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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728825/genetic-diseases-of-piezo1-and-piezo2-dysfunction
#1
S L Alper
Mutations in the genes encoding the mechanosensitive cation channels PIEZO1 and PIEZO2 are responsible for multiple hereditary human diseases. Loss-of-function mutations in the human PIEZO1 gene cause autosomal recessive congenital lymphatic dysplasia. Gain-of-function mutations in the human PIEZO1 gene cause the autosomal dominant hemolytic anemia, hereditary xerocytosis (also known as dehydrated stomatocytosis). Loss-of-function mutations in the human PIEZO2 gene cause an autosomal recessive syndrome of muscular atrophy with perinatal respiratory distress, arthrogryposis, and scoliosis...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728824/origin-of-the-force-the-force-from-lipids-principle-applied-to-piezo-channels
#2
C D Cox, N Bavi, B Martinac
Piezo channels are a ubiquitously expressed, principal type of molecular force sensor in eukaryotes. They enable cells to decode a myriad of physical stimuli and are essential components of numerous mechanosensory processes. Central to their physiological role is the ability to change conformation in response to mechanical force. Here we discuss the evolutionary origin of Piezo in relation to other MS channels in addition to the force that gates Piezo channels. In particular, we discuss whether Piezo channels are inherently mechanosensitive in accordance with the force-from-lipid paradigm which has been firmly established for bacterial MS channels and two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channels...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728822/a-microfluidic-approach-for-studying-piezo-channels
#3
M M Maneshi, P A Gottlieb, S Z Hua
Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728821/the-kinetics-and-the-permeation-properties-of-piezo-channels
#4
R Gnanasambandam, P A Gottlieb, F Sachs
Piezo channels are eukaryotic, cation-selective mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which show rapid activation and voltage-dependent inactivation. The kinetics of these channels are largely consistent across multiple cell types and different stimulation paradigms with some minor variability. No accessory subunits that associate with Piezo channels have been reported. They are homotrimers and each ∼300kD monomer has an N-terminal propeller blade-like mechanosensing module, which can confer mechanosensing capabilities on ASIC-1 (the trimeric non-MSC, acid-sensing ion channel-1) and a C-terminal pore module, which influences conductance, selectivity, and channel inactivation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728820/role-of-piezo-channels-in-joint-health-and-injury
#5
W Lee, F Guilak, W Liedtke
Cartilage is an intrinsically mechanically sensitive tissue composed of chondrocytes as the only cell type. Chondrocyte mechanotransduction is not well understood, but recently we identified critical components of the mechanotransduction machinery demonstrating how mechanical stimulation of these cells can be converted into cellular calcium signals. Physiologic mechanical cues induce anabolic responses of (post-mitotic) chondrocytes via transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 ion channels, whereas injurious mechanical stress is transduced by Piezo1 jointly with Piezo2 ion channels...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728819/regulation-of-piezo-channels-by-cellular-signaling-pathways
#6
I Borbiro, T Rohacs
The recently identified mechanically activated Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels play major roles in various aspects of mechanosensation in mammals, and their mutations are associated with human diseases. Recent reports show that activation of cell surface receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gq proteins increase the sensitivity of Piezo2 channels to mechanical stimuli. Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway was also shown to potentiate Piezo2 channel activity. This phenomenon may play a role in mechanical allodynia or hyperalgesia during inflammation...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728818/mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
C Alcaino, G Farrugia, A Beyder
Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728817/piezo2-in-cutaneous-and-proprioceptive-mechanotransduction-in-vertebrates
#8
E O Anderson, E R Schneider, S N Bagriantsev
Mechanosensitivity is a fundamental physiological capacity, which pertains to all life forms. Progress has been made with regard to understanding mechanosensitivity in bacteria, flies, and worms. In vertebrates, however, the molecular identity of mechanotransducers in somatic and neuronal cells has only started to appear. The Piezo family of mechanogated ion channels marks a pivotal milestone in understanding mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 have now been shown to participate in a number of processes, ranging from arterial modeling to sensing muscle stretch...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728816/in-touch-with-the-mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-structure-ion-permeation-and-mechanotransduction
#9
J Geng, Q Zhao, T Zhang, B Xiao
Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces into biological signals, plays critical roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes in mammals, such as conscious sensing of touch, pain, and sound, as well as unconscious sensing of blood flow-associated shear stress, urine flow, and bladder distention. Among the various molecules involved in mechanotransduction, mechanosensitive (MS) cation channels have long been postulated to represent one critical class of mechanotransducers that directly and rapidly converts mechanical force into electrochemical signals...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728815/the-structural-basis-for-sensing-by%C3%A2-the-piezo1-protein
#10
W Li, N Gao, M Yang
Mechanotransduction is one of the processes by which cells sense and convert mechanical stimuli into biological signals. Experimental data from various species have revealed crucial roles for mechanotransduction in organ development and a plethora of physiological activities. Piezo proteins have recently been identified as the long-sought-after mechanically activated cation channels in eukaryotes. The architecture of mouse Piezo1 (mPiezo1) channel determined by cryoelectron microscopic single-particle analysis at medium resolution yielded important insights into the mechanical force sensing mechanism...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728814/a-tour-de-force-the-discovery-properties-and-function-of-piezo-channels
#11
P A Gottlieb
Mechanical transducers appear throughout cell biology and are used to convert mechanical stress into chemical or electrical signals that allow the cell to respond to environmental changes. In the past six years, a eukaryotic mechanical channel family with two members, Piezo1 and Piezo2, has been identified. Piezo1 was shown to be a cation-selective channel that does not require ancillary proteins for activity. Mouse Piezo1 is large, with over 2500 amino acids, and is not homologous to other ion channels. Both piezo channels have rapid voltage-dependent inactivation with a reversal potential near 0mV...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692283/largely-improved-near-infrared-silicon-photosensing-by-the-piezo-phototronic-effect
#12
Yejing Dai, Xingfu Wang, Wenbo Peng, Haiyang Zou, Ruomeng Yu, Yong Ding, Changsheng Wu, Zhong Lin Wang
Although silicon (Si) devices are the backbone of modern (opto-)electronics, infrared Si-photosensing suffers from low-efficiency due to its limitation in light-absorption. Here, we demonstrate a large improvement in the performance, equivalent to a 366-fold enhancement in photoresponsivity, of a Si-based near-infrared (NIR) photodetector (PD) by introducing the piezo-phototronic effect via a deposited CdS layer. By externally applying a -0.15‰ compressive strain to the heterojunction, carrier-dynamics modulation at the local junction can be induced by the piezoelectric polarization, and the photoresponsivity and detectivity of the PD exhibit an enhancement of two orders of magnitude, with the peak values up to 19...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690409/turbulent-boundary-layer-under-the-control-of-different-schemes
#13
Z X Qiao, Y Zhou, Z Wu
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control...
June 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678181/a-stretchable-pressure-sensitive-array-based-on-polymer-matrix
#14
Yuanzheng Luo, Qi Xiao, Buyin Li
Herein, a flexible 6 × 6 pressure-sensitive array (based on the PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) porous substrate) was designed. We have developed a facile method to fabricate the porous substrate, by a single-step operation using the sugar-template method. This strategy effectively diminishes the complexity of the preparation process, as well as the device structure. The electrical resistivity of the stretchable array demonstrates the negative piezo resistive coefficient (NPRC) under 0-100 kpa. Moreover, the pressure-sensitive array reveals a high sensitivity and low delay time (<0...
July 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677938/alveolar-splitting-with-piezosurgery-bone-bank-grafts-and-nobelactive-implants-as-an-alternative-to-major-bone-grafting-for-maxillary-reconstruction
#15
Massimo Albanese, Giulia Ricciardi, Dario Donadello, Alessandra Lucchese, Federico Gelpi, Alessandro Zangani, Daniele DE Santis, Alessandro Rizzini, Alberto Rossetto, Dario Bertossi
BACKGROUND: Piezo-surgery represents a novel alternative technique. The Piezo-surgery is well tolerated and permits a large number of applications in decribed literature. The principle of piezo-surgery consists into inducing micro-vibrations to a metallic insert with a particular custom. The aim of this article is to study and to evaluate the use of Nobelactive implants in combination with piezosurgical split-crest technique in severe atrophy of the upper maxilla. This approach allows avoiding the use of onlay grafts, due to rise the trasversal width of the crestal bone, which could have more complications and uncertain prognosis...
July 4, 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673860/3d-printing-of-tablets-using-inkjet-with-uv-photoinitiation
#16
Elizabeth A Clark, Morgan R Alexander, Derek J Irvine, Clive J Roberts, Martin J Wallace, Sonja Sharpe, Jae Yoo, Richard J M Hague, Chris J Tuck, Ricky D Wildman
Additive manufacturing (AM) offers significant potential benefits in the field of drug delivery and pharmaceutical/medical device manufacture. Of AM processes, 3D inkjet printing enables precise deposition of a formulation, whilst offering the potential for significant scale up or scale out as a manufacturing platform. This work hypothesizes that suitable solvent based ink formulations can be developed that allow the production of solid dosage forms that meet the standards required for pharmaceutical tablets, whilst offering a platform for flexible and personalized manufacture...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668597/mechano-sensitivity-of-mitochondrial-function-in-mouse-cardiac-myocytes
#17
REVIEW
Gentaro Iribe, Keiko Kaihara, Yohei Yamaguchi, Michio Nakaya, Ryuji Inoue, Keiji Naruse
Mitochondria are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although it has been reported that myocardial stretch increases cellular ROS production by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2), referred to as X-ROS signalling, the involvement of mitochondria in X-ROS is not clear. Mitochondria are organelles that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cellular energy needs, which are mechanical-load-dependent. Therefore, it would not be surprising if these organelles had mechano-sensitive functions associated with stretch-induced ROS production...
June 28, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657089/enhanced-electro-active-phase-in-a-luminescent-p-vdf-hfp-zn-2-flexible-composite-film-for-piezoelectric-based-energy-harvesting-applications-and-self-powered-uv-light-detection
#18
Prakriti Adhikary, Dipankar Mandal
We have prepared a flexible polymer composite film containing poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) and Zn(2+) for the fabrication of a multifunctional piezoelectric based nanogenerator (MFNG), where a traditional electrical poling treatment was avoided. The desirable amount of Zn(2+) yields more than 99% of electro-active phases in the P(VDF-HFP) matrix that co-operates to enhance the dielectric properties of the composite film via hydrogen bonding interactions. In situ thermal Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy affirms the improved thermal stability of the electro-active β-phase and the β→γ phase transition temperature in the Zn(2+) doped composite film...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644620/nanofibrous-smart-fabrics-from-twisted-yarns-of-electrospun-piezopolymer
#19
Enlong Yang, Zhe Xu, Lucas K Chur, Ali Behroozfar, Mahmoud Baniasadi, Salvador Moreno, Jiacheng Huang, Jules Gilligan, Majid Minary-Jolandan
Smart textiles are envisioned to make a paradigm shift in wearable technologies to directly impart functionality into the fibers rather than integrating sensors and electronics onto conformal substrates or skin in wearable devices. Among smart materials, piezoelectric fabrics have not been widely reported, yet. Piezoelectric smart fabrics can be used for mechanical energy harvesting, for thermal energy harvesting through the pyroelectric effect, for ferroelectric applications, as pressure and force sensors, for motion detection, and for ultrasonic sensing...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640759/electroactive-%C3%AE-crystalline-phase-inclusion-and-photoluminescence-response-of-heat-controlled-spin-coated-pvdf-tio2-free-standing-nanocomposite-film-for-nanogenerator-and-active-nanosensor
#20
Md Mehebub Alam, Ayesha Sultana, Debabrata Sarkar, Dipankar Mandal
The electroactive β-phase is most desirable due to its highest piezo-, pyro- and ferro-electric properties in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). Induction of β-phase is successfully accomplished in titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) doped spin coated PVDF nanocomposite (PNC) films. The optimized yields of β-phase and homogeneous ultra-smooth free standing PNC film is utilized in mechanical energy harvesting application by fabricating a nanogenerator (NG) where the typical electrical poling step is not undertaken...
June 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
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