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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154689/peripheral-vagal-nerve-stimulation-modulates-the-nociceptive-withdrawal-reflex-in-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-cross-over-sham-controlled-study
#1
Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Mauro Fresia, Eric Liebler, Giorgio Sandrini, Cristina Tassorelli
Introduction The mechanism of action of non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation in the treatment of migraine is elusive. We studied its effect in a human model of pain, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex. Methods We enrolled 10 healthy subjects who underwent active non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation and sham treatment in a randomized, cross-over, sham-controlled study. Non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation was delivered with gammaCore®. The assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex was performed at baseline (T0) and at 5 (T5) and 30 (T30) minutes after stimulation...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154649/the-limits-of-visual-working-memory-in-children-exploring-prioritization-and-recency-effects-with-sequential-presentation
#2
Ed D J Berry, Amanda H Waterman, Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Richard J Allen
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory (WM), adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to nonprioritized items (e.g., Hu, Hitch, Baddeley, Zhang, & Allen, 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the most recently presented item (i.e., the recency effect) is relatively automatic, possibly driven by perceptual mechanisms. In 3 Experiments 7 to 10 year-old's ability to prioritize items in WM was investigated using a sequential visual task (total N = 208)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154634/the-contribution-of-perceptual-factors-and-training-on-varying-audiovisual-integration-capacity
#3
Jonathan M P Wilbiks, Benjamin J Dyson
The suggestion that the capacity of audiovisual integration has an upper limit of 1 was challenged in 4 experiments using perceptual factors and training to enhance the binding of auditory and visual information. Participants were required to note a number of specific visual dot locations that changed in polarity when a critical auditory stimulus was presented, under relatively fast (200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]) and slow (700-ms SOA) rates of presentation. In Experiment 1, transient cross-modal congruency between the brightness of polarity change and pitch of the auditory tone was manipulated...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154626/attentional-effect-on-contrast-appearance-from-enhancement-to-attenuation
#4
Liu-Fang Zhou, Simona Buetti, Shena Lu, Yong-Chun Cai
Does attention alter appearance? Recent studies have shown that an exogenous cue tends to increase the perceived contrast of a low-contrast stimulus. In the present study we systematically studied the attentional effect over a wide range of contrast levels (15% to 60%). Besides replicating the enhancement at lower contrast levels with higher comparative tasks (Experiment 1), the data revealed a cue-induced attenuation in apparent contrast at higher contrast levels with lower comparative tasks (Experiment 2) and same/different judgment task (Experiment 3)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154620/seeing-it-both-ways-using-a-double-cuing-task-to-investigate-the-role-of-spatial-cuing-in-level-1-visual-perspective-taking
#5
John Michael, Thomas Wolf, Clément Letesson, Stephen Butterfill, Joshua Skewes, Jakob Hohwy
Previous research using the dot-perspective task has produced evidence that humans may be equipped with a mechanism that spontaneously tracks others' gaze direction and thereby acquires information about what they can see. Other findings, however, support the alternative hypothesis that a spatial-cuing mechanism underpins the effect observed in the dot-perspective task. To adjudicate between these hypotheses, we developed a double-cuing version of Posner's (1980) spatial-cuing paradigm to be implemented in the dot-perspective task, and conducted 3 experiments in which we manipulated stimulus-onset asynchrony, as well as secondary task demands...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153256/intraoperative-force-and-electrocochleography-measurements-in-an-animal-model-of-cochlear-implantation
#6
J Lo, C Bester, A Collins, C Newbold, A Hampson, S Chambers, H Eastwood, S O'Leary
To preserve residual hearing, techniques for monitoring and reducing the effects of trauma during cochlear implant surgery are being developed. This study examines the relationships between intraoperative recordings (electrode insertion force and electrocochleography), trauma, and hearing loss after cochlear implantation. The study also evaluated the efficacy of intravenous steroids for reducing hearing loss after implantation. Thirty-two normal-hearing guinea pigs were randomly implanted with electrode arrays of differing stiffness ('hard' or 'soft')...
November 9, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151141/mechanical-perturbations-can-elicit-triggered-reactions-in-the-absence-of-a-startle-response
#7
Christopher J Forgaard, Ian M Franks, Kimberly Bennett, Dana Maslovat, Romeo Chua
Perturbations delivered to the upper limbs elicit reflexive responses in stretched muscle at short- (M1: 25-50 ms) and long- (M2: 50-100 ms) latencies. When presented in a simple reaction time (RT) task, the perturbation can also elicit a preprogrammed voluntary response at a latency (< 100 ms) that overlaps the M2 response. This early appearance of the voluntary response following a proprioceptive stimulus causing muscle stretch is called a triggered reaction. Recent work has demonstrated that a perturbation also elicits activity in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) over a time-course consistent with the startle response and it was, therefore, proposed that the StartReact effect underlies triggered reactions (Ravichandran et al...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149461/long-non-coding-rnas-involve-in-resistance-to-verticillium-dahliae-a-fungal-disease-in-cotton
#8
Lin Zhang, Maojun Wang, Nannan Li, Honglei Wang, Ping Qiu, Liuling Pei, Zheng Xu, Tianyi Wang, Erlin Gao, Junxia Liu, Shiming Liu, Qin Hu, Yuhuan Miao, Keith Lindsey, Lili Tu, Longfu Zhu, Xianlong Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have several known functions in plant development, but their possible roles in responding to plant disease remain largely unresolved. In this study, we described a comprehensive disease-responding lncRNA profiles in defense against a cotton fungal disease Verticillium dahliae. We further revealed the conserved and specific characters of disease responding process between two cotton species. Conservatively for two cotton species, we found the expression dominance of induced lncRNAs in the Dt subgenome, indicating a biased induction pattern in the co-existing subgenomes of allotetraploid cotton...
November 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146255/haemophilus-parasuis-cpxra-two-component-system-confers-bacterial-tolerance-to-environmental-stresses-and-macrolide-resistance
#9
Qi Cao, Fenfen Feng, Huan Wang, Xiaojuan Xu, Huanchun Chen, Xuwang Cai, Xiangru Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen localized in the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, its infection begins from bacterial survival under complex conditions, like hyperosmosis, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and sometimes antibiotics as well. The two-component signal transduction (TCST) system serves as a common stimulus-response mechanism that allows microbes to sense and respond to diverse environmental conditions via a series of phosphorylation reactions. In this study, we investigated the role of TCST system CpxRA in H...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145712/cartilage-microrna-dysregulation-during-the-onset-and-progression-of-mouse-osteoarthritis-is-independent-of-aggrecanolysis-and-overlaps-with-candidates-from-end-stage-human-disease
#10
Louise H W Kung, Varshini Ravi, Lynn Rowley, Constanza Angelucci, Amanda J Fosang, Katrina M Bell, Christopher B Little, John F Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate microRNAs that potentially regulate the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced in 10-12 week old male wild-type C57BL6 mice and in mice resistant to aggrecanase cleavage (Acan p.374ALGS→374NVYS) by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Osteoarthritis pathology was scored histologically. RNA from cartilage and subchondral bone were harvested in parallel by laser micro-dissection at 1 and 6 weeks post-surgery...
November 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#11
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145462/circulating-soluble-endoglin-modifies-the-inflammatory-response-in-mice
#12
Laura Ruiz-Remolina, Claudia Ollauri-Ibáñez, Lucía Pérez-Roque, Elena Núñez-Gómez, Fernando Pérez-Barriocanal, José Miguel López-Novoa, Miguel Pericacho, Alicia Rodríguez-Barbero
Inflammation is associated with every health condition, and is an important component of many pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Circulating levels of soluble endoglin have been shown to be higher in the serum of patients with cardiovascular diseases with a significant inflammatory component. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implication of circulating soluble endoglin in the inflammatory response. For this purpose, a transgenic mouse expressing human soluble endoglin (sEng+) was employed, and three different inflammatory approaches were used to mimic inflammatory conditions in different tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143455/understanding-the-functional-role-of-microrna-214-3p-in-atherosclerosis-for-the-identification-of-novel-targeted-therapies-to-prevent-or-reverse-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-and-stimulate-autophagy
#13
EDITORIAL
Adriana Georgescu
The original article by Jing Wang and collaborators, entitled "MicroRNA-214-3p: A Link between Autophagy and Endothelial Cell Dysfunction in Atherosclerosis", brings new data concerning molecular mechanisms linking decreased autophagy to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, the authors concluded that microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) controls oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced autophagy in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by regulating intracellular levels of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), and may have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
November 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142056/familiarity-with-a-vocal-category-biases-the-compartmental-expression-of-arc-arg3-1-in-core-auditory-cortex
#14
Tamara N Ivanova, Christina Gross, Rudolph C Mappus, Yong Jun Kwon, Gary J Bassell, Robert C Liu
Learning to recognize a stimulus category requires experience with its many natural variations. However, the mechanisms that allow a category's sensorineural representation to be updated after experiencing new exemplars are not well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here we investigate how a natural vocal category induces expression in the auditory system of a key synaptic plasticity effector immediate early gene, Arc/Arg3.1, which is required for memory consolidation. We use the ultrasonic communication system between mouse pups and adult females to study whether prior familiarity with pup vocalizations alters how Arc is engaged in the core auditory cortex after playback of novel exemplars from the pup vocal category...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#15
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141533/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-and-non-stem-cancer-cells-the-potential-of-lipid-based-nanoparticles
#16
Ana Filipa Cruz, Nuno Andre Fonseca, Vera Moura, Sergio Simoes, Joao Nuno Moreira
Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been described as a relevant contributor to tumorigenicity, metastasis, tumor recurrence and drug resistance, making this cell population a relevant target in solid tumors. METHODS: This has stimulated the development of different therapeutic strategies often targeting surface markers (CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and nucleolin) and/or signaling pathways that are aberrantly activated and contribute to CSCs proliferation and survival...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140922/fingolimod-reduces-neuropathic-pain-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-dependent-inhibition-of-central-sensitization-in-the-dorsal-horn
#17
Suzanne Doolen, Tommaso Iannitti, Benjamin C Shaw, Carolyn M Grachen, Renee R Donahue, Bradley K Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-inflammatory neurodegenerative disease that is often accompanied by a debilitating neuropathic pain. Disease-modifying agents slow the progression of MS and prevent relapses, yet it remains unclear if they yield analgesia. We explored the analgesic potential of fingolimod (FTY720), an agonist/functional antagonist at the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), because it reduces hyperalgesia in models of peripheral inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We used a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), modified to avoid frank paralysis and thus allow for assessment of withdrawal behaviors to somatosensory stimuli...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137597/reduction-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-mechanical-loading-or-cyclo-rgd-peptide
#18
Olesja Hazenbiller, Neil A Duncan, Roman J Krawetz
BACKGROUND: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136777/anti-hypertensive-and-vasodilatory-effects-of-amended-banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang
#19
Chu Shan Tan, Yean Chun Loh, Chiew Hoong Ng, Yung Sing Ch'ng, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Mariam Ahmad, Mun Fei Yam
Although Banxia Baizhu Tianma Tang (BBT) has been long administered for hypertensive treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the ratio of the herbal components that makes up the formulation has not been optimized with respect to the anti-hypertensive effect that it inherently possesses. A newly amended BBT (ABBT) formulation was developed using the evidence-based approach of orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility model. The ABBT showed enhanced therapeutic effect while maintaining its traditional theoretical approach rooted in TCM...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136637/transcriptional-profiling-of-toll-like-receptor-2-deficient-primary-murine-brain-cells-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#20
Kousuke Umeda, Sachi Tanaka, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is capable of persisting in the brain, although it is efficiently eliminated by cellular immune responses in most other sites. While Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) reportedly plays important roles in protective immunity against the parasite, the relationship between neurological disorders induced by T. gondii infection and TLR2 function in the brain remains controversial with many unknowns. In this study, primary cultured astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were exposed to T...
2017: PloS One
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