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Anastasia V Balakireva, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Pravin M Rathi, Vinay G Zanwar
There has been increasing interest in the entity "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity" in recent years which was first of its in 1980s. This "re-discovered" disorder is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms which occur after ingestion of gluten containing food. The number of such patients who neither have celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to benefit from gluten withdrawal is increasing substantially. However it still remains a controversial and its pathogenesis is not well understood...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Fabiana Zingone, Chiara Bartalini, Monica Siniscalchi, Monica Ruotolo, Cristina Bucci, Ivonne Morra, Paola Iovino, Carolina Ciacci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is evidence that food components beyond gluten cause symptoms in patients with gluten sensitivity without celiac disease (nonceliac gluten sensitivity [NCGS]). We investigated the diets and nutritional characteristics of patients with NCGS. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 29 patients with NCGS seen at the outpatient clinic for celiac disease and other food intolerances of the University of Salerno in Italy from September 2015 through April 2016...
August 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Javier Molina-Infante, Antonio Carroccio
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, gluten challenge has been proposed to confirm a diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) in patients without celiac disease who respond to a gluten-free diet. To determine the accuracy of this approach, we analyzed data from 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled, gluten challenge trials, comprising 1312 adults. The studies varied in the duration of the challenge (ranging from 1 day to 6 weeks), daily doses for the gluten challenge (ranging from 2 g to 52 g; 3 studies administered less than 8 g/day), and composition of the placebo (gluten-free products, xylose, whey protein, rice, or corn starch containing fermentable carbohydrates)...
August 11, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Umbero Volta, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Elisa Boschetti, Giacomo Pietro Ismaele Caio, Roberto De Giorgio, Elena Francesca Verdu
A tight link exists between dietary factors and irritable bowel syndrome, one of the most common functional syndromes, characterized by abdominal pain / discomfort, bloating and alternating bowel habit. Amongst the variety of foods potentially evoking "food sensitivity", gluten and other wheat proteins including amylase trypsin inhibitors represent the culprits that recently have drawn the attention of the scientific community. Therefore, a newly emerging condition termed non-celiac gluten (or wheat) sensitivity is now well established in the clinical practice...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Mercè Rosinach, Fernando Fernández-Bañares, Anna Carrasco, Montserrat Ibarra, Rocío Temiño, Antonio Salas, Maria Esteve
BACKGROUND: The role of gluten as a trigger of symptoms in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity has been questioned. AIM: To demonstrate that gluten is the trigger of symptoms in a subgroup of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), which presented with lymphocytic enteritis, positive celiac genetics and negative celiac serology. METHODS: Double-blind randomized clinical trial of gluten vs placebo rechallenge...
2016: PloS One
Karol Sestak, Hazel Thwin, Jason Dufour, David X Liu, Xavier Alvarez, David Laine, Adam Clarke, Anthony Doyle, Pyone P Aye, James Blanchard, Charles P Moehs
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies...
2016: Nutrients
Sylvia Cruchet, Yalda Lucero, Verónica Cornejo
Different dietary approaches have been attempted for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism, but only three of them have been subjected to clinical trials: education in healthy nutritional habits, supplementation and elimination diets. On the other hand, for multiple reasons, the number of people who adopt vegetarian and gluten-free diets (GFD) increases daily. More recently, a new entity, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), with a still evolving definition and clinical spectrum, has been described...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Elizabeth M Collyer, Barbara S Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Symptoms attributed to gluten consumption are frequently reported evoking the need for differentiating nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) from other gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease and wheat allergy. This review discusses diagnostic criteria and research to date on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of NCGS. RECENT FINDINGS: There is recent evidence to support NCGS as a distinct clinical entity. The symptoms attributed to NCGS are nonspecific, overlapping with those reported in patients with celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Hilary Jericho, Asaad Assiri, Stefano Guandalini
Since the first description of celiac disease (CeD) by Samuel Gee in 1888 and the later "miraculous discovery" that bread was responsible for this condition following World War II in Europe there has been an exponential growth of knowledge regarding CeD. However, just when we thought that we knew everything there was to know about it, the disease is offering new challenges, with its presentaton having significantly morphed over the years from cases of overt gastrointestinal symptoms, malnutrition, and atrophic villi on duodenal biopsies to that of largely extra-intestinal, subtle or mild symptoms...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Timothy R Smith, David J Cote, John A Jane, Edward R Laws
OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to establish recurrence rates in patients with craniopharyngioma postoperatively treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) as a basis for determining the risk of rhGH therapy in the development of recurrent tumor. METHODS The study included 739 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma who were naïve to GH upon entering the Genentech National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) for treatment. Reoperation for tumor recurrence was documented as an adverse event. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were developed for time to recurrence, using age as the outcome and enrollment date as the predictor...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Antonio Di Sabatino, Paolo Giuffrida, Giulia Fornasa, Chiara Salvatore, Alessandro Vanoli, Samuele Naviglio, Luigina De Leo, Alessandra Pasini, Mara De Amici, Costanza Alvisi, Tarcisio Not, Maria Rescigno, Gino Roberto Corazza
BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms have been implicated in nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), a condition characterized by intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms caused by the ingestion of gluten in non-celiac/non-wheat allergic individuals. AIMS: We investigated innate and adaptive immunity in self-reported NCGS versus celiac disease (CD). METHODS: In the supernatants of ex vivo-cultured duodenal biopsies from 14 self-reported NCGS patients, 9 untreated and 10 treated CD patients, and 12 controls we detected innate cytokines - interleukin (IL)-15, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-23, IL-27, IL-32α, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IFN-α-, adaptive cytokines - interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13-, chemokines - IL-8, CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL10-, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
July 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Ayesha N Khalid, Kevin C McMains
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the concern over food sensitivities in general and gluten intolerance in particular has sharply increased. Patients and medical providers are awash in various claims about the potential implications of including or excluding gluten from the diet. RECENT FINDINGS: Three main conditions are described with respect to gluten: wheat allergy, celiac disease, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Wheat allergy is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to nongluten proteins within wheat...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Giovanni Casella, Bianca M Bordo, Renzo Schalling, Vincenzo Villanacci, Marianna Salemme, Camillo DI Bella, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
Celiac Disease (CD) determins Neurologic Manifestations in 10% of all CD patients. We describe the most common clinical manifestations as Cerebellar Ataxia, Gluten Encephalopathy, Multiple Sclerosis, Peripheral Neuropathies, SensoriNeural Hearing Loss, Epilepsy, Headache, Depression, Cognitive Deficiencies and other less decribed clinical conditions. Our aim is to perform, as more as possible, a review about the most recent update on the topics in international literature. It is important to consider clinical neurological manifestations in Celiac patients and to research these conditions also in the follow- up because they may start also 1 year after the start of Gluten Free Diet (GFD) as Peripheral Neuropathy...
April 6, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Ivor D Hill, Alessio Fasano, Stefano Guandalini, Edward Hoffenberg, Joseph Levy, Norelle Reilly, Ritu Verma
Dietary exclusion of gluten-containing products has become increasingly popular in the general population, and currently ∼30% of people in the United States are limiting gluten ingestion. Although celiac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) constitute a spectrum of gluten-related disorders that require exclusion of gluten from the diet, together these account for a relatively small percentage of those following a gluten-free diet, and the vast majority has no medical necessity for doing so...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Antonio Picarelli, Raffaele Borghini, Marco Di Tola, Mariacatia Marino, Caterina Urciuoli, Claudia Isonne, Marta Puzzono, Barbara Porowska, Gabriele Rumi, Silvia Lonardi, Marianna Salemme, Antonio Tiberti, Carmelo Rizzo, Giuseppe Donato, Vincenzo Villanacci
BACKGROUND: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is an emergent condition, the framework of which is yet unclear, whereas the diagnosis is suggested only by gluten-dependent symptoms after excluding wheat allergy and celiac disease (CD). Our goal was to highlight intestinal, systemic, and oral alterations to clarify the NCGS pathogenesis and identify new diagnostic tools. STUDY: A total of 60 NCGS patients, 20 untreated CD, 20 treated CD, and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited...
March 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Peter P Vitaliano, Ozge Ustundag, Soo Borson
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Caregivers (CGs) have been shown to do more poorly than non-caregivers (NCGs) on objective cognitive tests (Trails B and Digit Symbol Test, DST), but less is known about whether these groups differ in: (a) reports of subjective cognitive problems (SCPs, memory complaints, etc.) and (b) relationships of SCPs with objective cognitive tests, depression, and stress exposure. Such relationships are important because researchers/clinicians use SCPs as proxies for objective cognitive tests...
February 22, 2016: Gerontologist
Luca Elli, Carolina Tomba, Federica Branchi, Leda Roncoroni, Vincenza Lombardo, Maria Teresa Bardella, Francesca Ferretti, Dario Conte, Flavio Valiante, Lucia Fini, Edoardo Forti, Renato Cannizzaro, Stefania Maiero, Claudio Londoni, Adriano Lauri, Giovanni Fornaciari, Nicoletta Lenoci, Rocco Spagnuolo, Guido Basilisco, Francesco Somalvico, Bruno Borgatta, Gioacchino Leandro, Sergio Segato, Donatella Barisani, Gaetano Morreale, Elisabetta Buscarini
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is characterized by the onset of symptoms after eating gluten-containing food. We aimed to single out NCGS subjects among subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were enrolled in a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial with crossover. Symptoms and quality of life were evaluated by means of 10-cm VAS and SF36. Iron parameters, transaminases and C reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated. After a three-week-long gluten-free diet (GFD), responsive patients were randomly assigned to gluten intake (5...
February 2016: Nutrients
Renato Nisihara, Ana Paula Marques, Amanda Mei, Thelma Skare
It has been found that celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) have a high prevalence in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. NCGS is a relatively new entity characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations in the absence of CD or wheat allergy. It is different from CD because anti-transglutaminase (anti-tTG) or endomysial antibodies (IgA-EmA) are lacking and the intestinal mucosa is normal or with mild abnormalities as increased intraepithelial lymphocytes in the absence of villous atrophy...
February 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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