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earthquake preparedness and response

Bishal Gyawali, June Keeling, Per Kallestrup
As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake...
September 15, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Misao Hachiya, Makoto Akashi
A huge earthquake struck the northeast coast of the main island of Japan on 11 March 2011 triggering an extremely large tsunami to hit the area. The earthquake and tsunami caused serious damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), resulting in large amounts of radioactive materials being released into the environment. The major nuclides released were (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The deposition of these radioactive materials on land resulted in a high ambient dose of radiation around the NPPs, especially within a 20-km radius...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Tomoko Wakui, Emily M Agree, Tami Saito, Ichiro Kai
OBJECTIVE: In the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as in Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the United States, older individuals were at the greatest risk of mortality. Much concern has been raised about developing plans to reduce these risks, but little information has been provided about preparedness, and the key role played by caregivers has been largely unexplored. The aims of this study were thus to examine the preparedness of family caregivers of older adults with long-term care needs and to identify the characteristics of older adults and their caregivers that are associated with poor preparedness and greater concern about disasters...
July 27, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Bipin Adhikari, Shiva Raj Mishra, Shristi Raut
Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Shi-Ke Hou, Qi Lv, Hui Ding, Yong-Zhong Zhang, Bao-Guo Yu, Zi-Quan Liu, Bin Su, Jin-Yang Liu, Meng-Yang Yu, Zhi-Guang Sun, Hao-Jun Fan
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world's largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program...
June 28, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Michel D Landry, Phillip S Sheppard, Kit Leung, Chiara Retis, Edwin C Salvador, Sudha R Raman
The frequency of natural disasters appears to be mounting at an alarming rate, and the degree to which people are surviving such traumatic events also is increasing. Postdisaster survival often triggers increases in population and individual disability-related outcomes in the form of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions, all of which have an important impact on the individual, his or her family, and their community. The increase in postdisaster disability-related outcomes has provided a rationale for the increased role of the disability and rehabilitation sector's involvement in emergency response, including physical therapists...
June 8, 2016: Physical Therapy
Hiroki Yanagihara
OBJECTIVES: To improve disaster preparedness, we investigated the response of medical relief activities managed by Iwate Prefectural Miyako Public Health Center during the post-acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011. METHODS: The study divided the post-disaster period into three approximate time segments: Period I (time of disaster through late March), Period II (mid-April), and Period III (end of May in Miyako City, early July in Yamada Town)...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Gerlant van Berlaer, Tom Staes, Dirk Danschutter, Ronald Ackermans, Stefano Zannini, Gabriele Rossi, Ronald Buyl, Geert Gijs, Michel Debacker, Ives Hubloue
OBJECTIVES: Disaster medicine research generally lacks control groups. This study aims to describe categories of diagnoses encountered by the Belgian First Aid and Support Team after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and extract earthquake-related changes from comparison with comparable baseline data. The hypothesis is that besides earthquake-related trauma, medical problems emerge soon, questioning an appropriate composition of Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits. METHODS: Using a descriptive cohort study design, diagnoses of patients presenting to the Belgian field hospital were prospectively registered during 4 weeks after the earthquake and compared with those recorded similarly by Médecins Sans Frontières in the same area and time span in previous and later years...
March 10, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Stav Shapira, Lena Novack, Yaron Bar-Dayan, Limor Aharonson-Daniel
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive technique for earthquake-related casualty estimation remains an unmet challenge. This study aims to integrate risk factors related to characteristics of the exposed population and to the built environment in order to improve communities' preparedness and response capabilities and to mitigate future consequences. METHODS: An innovative model was formulated based on a widely used loss estimation model (HAZUS) by integrating four human-related risk factors (age, gender, physical disability and socioeconomic status) that were identified through a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological data...
2016: PloS One
Soichiro Kato, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake...
February 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Michael Andrews
Large, complex, multi-stakeholder exercises are the culmination of years of gradual progression through a comprehensive training and exercise programme. Exercises intended to validate training, refine procedures and test processes initially tested in isolation are combined to ensure seamless response and coordination during actual crises. The challenges of integrating timely and accurate situational awareness from an array of sources, including response agencies, municipal departments, partner agencies and the public, on an ever-growing range of media platforms, increase information management complexity in emergencies...
2016: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Anthony E Johnson, Tad L Gerlinger, Christopher T Born
A disaster is a catastrophic event that disrupts normal infrastructure to such a degree that normal response mechanisms and capabilities cannot manage what is required to respond appropriately to the event. Launched after the largest urban disaster in modern history--the 2010 Haiti Earthquake--the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Association/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association of North America (AAOS/SOMOS/OTA/POSNA) Disaster Response Course (DRC) is designed to prepare orthopaedic surgeons for service in disaster response and humanitarian assistance efforts in both the acute phases as well as in the recovery and reconstructions phases...
October 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Gilead Shenhar, Michael Rozenfeld, Irina Radomislensky, Kobi Peleg
OBJECTIVES: An effective way to reduce casualties from earthquakes is to increase population preparedness. During 2011 to 2013, Israeli authorities executed 3 national-level earthquake awareness campaigns. We aimed to assess the impact of these campaigns on the populace and the ability of the campaigns to produce a cumulative effect throughout the study period. METHODS: Two surveys were conducted 2 weeks after the end of the first campaign and the third campaign in a similar randomly selected representative sample...
February 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
David R Black, J Eric Dietz, Amanda A Stirratt, Daniel C Coster
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain whether analyses of social media trends for various Twitter responses following a major disaster produce implications for improving the focus on public health resources and messaging to disaster victims. METHODS: Radian6 and trend analyses were used to analyze 12-hour counts of Twitter data before, during, and after the March 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Radian6 was used to organize tweets into categories of preparedness, emergency response, and public health...
May 2015: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Paul S Auerbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Atsushi Sakuma, Yoko Takahashi, Ikki Ueda, Hirotoshi Sato, Masahiro Katsura, Mikika Abe, Ayami Nagao, Yuriko Suzuki, Masako Kakizaki, Ichiro Tsuji, Hiroo Matsuoka, Kazunori Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Many local workers have been involved in rescue and reconstruction duties since the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) on March 11, 2011. These workers continuously confront diverse stressors as both survivors and relief and reconstruction workers. However, little is known about the psychological sequelae among these workers. Thus, we assessed the prevalence of and personal/workplace risk factors for probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and high general psychological distress in this population...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
Anne M Wilkinson, Marianne Matzo
Catastrophic mass casualty events (MCEs), such as pandemic influenza outbreaks, earthquakes, or large-scale terrorism-related events, quickly and suddenly yield thousands of victims whose needs overwhelm local and regional health care systems, personnel, and resources. Such conditions require deploying scarce resources in a manner that is different from the more common multiple casualty event. This article presents issues associated with providing nursing care under MCE circumstances of scarce resources and the educational needs of nurses to prepare them to effectively respond in these emergencies...
January 26, 2015: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Robert C Whitcomb, Armin J Ansari, Jennifer J Buzzell, M Carol McCurley, Charles W Miller, James M Smith, D Lynn Evans
On 11 March 2011, northern Japan was struck by first a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the eastern coast and then by an ensuing tsunami. At the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), these twin disasters initiated a cascade of events that led to radionuclide releases. Radioactive material from Japan was subsequently transported to locations around the globe, including the U.S. The levels of radioactive material that arrived in the U.S. were never large enough to cause health effects, but the presence of this material in the environment was enough to require a response from the public health community...
March 2015: Health Physics
Sultan Al-Shaqsi, Robin Gauld, David McBride, Ammar Al-Kashmiri, Abdullah Al-Harthy
INTRODUCTION: Disasters occur more frequently. Acute care providers are the first to respond to mass emergencies from the healthcare sector. The preparedness of acute care providers in New Zealand to respond to mass emergencies has not been previously studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the self-reported training and experience of New Zealand acute care providers to respond to mass emergencies and the factors associated with strong preparedness. METHODS: A cross-sectional national survey of 1500 acute care providers in New Zealand carried out between 2009 and 2010...
February 2015: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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