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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#1
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337344/is-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-the-leading-cause-of-increased-mortality-among-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Usama A Sharaf El Din, Mona M Salem, Dina O Abdulazim
The death rate among chronic kidney disease patients is the highest compared to other chronic diseases. 60% of these fatalities are cardiovascular. Cardiovascular calcifications and chronic inflammation affect almost all chronic kidney disease patients and are associated with cardiovascular mortality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with vascular calcification. Systemic inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients is multifactorial. The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently reappraised...
May 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337137/an-adaptive-neural-mechanism-for-acoustic-motion-perception-with-varying-sparsity
#3
Danish Shaikh, Poramate Manoonpong
Biological motion-sensitive neural circuits are quite adept in perceiving the relative motion of a relevant stimulus. Motion perception is a fundamental ability in neural sensory processing and crucial in target tracking tasks. Tracking a stimulus entails the ability to perceive its motion, i.e., extracting information about its direction and velocity. Here we focus on auditory motion perception of sound stimuli, which is poorly understood as compared to its visual counterpart. In earlier work we have developed a bio-inspired neural learning mechanism for acoustic motion perception...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336852/amorphous-silica-particles-relevant-in-food-industry-influence-cellular-growth-and-associated-signaling-pathways-in-human-gastric-carcinoma-cells
#4
Anja Wittig, Helge Gehrke, Giorgia Del Favero, Eva-Maria Fritz, Marco Al-Rawi, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss, Haider Sami, Manfred Ogris, Doris Marko
Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways-both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation...
January 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336462/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-androgen-receptor-in-nephrolithiasis
#5
Ziyu Fang, Yonghan Peng, Ling Li, Min Liu, Zeyu Wang, Shaoxiong Ming, Wenhui Zhang, Xiaofeng Gao
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of androgen receptor (AR) in nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Human kidney 2(HK-2) cells were transfected with Lentiviruses expressing AR (DEC-AR), shRNA targeting AR (sh-AR) or the empty vector control using the pLEX lentiviral vector system. The expression levels of AR were measured by qRT-PCR at 72h postinfection, and cells under different treatments were collected for microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Student's t-test...
March 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334424/frequency-and-function-in-the-basal-ganglia-the-origins-of-beta-and-gamma-band-activity
#6
Alexander Blenkinsop, Sean Anderson, Kevin Gurney
Neural oscillations in the basal ganglia are well studied yet remain poorly understood. Behavioural correlates of spectral activity are well described, yet a quantitative hypothesis linking time domain dynamics and spectral properties to basal ganglia function has been lacking. We show, for the first time, that a unified description is possible by interpreting previously ignored structure in data describing GPi responses to cortical stimulation. These data were used to expose a pair of distinctive neuronal responses to the stimulation...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334383/a-critical-role-of-inhibition-in-temporal-processing-maturation-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#7
Dongqin Cai, Rongrong Han, Miaomiao Liu, Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Yi Zheng, Limin Zhao, Jun Yao, Yiwei Wang, Yin Yue, Christoph E Schreiner, Kexin Yuan
Faithful representation of sound envelopes in primary auditory cortex (A1) is vital for temporal processing and perception of natural sounds. However, the emergence of cortical temporal processing mechanisms during development remains poorly understood. Although cortical inhibition has been proposed to play an important role in this process, direct in-vivo evidence has been lacking. Using loose-patch recordings in rat A1 immediately after hearing onset, we found that stimulus-following ability in fast-spiking neurons was significantly better than in regular-spiking (RS) neurons...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334189/neural-mechanisms-for-the-benefits-of-stimulus-driven-attention
#8
Katelyn M Wills, Jingtai Liu, Jonathan Hakun, David C Zhu, Eliot Hazeltine, Susan M Ravizza
Stimulus-driven attention can improve working memory (WM) when drawn to behaviorally relevant information, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test competing hypotheses regarding the nature of the benefits of stimulus-driven attention to WM: that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM directly via salience detection, that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM incidentally via cognitive control mechanisms recruited to reduce interference from salient features, or that both mechanisms are co-involved in enhancing WM for salient information...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332110/minimizing-injury-and-maximizing-return-to-play-lessons-from-engineered-ligaments
#9
REVIEW
Keith Baar
Musculoskeletal injuries account for more than 70% of time away from sports. One of the reasons for the high number of injuries and long return to play is that we have only a very basic understanding of how our training alters tendon and ligament (sinew) structure and function. Sinews are highly dense tissues that are difficult to characterize both in vivo and in vitro. Recently, engineered ligaments have been developed in vitro using cells from human anterior cruciate ligaments or hamstring tendons. These three-dimensional tissues can be grown in a laboratory, treated with agents thought to affect sinew physiology, and then mechanically tested to determine their function...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330707/structure-based-feeding-strategies-a-key-component-of-child-nutrition
#10
Maija B Taylor, Elizabeth Emley, Mercedes Pratt, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). METHODS AND MEASURES: Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake...
March 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328574/the-long-term-reliability-of-static-and-dynamic-quantitative-sensory-testing-in-healthy-individuals
#11
Anna Marcuzzi, Paul J Wrigley, Catherine M Dean, Roger Adams, Julia M Hush
Quantitative sensory tests (QST) have been increasingly used to investigate alterations in somatosensory function in a wide range of painful conditions. The interpretation of these findings is based on the assumption that the measures are stable and reproducible. To date, reliability of QST has been investigated for short test-retest intervals. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term reliability of a multimodal QST assessment in healthy people, with testing conducted on three occasions over 4-months...
March 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327442/immune-cells-and-mediators-involved-in-the-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-a-p-i-metalloprotease-and-a-phospholipase-a2-from-bothrops-atrox-venom
#12
Danilo L Menaldo, Carolina P Bernardes, Karina F Zoccal, Anna L Jacob-Ferreira, Tássia R Costa, Maria P F M Del Lama, Rose M Z G Naal, Fabiani G Frantz, Lúcia H Faccioli, Suely V Sampaio
Bothrops envenomations can promote severe inflammatory responses by inducing edema, pain, leukocyte recruitment and release of chemical mediators by local cells. In the present study, two toxins from Bothrops atrox venom (the P-I metalloprotease Batroxase and the acidic phospholipase A2 BatroxPLA2) were evaluated in relation to their inflammatory effects induced in vivo and in vitro, mainly focusing on the participation of different immune cells and inflammatory mediators. Both toxins mainly promoted acute inflammatory responses with significant recruitment of neutrophils in the early hours (1-4h) after administration into the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6 mice, and increased infiltration of mononuclear cells especially after 24h...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326484/genome-wide-transcriptional-analysis-of-cardiovascular-related-genes-and-pathways-induced-by-pm2-5-in-human-myocardial-cells
#13
Lin Feng, Xiaozhe Yang, Collins Otieno Asweto, Jing Wu, Yannan Zhang, Hejing Hu, Yanfeng Shi, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Air pollution has been a major environment-related health threat. Most of the studies on PM2.5 toxicity have verified on the cardiovascular system and endothelial cells. However, researches on PM2.5-induced myocardial-related toxicity are limited. This study aims to fully understand the toxic effects of PM2.5 on human myocardial cell (AC16) and explore its molecular mechanism based on microarray analysis and bioinformatics analysis. Microarray data analysis manifested that PM2.5-induced toxicity affected expression of 472 genes compared with the control group, including 166 upregulated genes and 306 downregulated genes in human myocardial (AC16) cells...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324725/tailoring-a-compact-and-stable-langmuir-bi-dimensional-pbx-based-layered-perovskite-film-at-the-air-water-interface-and-on-solid-support
#14
Luisa Ariza-Carmona, Gonzalo García-Espejo, María T Martín-Romero, Luis Camacho
The present work studies the stability of Langmuir organic-inorganic superlattice materials thin films consisting of layered perovskite-based films with controlled 2D framework as well as to design experimental conditions for increasing the efficiency of the organic-inorganic perovskite motif by mechanical stimulus. Therefore, a whole covering of the air/water interface by a compact and stable lead-based layered perovskite structure is pursued. A 2D layered perovskite-type hybrid structure of the form [(CH3(CH2)19NH3)2(PbX4)], X=Cl, and Br, in which, two-dimensional sheets stabilized by a inner bilayer of organic monoammonium cation matrix, is mechanically tailored by successive compression-expansion cycles...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323019/comparison-of-perceptual-properties-of-auditory-streaming-between-spectral-and-amplitude-modulation-domains
#15
Shimpei Yamagishi, Sho Otsuka, Shigeto Furukawa, Makio Kashino
The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔFTONE, TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔFAM, AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions...
March 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322986/differentiating-motivational-from-affective-influence-of-performance-contingent-reward-on-cognitive-control-the-wanting-component-enhances-both-proactive-and-reactive-control
#16
Anne-Clémence Chaillou, Anne Giersch, Marc Hoonakker, Rémi L Capa, Anne Bonnefond
Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322839/derivatives-of-furanditerpenes-from-pterodon-genus-pharmacological-studies-disclose-their-potential-as-chronic-pain-relief-in-mice
#17
Humberto M Spindola, Rogério Grando, Mariana C Figueiredo, Rosana Basting, N C A Queiroz, Ângelo de Fátima, João E de Carvalho, Zaijie J Wang, M A Foglio
Pterodon genus fruits are commercially available at the Brazilian medicinal market used in folk medicine due to their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-rheumatic effects. Previous studies demonstrated that furanditerpenes possessing vouacapan skeleton, isolated from Pterodon genus, possess expressive antinociceptive activities, with promising moiety for the development of new analgesic products. The antinociceptive properties of compounds 6α,7β- 6α-hidroxivouacapan-7β-17β-lactone (HVL) and 6α-oxovouacapan-7β-17β-lactone (OVL), semi-synthetic analogues of furanditerpenes previously reported as analgesic agents were evaluated on animal experimental models (Spindola et al...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321705/positive-emotion-impedes-emotional-but-not-cognitive-conflict-processing
#18
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Sonja A Kotz
Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing...
March 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#19
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320042/calcium-channel-modulation-as-a-target-in-chronic-pain-control
#20
REVIEW
Ryan Patel, Carlota Montagut-Bordas, Anthony H Dickenson
Neuropathic pain remains poorly treated for large numbers of patients and little progress has been made in developing novel classes of analgesics. To redress this issue, ziconotide (Prialt(TM) ) was developed and approved as a first in class synthetic version of ω-conotoxin MVIIA, a Cav 2.2 peptide blocker. Unfortunately, the impracticalities of intrathecal delivery, low therapeutic index and severe neurological side effects associated with ziconotide has restricted its use to exceptional circumstances. Ziconotide exhibits no state or use dependent block of Cav 2...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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