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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#1
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148564/differential-processing-in-modality-specific-mauthner-cell-dendrites
#2
V Medan, T Mäki-Marttunen, J Sztarker, T Preuss
Animals process multimodal information for adaptive behavioural decisions. In fish, evasion of a diving bird that breaks the water surface depends on integrating visual and auditory stimuli with very different characteristics. How do neurons process such differential sensory inputs at the dendritic level? For that we studied the Mauthner-cells (M-cells) in the goldfish startle circuit, which receive visual and auditory inputs via two separate dendrites, both accessible for in vivo recordings. We asked if electrophysiological membrane properties and dendrite morphology, studied in vivo, play a role in selective sensory processing in the M-cell...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148137/brain-computer-interfaces-with-multi-sensory-feedback-for-stroke-rehabilitation-a-case-study
#3
Danut C Irimia, Woosang Cho, Rupert Ortner, Brendan Z Allison, Bogdan E Ignat, Guenter Edlinger, Christoph Guger
Conventional therapies do not provide paralyzed patients with closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. This work presents the recoveriX system, a hardware and software platform that combines a motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and visual feedback technologies for a complete sensorimotor closed-loop therapy system for poststroke rehabilitation. The proposed system was tested on two chronic stroke patients in a clinical environment...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147635/global-and-targeted-pathway-impact-of-gliomas-on-white-matter-integrity-based-on-lobar-localization
#4
David R Ormond, Shawn D'Souza, John A Thompson
Primary brain tumors comprise 28% of all tumors and 80% of malignant tumors. Pathophysiology of high-grade gliomas includes significant distortion of white matter architecture, necrosis, the breakdown of the blood brain barrier, and increased intracranial pressure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a diffusion weighted imaging technique, can be used to assess white matter architecture. Use of DTI as a non-invasive pathophysiological tool to analyze glioma impact on white matter microstructure has yet to be fully explored...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143946/multi-scale-account-of-the-network-structure-of-macaque-visual-cortex
#5
Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Claus C Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha J van Albada
Cortical network structure has been extensively characterized at the level of local circuits and in terms of long-range connectivity, but seldom in a manner that integrates both of these scales. Furthermore, while the connectivity of cortex is known to be related to its architecture, this knowledge has not been used to derive a comprehensive cortical connectivity map. In this study, we integrate data on cortical architecture and axonal tracing data into a consistent multi-scale framework of the structure of one hemisphere of macaque vision-related cortex...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143768/an-electronic-system-for-the-contactless-reading-of-ecg-signals
#6
Francesca Romana Parente, Marco Santonico, Alessandro Zompanti, Mario Benassai, Giuseppe Ferri, Arnaldo D'Amico, Giorgio Pennazza
The aim of this work is the development of a contactless capacitive sensory system for the detection of (Electrocardiographic) ECG-like signals. The acquisition approach is based on a capacitive coupling with the patient body performed by electrodes integrated in a front-end circuit. The proposed system is able to detect changes in the electric charge related to the heart activity. Due to the target signal weakness and to the presence of other undesired signals, suitable amplification stages and analogue filters are required...
October 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#7
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139322/how-pupils-on-the-autism-spectrum-make-sense-of-themselves-in-the-context-of-their-experiences-in-a-mainstream-school-setting-a-qualitative-metasynthesis
#8
Emma I Williams, Kate Gleeson, Bridget E Jones
Evidence that interpersonal interactions and self-appraisal in social context are crucial in developing self-understanding raises concerns about how pupils with autism spectrum disorder make sense of themselves in school settings where many experience social marginalisation. Metasynthesis was used to systematically extract and integrate findings from qualitative studies examining the mainstream school experiences of these students. Synthesised findings identified three, intermeshing, aspects of experience which contribute to many pupils with autism spectrum disorder making sense of themselves as 'different' to typical peers in a negative way: difficulties linked to autism spectrum disorder; interpersonal relationships, particularly with peers; and accessibility of the school environment...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#9
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134826/cancer-patients-recommendations-for-nature-based-design-and-engagement-in-oncology-contexts-qualitative-research
#10
Sarah Blaschke, Clare C O'Callaghan, Penelope Schofield
OBJECTIVES: To explore cancer patients' recommendations for nature engagement based on their subjective nature experiences and observations in the cancer setting. The rationale was to gain practical insight for delineating relevant and translatable nature-based care and design opportunities in oncology contexts. BACKGROUND: Innovative cancer care services are needed to respond to growing demand and shifting healthcare needs. Engagement with nature has shown multiple health benefits and presents a promising opportunity for application in healthcare to improve outcomes...
January 1, 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#11
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133859/conformal-transistor-arrays-based-on-solution-processed-organic-crystals
#12
Xiaoli Zhao, Bing Zhang, Qingxin Tang, Xueyan Ding, Shuya Wang, Yuying Zhou, Yanhong Tong, Yichun Liu
Conformal transistor array based on solution-processed organic crystals, which can provide sensory and scanning features for monitoring, biofeedback, and tracking of physiological function, presents one of the most promising technologies for future large-scale low-cost wearable and implantable electronics. However, it is still a huge challenge for the integration of solution-processed organic crystals into conformal FETs owing to a generally existing swelling phenomenon of the elastic materials and the lack of the corresponding device fabrication technology...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130301/omni-purpose-stretchable-strain-sensor-based-on-a-highly-dense-nanocracking-structure-for-whole-body-motion-monitoring
#13
Hyungkook Jeon, Seong Kyung Hong, Min Seo Kim, Seong J Cho, Geunbae Lim
Here, we report an omni-purpose stretchable strain sensor (OPSS sensor) based on a nanocracking structure for monitoring of whole-body motions including both joint-level and skin-level motions. By controlling and optimizing the nanocracking structure, inspired by the spider sensory system, the OPSS sensor is endowed with both high sensitivity (gauge factor ~30) and wide working range (strain up to 150%) under great linearity (R(2) = 0.9814) and fast response time (<30 ms). Furthermore, the fabrication process of the OPSS sensor has advantages of being extremely simple, patternable, IC (integrated circuit)-compatible and reliable in terms of reproducibility...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130054/multimodal-integration-of-spontaneously-produced-representational-co-speech-gestures-an-fmri-study
#14
Jill Weisberg, Amy Lynn Hubbard, Karen Emmorey
To examine whether more ecologically valid co-speech gesture stimuli elicit brain responses consistent with those found by studies that relied on scripted stimuli, we presented participants with spontaneously produced, meaningful co-speech gesture during fMRI scanning (n = 28). Speech presented with gesture (versus either presented alone) elicited heightened activity in bilateral posterior superior temporal, premotor, and inferior frontal regions. Within left temporal and premotor, but not inferior frontal regions, we identified small clusters with superadditive responses, suggesting that these discrete regions support both sensory and semantic integration...
2017: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128717/in-vivo-bioelectronic-nose-using-transgenic-mice-for-specific-odor-detection
#15
Keqiang Gao, Songmin Li, Liujing Zhuang, Zhen Qin, Bin Zhang, Liquan Huang, Ping Wang
The olfactory system is a natural biosensor since its peripheral olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) respond to the external stimuli and transmit the signals to the olfactory bulb (OB) where they are integrated and processed. The axonal connections from the OSNs expressing about 1000 different types of odorant receptors are precisely organized and sorted out onto 1800 glomeruli in the OB, from which the olfactory information is delivered to and perceived by the central nervous system. This process is carried out with particularly high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, which can be used for explosive detection...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127394/systematic-population-spike-delays-across-cortical-layers-within-and-between-primary-sensory-areas
#16
Gijs Plomp, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
The coordinated propagation of activity across cortical layers enables simultaneous local computation and inter-areal interactions. A pattern of upward propagation from deeper to more superficial layers, which has been repeatedly demonstrated in spontaneous activity, would allow these functions to occur in parallel. But it remains unclear whether upward propagation also occurs for stimulus evoked activity, and how it relates to activity in other cortical areas. Here we used a new method to analyze relative delays between spikes obtained from simultaneous laminar recordings in primary sensory cortex (S1) of both hemispheres...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125640/characterization-of-whole-grain-pasta-integrating-physical-chemical-molecular-and-instrumental-sensory-approaches
#17
Alessandra Marti, Stefano Cattaneo, Simona Benedetti, Susanna Buratti, Parisa Abbasi Parizad, Fabio Masotti, Stefania Iametti, Maria Ambrogina Pagani
The consumption of whole-grain food-including pasta-has been increasing steadily. In the case of whole-grain pasta, given the many different producers, it seems important to have some objective parameters to define its overall quality. In this study, commercial whole-grain pasta samples representative of the Italian market have been characterized from both molecular and electronic-senses (electronic nose and electronic tongue) standpoint in order to provide a survey of the properties of different commercial samples...
November 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124768/the-peripheral-nervous-system-of-the-ascidian-tadpole-larva-types-of-neurons-and-their-synaptic-networks
#18
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiuyan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Physical and chemical cues from the environment are used to direct animal behaviour through a complex network of connections originating in exteroceptors. In chordates, mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) must signal to the motor circuits of the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of pathways that integrate and regulate the output to motor neurons; ultimately these drive contraction of the tail and limb muscles. We used serial-section electron microscopy to reconstruct PNS neurons and their hitherto unknown synaptic networks in the tadpole larva of a sibling chordate, the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124505/transitions-between-asynchronous-and-synchronous-states-a-theory-of-correlations-in-small-neural-circuits
#19
Diego Fasoli, Anna Cattani, Stefano Panzeri
The study of correlations in neural circuits of different size, from the small size of cortical microcolumns to the large-scale organization of distributed networks studied with functional imaging, is a topic of central importance to systems neuroscience. However, a theory that explains how the parameters of mesoscopic networks composed of a few tens of neurons affect the underlying correlation structure is still missing. Here we consider a theory that can be applied to networks of arbitrary size with multiple populations of homogeneous fully-connected neurons, and we focus its analysis to a case of two populations of small size...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124504/variable-synaptic-strengths-controls-the-firing-rate-distribution-in-feedforward-neural-networks
#20
Cheng Ly, Gary Marsat
Heterogeneity of firing rate statistics is known to have severe consequences on neural coding. Recent experimental recordings in weakly electric fish indicate that the distribution-width of superficial pyramidal cell firing rates (trial- and time-averaged) in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) depends on the stimulus, and also that network inputs can mediate changes in the firing rate distribution across the population. We previously developed theoretical methods to understand how two attributes (synaptic and intrinsic heterogeneity) interact and alter the firing rate distribution in a population of integrate-and-fire neurons with random recurrent coupling...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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