drosophila-brain
#9
Dominic D Frank, Anders Enjin, Genevieve C Jouandet, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Alessia Para, Marcus C Stensmyr, Marco Gallio
The Drosophila antenna contains receptor neurons for mechanical, olfactory, thermal, and humidity stimuli. Neurons expressing the ionotropic receptor IR40a have been implicated in the selection of an appropriate humidity range [1, 2], but although previous work indicates that insect hygroreceptors may be made up by a "triad" of neurons (with a dry-, a cold-, and a humid-air-responding cell [3]), IR40a expression included only cold- and dry-air cells. Here, we report the identification of the humid-responding neuron that completes the hygrosensory triad in the Drosophila antenna...
July 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733941/assessment-of-gray-and-white-matter-structural-alterations-in-migraineurs-without-aura
#10
Jilei Zhang, Yi-Lan Wu, Jingjing Su, Qian Yao, Mengxing Wang, Ge-Fei Li, Rong Zhao, Yan-Hui Shi, Ying Zhao, Qiting Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Shuai Xu, Zhaoxia Qin, Guo-Hong Cui, Jianqi Li, Jian-Ren Liu, Xiaoxia Du
BACKGROUND: Migraine constitute a disorder characterized by recurrent headaches, and have a high prevalence, a high socio-economic burden and severe effects on quality of life. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that some brain regions are functional alterations in migraineurs. As the function of the human brain is related to its structure, we further investigated white and gray matter structural alterations in migraineurs. METHODS: In current study, we used surface-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to detect structural alterations of the white matter and gray matter in 32 migraineurs without aura compared with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733816/relative-weighting-of-acoustic-information-during-mating-decisions-in-grasshoppers-indicates-signatures-of-sexual-selection
#11
Jan Clemens, Jennifer Aufderheide, Bernhard Ronacher
The decision with whom to mate is crucial in determining an individual's fitness and is often based on the evaluation of visual or acoustic displays produced during courtship. Accordingly, the algorithms for evaluating such courtship signals are shaped by sexual selection and should reflect the expected benefits and costs of mating: signals bearing heterospecific features should be rapidly rejected, since mating would produce no fertile offspring, while signals resembling conspecific ones should be weighted proportional to mate quality...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#12
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730682/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-i-segmental-architecture-compartmentalization-and-lineage-anatomy
#13
Volker Hartenstein, Jaison J Omoto, Kathy T Ngo, Darren Wong, Philipp A Kuert, Heinrich Reichert, Jennifer K Lovick, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain houses the circuitry underlying feeding behavior and is involved in many other aspects of sensory processing and locomotor control. Formed by the merging of four neuromeres, the internal architecture of the SEZ can be best understood by identifying segmentally reiterated landmarks emerging in the embryo and larva, and following the gradual changes by which these landmarks become integrated into the mature SEZ during metamorphosis. In previous works, the system of longitudinal fibers (connectives) and transverse axons (commissures) has been utilized as a scaffold that provides internal landmarks for the neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729439/striatal-gpr88-modulates-foraging-efficiency
#15
Aundrea Rainwater, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
The striatum is anatomically and behaviorally implicated in behaviors that promote efficient foraging. To investigate this function, we studied instrumental choice behavior in mice lacking GPR88, a striatum-enriched orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that modulates striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) excitability. Our results reveal that hungry mice lacking GPR88 (KO mice) were slow to acquire food-reinforced lever-press, but could lever press similar to controls on a progressive-ratio schedule. Both WT and KO mice discriminated between reward and no-reward levers; however, KO mice failed to discriminate based on relative quantity- reward (1 versus 3 food pellets) or effort (3 versus 9 lever presses)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729058/impacts-of-sensation-perception-and-motor-abilities-of-the-ipsilesional-upper-limb-on-hand-functions-in-unilateral-stroke-quantifications-from-biomechanical-and-functional-perspectives
#16
Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Chia-Wen Ke, Ta-Shen Kuan, Hsiu-Ching Yang, Ching-Liang Tsai, Li-Chieh Kuo
BACKGROUND: The presence of subtle losses in hand dexterity after stroke impacts the regaining of independence with regard to activities of daily living. Therefore, awareness of ipsilesional upper extremity (UE) function may be of importance when drafting a comprehensive rehabilitation program. However, current hand function tests seem to be unable to identify asymptomatic UE impairments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the motor coordination as well as the sensory-perception of an ipsilesional UE using biomechanical analysis of performance-oriented tasks and conducting a Manual Tactile Test (MTT)...
July 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728025/a-neural-signature-of-divisive-normalization-at-the-level-of-multisensory-integration-in-primate-cortex
#17
Tomokazu Ohshiro, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Studies of multisensory integration by single neurons have traditionally emphasized empirical principles that describe nonlinear interactions between inputs from two sensory modalities. We previously proposed that many of these empirical principles could be explained by a divisive normalization mechanism operating in brain regions where multisensory integration occurs. This normalization model makes a critical diagnostic prediction: a non-preferred sensory input from one modality, which activates the neuron on its own, should suppress the response to a preferred input from another modality...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#18
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724992/opposite-bidirectional-shifts-in-excitation-and-inhibition-in-specific-types-of-dorsal-horn-interneurons-are-associated-with-spasticity-and-pain-post-sci
#19
Olga Kopach, Volodymyr Medvediev, Volodymyr Krotov, Anya Borisyuk, Vitaliy Tsymbaliuk, Nana Voitenko
Spasticity, a common complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), is frequently accompanied by chronic pain. The physiological origin of this pain (critical to its treatment) remains unknown, although spastic motor dysfunction has been related to the hyperexcitability of motoneurons and to changes in spinal sensory processing. Here we show that the pain mechanism involves changes in sensory circuits of the dorsal horn (DH) where nociceptive inputs integrate for pain processing. Spasticity is associated with the DH hyperexcitability resulting from an increase in excitation and disinhibition occurring in two respective types of sensory interneurons...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723907/auditory-and-visual-distractors-disrupt-multisensory-temporal-acuity-in-the-crossmodal-temporal-order-judgment-task
#20
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
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