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M Wimmer-Teubenbacher, C Planchette, H Pichler, D Markl, W K Hsiao, A Paudel, S Stegemann
In contact-less printing, such as piezo-electric drop on demand printing used in the study, the drop formation process is independent of the substrate. This means that having developed a printable formulation, printed pharmaceutical dosage forms can be obtained on any pharmaceutical grade substrate, such as polymer-based films. In this work we evaluated eight different oral films based on their suitability as printing substrates for sodium picosulfate. The different polymer films were compared regarding printed spot morphology, chemical stability and dissolution profile...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Evgenia Gilshteyn, Daler Amanbaev, Maxim Silibin, Artem Sysa, Vladislav Kondrashov, Anton Anisimov, Tanja Kallio, Albert Nasibulin
The integration of the energy harvesting and energy storage in a single device both enables the conversion of the ambient energy into electricity and provides a sustainable power source for various electronic devices and systems. On the other hand, mechanical flexibility coupled with optical transparency of the energy storage devices is required for many applications, ranging from self-powered rolled-up displays to wearable optoelectronic devices. We integrate a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene) film into a flexible supercapacitor system to harvest and store the energy...
May 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ofer Bar-On, Philipp Brenner, Tobias Siegle, Raz Gvishi, Heinz Kalt, Uli Lemmer, Jacob Scheuer
A method for the realization of low-loss integrated optical components is proposed and demonstrated. This approach is simple, fast, inexpensive, scalable for mass production, and compatible with both 2D and 3D geometries. The process is based on a novel dual-step soft nano imprint lithography process for producing devices with smooth surfaces, combined with fast sol-gel technology providing highly transparent materials. As a concrete example, this approach is demonstrated on a micro ring resonator made by direct laser writing (DLW) to achieve a quality factor improvement from one hundred thousand to more than 3 million...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nathan A Carter, Tijana Z Grove
Generation of electric potential upon external stimulus has attracted much attention for the development of highly functional sensors and devices. Herein, we report large-displacement, fast actuation in the self-assembled engineered repeat protein Consensus Tetratricopeptide Repeat protein (CTPR18) materials. The ionic nature of the CTPR18 protein coupled to the long-range alignment upon self-assembly results in the measured conductivity of 7.1 × 10-2 S cm-1, one of the highest reported for protein materials...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Farhad Akhoundi, Yukun Qin, N Peyghambarian, Jennifer K Barton, Khanh Kieu
We present the design, implementation and performance analysis of a compact multi-photon endoscope based on a piezo electric scanning tube. A miniature objective lens with a long working distance and a high numerical aperture (≈ 0.5) is designed to provide a diffraction limited spot size. Furthermore, a 1700 nm wavelength femtosecond fiber laser is used as an excitation source to overcome the scattering of biological tissues and reduce water absorption. Therefore, the novel optical system along with the unique wavelength allows us to increase the imaging depth...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Jingfeng Song, Zhiyong Xiao, Bo Chen, Spencer Prockish, Xuegang Chen, Anil Rajapitamahuni, Le Zhang, Jinsong Huang, Xia Hong
We report a more than 10-fold enhancement of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 of polycrystalline CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) films when interfacing them with ferroelectric PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT). Piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal d_33^(MAPbI_3 ) values of ~0.3 pm/V for MAPbI3 deposited on Au, ITO and SrTiO3 surfaces, with small phase angle fluctuating at length scales smaller than the grain size. In sharp contrast, on samples prepared on epitaxial PZT films, we observe large scale polar domains exhibiting clear, close to 180° PFM phase contrasts, pointing to polar axes along the film normal...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paul Roberts, Georgia A Pilkington, Yumo Wang, Joelle Frechette
We present the multifunctional force microscope (MFM), a normal and lateral force-measuring instrument with in situ imaging. In the MFM, forces are calculated from the normal and lateral deflection of a cantilever as measured via fiber optic sensors. The motion of the cantilever is controlled normally by a linear micro-translation stage and a piezoelectric actuator, while the lateral motion of the sample is controlled by another linear micro-translation stage. The micro-translation stages allow for travel distances that span 25 mm with a minimum step size of 50 nm, while the piezo has a minimum step size of 0...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ken Kashiwagi, Yoshiaki Nakajima, Masato Wada, Sho Okubo, Hajime Inaba
In multi-branch combs, the comb outputs from the branches suffer from different fiber noises, which often limit the uncertainty of the combs referring a highly-stable optical frequency. To overcome this limitation, we introduced fiber noise difference cancellation to multi-branch fiber combs. We detected and phase-locked the beat notes between the branch outputs and a common 1542 nm continuous wave laser. A piezo-electric transducer-based fiber stretcher was installed in each branch except for the branch used as the cancellation reference...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
Masaki Sato, Kazuhiro Ogura, Maki Kimura, Koichi Nishi, Masayuki Ando, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
INTRODUCTION: Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Dominic M Tran, James Harrang, Shuxian Song, Jeremy Chen, Bryn M Smith, Carol H Miao
While ultrasound-mediated gene delivery (UMGD) has been accomplished using high peak negative pressures (PNPs) of 2 MPa or above, emerging research showed that this may not be a requirement for microbubble (MB) cavitation. Thus, we investigated lower-pressure conditions close to the MB inertial cavitation threshold and focused towards further increasing gene transfer efficiency and reducing associated cell damage. We created a matrix of 21 conditions (n = 3/cond.) to test in HEK293T cells using pulse durations spanning 18 μs-36 ms and PNPs spanning 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Youhua Chen, Ruizhi Cao, Wenjie Liu, Dazhao Zhu, Zhiming Zhang, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
We present an alternative approach to realize structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable for live cell imaging. The prototype utilizes two sets of scanning galvo mirrors, a polarization converter and a piezo-platform to generate a fast shifted, s-polarization interfered and periodic variable illumination patterns. By changing the angle of the scanning galvanometer, we can change the position of the spots at the pupil plane of the objective lens arbitrarily, making it easy to switch between widefield and total internal reflection fluorescent-SIM mode and adapting the penetration depth in the sample...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Jian Zhuang, Yangbohan Jiao, Zeqing Li, Jinxin Lang, Fei Li
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), one kind of scanning probe microscopy technique, featuring the advantage of non-contact imaging of sample surfaces in three dimensions with high resolution, has been widely applied in characterizations of sample topography, especially for soft materials. However, the time consuming imaging process of SICM restricts its further applications, such as in characterization of dynamic change of sample surface. In this work, a fast control mode of SICM, named as a continuous control mode, has been developed...
April 17, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Xin Liang, Jonathon Howard
The sensations of sound, touch and pressure are mediated by mechanotransduction channels - transmembrane proteins whose ionic permeabilities are gated by mechanical forces. New structures of Piezo1 by cryoEM lead to the suggestion that this channel might sense membrane tension through changes in the local curvature of the membrane.
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jae-Hoon Ji, GaeHun Jo, Byung-Joon Kim, Min Young Park, Jung-Hyuk Koh
In this research, the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of (1 - x)Na0.5K0.5NbO3-xBiScO3 ceramics were investigated and analyzed. (Na, K)NbO3 based (1 - x)Na0.5K0.5NbO3-xBiScO3 ceramics were prepared by a conventional mixed oxide method. As the substituent, BiScO3 material enhanced the sintering mechanism of NKN ceramic, which improved the density, pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, without any structural distortion. In this study, the structural dependent improved piezoelectric properties of (1 - x)Na0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jose Manuel Carbajo, Francisco Maraver
In Health Resort Medicine, both balneotherapy and thalassotherapy, salt waters and their peloids, or mud products are mainly used to treat rheumatic and skin disorders. These therapeutic agents act jointly via numerous mechanical, thermal, and chemical mechanisms. In this review, we examine a new mechanism of action specific to saline waters. When topically administered, this water rich in sodium and chloride penetrates the skin where it is able to modify cellular osmotic pressure and stimulate nerve receptors in the skin via cell membrane ion channels known as "Piezo" proteins...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Yuan Li, Linlin Sun, Thomas J Webster
Studies have shown that piezoelectric materials can be used as bioactively charged surfaces to induce tissue regeneration (like bone reconstruction). β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are regarded as potential bone tissue engineering materials because of their piezoelectricity and biocompatibility. Additionally, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are ideal materials to reduce infection. In this study, PVDF scaffolds doped with ZnO NPs (ZnO/PVDF) were prepared by electrospinning increasing ZnO concentrations and the ratio of the β-phase PVDF resulting in an enhanced the modulus, elongation to failure and load stress...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Wuxiao Han, Linlin Zhang, Haoxuan He, Hongmin Liu, Lili Xing, Xinyu Xue
The development of multifunctional electronic-skin that establishes human-machine interfaces, enhances perception abilities or has other distinct biomedical applications is the key to the realization of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a new self-powered (battery-free) flexible vision electronic-skin has been realized from pixel-patterned matrix of piezo-photodetecting PVDF/Ppy film. The electronic-skin under applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric voltage, and the outputting signal can be significantly influenced by UV illumination...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Denny Lang, Jonathan Döring, Tobias Nörenberg, Ádám Butykai, István Kézsmárki, Harald Schneider, Stephan Winnerl, Manfred Helm, Susanne C Kehr, Lukas M Eng
We introduce a scattering-type scanning near-field infrared microscope (s-SNIM) for the local scale near-field sample analysis and spectroscopy from room temperature down to liquid helium (LHe) temperature. The extension of s-SNIM down to T = 5 K is in particular crucial for low-temperature phase transitions, e.g., for the examination of superconductors, as well as low energy excitations. The low temperature (LT) s-SNIM performance is tested with CO2 -IR excitation at T = 7 K using a bare Au reference and a structured Si/SiO2 -sample...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
P Piyush, M S Giridhar, G R Jayanth
Multi-axis measurement of motion is indispensable for characterization of dynamic systems and control of motion stages. This paper presents an optical beam deflection-based measurement system to simultaneously measure three-axis out-of-plane motion of both micro- and macro-scale targets. Novel strategies are proposed to calibrate the sensitivities of the measurement system. Subsequently the measurement system is experimentally realized and calibrated. The system is employed to characterize coupled linear and angular motion of a piezo-actuated stage...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jayant Charthad, Ting Chia Chang, Zhaokai Liu, Ahmed Sawaby, Marcus J Weber, Sam Baker, Felicity Gore, Stephen A Felt, Amin Arbabian
A wireless electrical stimulation implant for peripheral nerves, achieving >10× improvement over state of the art in the depth/volume figure of merit, is presented. The fully integrated implant measures just 2 mm × 3 mm × 6.5 mm (39 mm3 , 78 mg), and operates at a large depth of 10.5 cm in a tissue phantom. The implant is powered using ultrasound and includes a miniaturized piezoelectric receiver (piezo), an IC designed in 180 nm HV BCD process, an off-chip energy storage capacitor, and platinum stimulation electrodes...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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