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Simona Portaro, Vincenzo Cimino, Maria Accorinti, Alessandra Pidalà, Antonino Naro, Rocco S Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis flail arm (ALS-FA) is a motor neuron disease form confined to the upper limbs (cervical spinal cord region), often with asymmetric onset. To date, there is no defined neurorehabilitative strategy for ALS patients, although aerobic exercises may be of some help. CASE REPORT: A 69 year-old woman affected by ALS-FA was admitted to our research institute because of upper limb muscles weakness. She was then submitted to two different conventional physiotherapy programs, the first stand-alone and the second combined to a robotic treatment...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Elnaz Eilbeigi, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan
BACKGROUND: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising tool in neurorehabilitation. The intention to perform a motor action can be detected from brain signals and used to control robotic devices. Most previous studies have focused on the starting of movements from a resting state, while in daily life activities, motions occur continuously and the neural activities correlated to the evolving movements are yet to be investigated. METHOD: First we investigate the existence of neural correlates of intention to replace an object on the table during a holding phase...
May 26, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Chao-Chen Lo, Pei-Yi Lin, Zheng-Yu Hoe, Jia-Jin J Chen
In addition to generating functional limb movement via electrical stimulation, other research proposed lower intensity stimulation for stroke patients from proprioceptive and neuro-biofeedback aspects. This paper investigates the effects of different intensity levels of electrical stimulation during passive cycling on cortical activation using multichannel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) covering premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, sensorimotor cortex (SMC), and secondary sensory cortex (S2) regions...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Rajiv Singh, Thomas Humphries, Suzanne Mason, Fiona Lecky, Jeremy Dawson, Saurabh Sinha
BACKGROUND: While anosmia is common after Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI) (prevalence 4%-68%),studies differ in the associations found with other variables. AIMS: To assess the incidence of anosmia within a large, mixed TBI cohort and examine relationships with other injury or demographic features, including depression and global outcome(GOSE). DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND SETTING: 774 consecutive TBI admissions over 2 years, assessed within a specialist neurorehabilitation clinic...
June 6, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Gianluca Castelnuovo, Emanuele Maria Giusti, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Donatella Saviola, Samantha Gabrielli, Marco Lacerenza, Giada Pietrabissa, Roberto Cattivelli, Chiara Anna Maria Spatola, Alessandro Rossi, Giorgia Varallo, Margherita Novelli, Valentina Villa, Francesca Luzzati, Andrea Cottini, Carlo Lai, Eleonora Volpato, Cesare Cavalera, Francesco Pagnini, Valentina Tesio, Lorys Castelli, Mario Tavola, Riccardo Torta, Marco Arreghini, Loredana Zanini, Amelia Brunani, Ionathan Seitanidis, Giuseppe Ventura, Paolo Capodaglio, Guido Edoardo D'Aniello, Federica Scarpina, Andrea Brioschi, Matteo Bigoni, Lorenzo Priano, Alessandro Mauro, Giuseppe Riva, Daniele Di Lernia, Claudia Repetto, Camillo Regalia, Enrico Molinari, Paolo Notaro, Stefano Paolucci, Giorgio Sandrini, Susan Simpson, Brenda Kay Wiederhold, Santino Gaudio, Jeffrey B Jackson, Stefano Tamburin, Fabrizio Benedetti
Background: It is increasingly acknowledged that the outcomes of medical treatments are influenced by the context of the clinical encounter through the mechanisms of the placebo effect. The phenomenon of placebo analgesia might be exploited to maximize the efficacy of neurorehabilitation treatments. Since its intensity varies across neurological disorders, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCP) summarized the studies on this field to provide guidance on its use...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Takashi Shibata, Toshimitu Musha, Yukio Kosugi, Michiya Kubo, Yukio Horie, Mieko Tanaka, Haruyasu Matsuzaki, Yohei Kobayashi, Satoshi Kuroda
Background and Purpose: We recently noted a gradual change in the boundary electroencephalography (EEG) oscillation of 7.8 Hz between theta (θ) and alpha (α) bands in response to increased atherosclerosis levels in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of boundary EEG oscillations of θ-α bands on cognitive functions in vascular cognitive impairments (VCI) patients. Materials and Methods: We examined 55 patients with VCI in carotid stenosis, and underwent EEG in a resting state with closed eyes for 5 min...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Josep Dinarès-Ferran, Rupert Ortner, Christoph Guger, Jordi Solé-Casals
EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are becoming a new tool for neurorehabilitation. BCIs are used to help stroke patients to improve the functional capability of the impaired limbs, and to communicate and assess the level of consciousness in Disorder of Consciousness (DoC) patients. BCIs based on a motor imagery paradigm typically require a training period to adapt the system to each user's brain, and the BCI then creates and uses a classifier created with the acquired EEG. The quality of this classifier relies on amount of data used for training...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
James H Rimmer, Mohanraj Thirumalai, Hui-Ju Young, Dori Pekmezi, Tracy Tracy, Emily Riser, Tapan Mehta
Long-term exercise/rehabilitation is an integral component of the continual care for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, access to this care, which includes comprehensive exercise/rehabilitation services to people with MS, remains a significant challenge, especially in rural, low-income areas. Telerehabilitation, or what we refer to as teleexercise, can help fill service gaps for underserved MS populations in this region. This pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled effectiveness trial will compare a 12-week, 20 session complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) intervention composed of neurorehabilitative (functional) exercise, yoga and Pilates delivered at home, using pre-loaded tablets and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system technology (TeleCAM), to the same intervention delivered in clinic by a therapist (DirectCAM)...
May 30, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Jessica Cantillo-Negrete, Ruben I Carino-Escobar, Paul Carrillo-Mora, David Elias-Vinas, Josefina Gutierrez-Martinez
Motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have shown potential for the rehabilitation of stroke patients; however, low performance has restricted their application in clinical environments. Therefore, this work presents the implementation of a BCI system, coupled to a robotic hand orthosis and driven by hand motor imagery of healthy subjects and the paralysed hand of stroke patients. A novel processing stage was designed using a bank of temporal filters, the common spatial pattern algorithm for feature extraction and particle swarm optimisation for feature selection...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Rajat Emanuel Singh, Kamran Iqbal, Gannon White, Tarun Edgar Hutchinson
The central nervous system (CNS) is believed to utilize specific predefined modules, called muscle synergies (MS), to accomplish a motor task. Yet questions persist about how the CNS combines these primitives in different ways to suit the task conditions. The MS hypothesis has been a subject of debate as to whether they originate from neural origins or nonneural constraints. In this review article, we present three aspects related to the MS hypothesis: (1) the experimental and computational evidence in support of the existence of MS, (2) algorithmic approaches for extracting them from surface electromyography (EMG) signals, and (3) the possible role of MS as a neurorehabilitation tool...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Sho Kojima, Hideaki Onishi, Shota Miyaguchi, Shinichi Kotan, Ryoki Sasaki, Masaki Nakagawa, Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki
We investigated the effects of different patterns of mechanical tactile stimulation (MS) on corticospinal excitability by measuring the motor-evoked potential (MEP). This was a single-blind study that included nineteen healthy subjects. MS was applied for 20 min to the right index finger. MS intervention was defined as simple, lateral, rubbing, vertical, or random. Simple intervention stimulated the entire finger pad at the same time. Lateral intervention stimulated with moving between left and right on the finger pad...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Maria A Catalano, Giuseppe Lanza, Gaetano La Delfa, Raffaele Ferri, Manuela Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti
Introduction: The relationship between intellectual disability (ID) and hand motor coordination and speed-accuracy, as well as the effect of aging on fine motor performance in patients with ID, has been previously investigated. However, only a few data are available on the impact of the nonpharmacological interventions in adult patients with long-term hand motor deficit. Methods: Fifty adults with mild ID were enrolled. A group of thirty patients underwent a two-month intensive ergotherapic treatment that included hand motor rehabilitation and visual-perceptual treatment (group A); twenty patients performing conventional motor rehabilitation alone (group B) served as a control group...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Daniel B Silversmith, Viktor Kharazia, Philip N Sabes
Brain stimulation modulates the excitability of neural circuits and drives neuroplasticity. While the local effects of stimulation have been an active area of investigation, the effects on large-scale networks remain largely unexplored. We studied stimulation-induced changes in network dynamics in two macaques. A large-scale optogenetic interface enabled simultaneous stimulation of excitatory neurons and electrocorticographic recording across primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortex (Yazdan-Shahmorad et al...
May 29, 2018: ELife
Bilal Akhter Mateen, Matthias Bussas, Catherine Doogan, Denise Waller, Alessia Saverino, Franz J Király, E Diane Playford
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tests of cognitive function and patient-reported outcome measures of motor function can be used to create a machine learning-based predictive tool for falls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary neurological and neurosurgical center. SUBJECTS: In all, 337 in-patients receiving neurosurgical, neurological, or neurorehabilitation-based care. MAIN MEASURES: Binary (Y/N) for falling during the in-patient episode, the Trail Making Test (a measure of attention and executive function) and the Walk-12 (a patient-reported measure of physical function)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Anna Estraneo, Vincenzo Loreto, Orsola Masotta Psy, Angelo Pascarella, Luigi Trojano
OBJECTIVE: to investigate medical complications (MC) occuring within 6 months post-injury in brain-injured patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) and to evaluate impact of MC on mortality and long-term clinical outcomes. DESIGN: prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: rehabilitation unit for acquired DoC. PARTECIPANTS: 194 patients with DoC (142 in vegetative state, 52 in minimally conscious state; traumatic etiology: 43, anoxic: 69, vascular: 82) consecutively admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit within 1-3 months after onset...
May 25, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Mira Katan, Andreas Luft
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Its incidence is increasing because the population ages. In addition, more young people are affected by stroke in low- and middle-income countries. Ischemic stroke is more frequent but hemorrhagic stroke is responsible for more deaths and disability-adjusted life-years lost. Incidence and mortality of stroke differ between countries, geographical regions, and ethnic groups. In high-income countries mainly, improvements in prevention, acute treatment, and neurorehabilitation have led to a substantial decrease in the burden of stroke over the past 30 years...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Paulina Klimkiewicz, Robert Klimkiewicz, Agnieszka Jankowska, Anna Kubsik, Patrycja Widłak, Adam Łukasiak, Katarzyna Janczewska, Natalia Kociuga, Tomasz Nowakowski, Marta Woldańska-Okońska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: In this article, the authors focused on the symptoms of ischemic stroke and the effect of neurorehabilitation methods on the functional status of patients after ischemic stroke. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the functional status of patients after ischemic stroke with improved classic kinesiotherapy, classic kinesiotherapy and NDT-Bobath and classic kinesiotherapy and PNF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study involved 120 patients after ischemic stroke...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Juan Du, Fang Yang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jingze Hu, Qiang Xu, Jianping Hu, Fanyong Zeng, Guangming Lu, Xinfeng Liu
An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke...
May 15, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Robert D Vining, Stacie A Salsbury, W Carl Cooley, Donna Gosselin, Lance Corber, Christine M Goertz
Objectives: Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Design: Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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