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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437280/inhibition-of-rho-kinase-attenuates-left-ventricular-remodeling-caused-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats-via-suppressing-myocardial-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#1
Zhi-Hua Wang, Die Zhu, Sheng Xie, Yan Deng, Yueying Pan, Jie Ren, Hui-Guo Liu
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), has been reported to play a key role in the development of OSAS-associated cardiovascular diseases including cardiac remodeling. RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway has also been implicated in myocardial remodeling, but the exact mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The current study's purpose is to investigate the influence of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, on CIH-induced left ventricular remodeling in rats and its possible mechanisms...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435012/il-10-down-regulates-the-expression-of-survival-associated-gene-hspx-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-murine-macrophage
#2
Babban Jee, Pawan Sharma, Kiran Katoch, Beenu Joshi, Sudhir Kumar Awasthi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) adopts a special survival strategy to overcome the killing mechanism(s) of host immune system. Amongst the many known factors, small heat shock protein 16.3 (sHSP16.3) of MTB encoded by gene hspX has been reported to be critical for the survival of MTB. In the present study, the effect of recombinant murine interferon-gamma (rmIFN-γ) and recombinant murine interleukin-10 (rmIL-10) on the expression of gene hspX of MTB in murine macrophage RAW264.7 has been investigated. By real-time RT-PCR, it was observed that three increasing concentrations (5, 25 and 50ng/ml) of rmIFN-γ significantly up-regulated the expression of hspX whereas similar concentrations of rmIL-10 (5, 25 and 50ng/ml) significantly down-regulated the hspX expression...
April 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433037/directed-motion-from-particle-size-oscillations-inside-an-asymmetric-channel
#3
Yurii A Makhnovskii, Sheh-Yi Sheu, Dah-Yen Yang, Sheng Hsien Lin
The motion of a spherical Brownian particle in an asymmetric periodic channel is considered. Under an external periodic stimulus, the particle switches between two states with different particle radius, every half-period. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show that the particle size oscillation, combined with the asymmetry of the channel, induces a drift along the channel axis, directed towards the steeper wall of the channel. The oscillation of the particle size is accompanied by a time variation of the space accessible to the particle and by an oscillation of its diffusion coefficient...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432471/differentiating-middle-ear-and-medial-olivocochlear-effects-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions
#4
Kendra L Marks, Jonathan H Siegel
The response of the inner ear is modulated by the middle ear muscle (MEM) and olivocochlear (OC) efferent systems. Both systems can be activated reflexively by acoustic stimuli delivered to one or both ears. The acoustic middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) controls the transmission of acoustic signals through the middle ear, while reflex activation of the medial component of the olivocochlear system (the MOCR) modulates cochlear mechanics. The relative prominence of the two efferent systems varies widely between species...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432141/the-spacing-effect-for-structural-synaptic-plasticity-provides-specificity-and-precision-in-plastic-changes
#5
Martin A San, L Rela, B D Gelb, M R Pagani
In contrast to trials of training without intervals (massed training), training trials spaced over time (spaced training) induce a more persistent memory identified as long-term memory (LTM). This phenomenon known as "the spacing effect for memory" is poorly understood. LTM is supported by structural synaptic plasticity; however, how synapses integrate spaced stimuli remains elusive. Here, we analyzed events of structural synaptic plasticity at the single synapse level after distinct patterns of stimulation in motoneurons of Drosophila We found that the spacing effect is a phenomenon detected at synaptic level, which determine the specificity and the precision in structural synaptic plasticity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#6
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430193/self-propelled-supramolecular-nanomotors-with-temperature-responsive-speed-regulation
#7
Yingfeng Tu, Fei Peng, Xiaofeng Sui, Yongjun Men, Paul B White, Jan C M van Hest, Daniela A Wilson
Self-propelled catalytic micro- and nanomotors have been the subject of intense study over the past few years, but it remains a continuing challenge to build in an effective speed-regulation mechanism. Movement of these motors is generally fully dependent on the concentration of accessible fuel, with propulsive movement only ceasing when the fuel consumption is complete. Here we report a demonstration of control over the movement of self-assembled stomatocyte nanomotors via a molecularly built, stimulus-responsive regulatory mechanism...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430043/tuning-neural-phase-entrainment-to-speech
#8
Simone Falk, Cosima Lanzilotti, Daniele Schön
Musical rhythm positively impacts on subsequent speech processing. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are so far unclear. We investigated whether carryover effects from a preceding musical cue to a speech stimulus result from a continuation of neural phase entrainment to periodicities that are present in both music and speech. Participants listened and memorized French metrical sentences that contained (quasi-)periodic recurrences of accents and syllables. Speech stimuli were preceded by a rhythmically regular or an irregular musical cue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430039/distractor-resistant-stm-is-supported-by-transient-changes-in-neural-stimulus-representations
#9
Jan Derrfuss, Matthias Ekman, Michael Hanke, Marc Tittgemeyer, Christian J Fiebach
Goal-directed behavior in a complex world requires the maintenance of goal-relevant information despite multiple sources of distraction. However, the brain mechanisms underlying distractor-resistant working or STM are not fully understood. Although early single-unit recordings in monkeys and fMRI studies in humans pointed to an involvement of lateral prefrontal cortices, more recent studies highlighted the importance of posterior cortices for the active maintenance of visual information also in the presence of distraction...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428540/temporal-dynamics-of-saccades-explained-by-a-self-paced-process
#10
Roy Amit, Dekel Abeles, Izhar Bar-Gad, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Sensory organs are thought to sample the environment rhythmically thereby providing periodic perceptual input. Whisking and sniffing are governed by oscillators which impose rhythms on the motor-control of sensory acquisition and consequently on sensory input. Saccadic eye movements are the main visual sampling mechanism in primates, and were suggested to constitute part of such a rhythmic exploration system. In this study we characterized saccadic rhythmicity, and examined whether it is consistent with autonomous oscillatory generator or with self-paced generation...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427249/crystal-structure-of-the-regulatory-domain-of-aphb-from-vibrio-vulnificus-a-virulence-gene-regulator
#11
Nohra Park, Saemee Song, Garam Choi, Kyung Ku Jang, Inseong Jo, Sang Ho Choi, Nam-Chul Ha
The transcriptional activator AphB has been implicated in acid resistance and pathogenesis in the food borne pathogens Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae. To date, the full-length AphB crystal structure of V. cholerae has been determined and characterized by a tetrameric assembly of AphB consisting of a DNA binding domain and a regulatory domain (RD). Although acidic pH and low oxygen tension might be involved in the activation of AphB, it remains unknown which ligand or stimulus activates AphB at the molecular level...
April 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426552/altered-neural-responses-to-heat-pain-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Katarina Forkmann, Wiebke Grashorn, Katharina Schmidt, Odette Fründt, Carsten Buhmann, Ulrike Bingel
Pain is a frequent but still neglected non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, neural mechanisms underlying pain in PD are poorly understood. Here we explored whether the high prevalence of pain in PD might be related to dysfunctional descending pain control. Using fMRI we explored neural responses during the anticipation and processing of heat pain in 21 PD patients (Hoehn&Yahr I-III) and 23 healthy controls (HC). PD patients were naïve to dopaminergic medication in order to avoid confounding drug effects...
April 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#13
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424573/global-sensory-qualities-and-aesthetic-experience-in-music
#14
Pauli Brattico, Elvira Brattico, Peter Vuust
A well-known tradition in the study of visual aesthetics holds that the experience of visual beauty is grounded in global computational or statistical properties of the stimulus, for example, scale-invariant Fourier spectrum or self-similarity. Some approaches rely on neural mechanisms, such as efficient computation, processing fluency, or the responsiveness of the cells in the primary visual cortex. These proposals are united by the fact that the contributing factors are hypothesized to be global (i.e., they concern the percept as a whole), formal or non-conceptual (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-pretreatment-improves-the-function-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-wound-bed
#15
Deepraj Ghosh, Daniel J McGrail, Michelle R Dawson
The wound healing process initiates after injury to a tissue and involves a series of orchestrated events to minimize the invasion of foreign matters such as bacteria and efficiently regenerate the damaged tissue. A variety of cells must be recruited to the tissue during wound healing. However, this process is severely disrupted in patients suffering from chronic illness, including diabetes, leading to impaired healing or non-healing wounds. Current avenues of treatment include negative-pressure therapy, wound debridement, growth factor replacement, and cell-based therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421007/arousal-rules-an-empirical-investigation-into-the-aesthetic-experience-of-cross-modal-perception-with-emotional-visual-music
#16
Irene Eunyoung Lee, Charles-Francois V Latchoumane, Jaeseung Jeong
Emotional visual music is a promising tool for the study of aesthetic perception in human psychology; however, the production of such stimuli and the mechanisms of auditory-visual emotion perception remain poorly understood. In Experiment 1, we suggested a literature-based, directive approach to emotional visual music design, and inspected the emotional meanings thereof using the self-rated psychometric and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses of the viewers. A two-dimensional (2D) approach to the assessment of emotion (the valence-arousal plane) with frontal alpha power asymmetry EEG (as a proposed index of valence) validated our visual music as an emotional stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420286/probing-the-characteristics-of-colour-motion-binding-and-its-dependence-on-persistent-surface-segregation
#17
Gabriel J Vigano, Ryan T Maloney, Colin W G Clifford
Identifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of visual feature binding is a remaining challenge in the science of perception. Within the feature-binding literature, disparate findings have suggested the existence of more than one feature-binding mechanism with differing temporal resolutions. For example, one surprising result is that temporal alternations between two different feature pairings of colour and motion (e.g., orange dots moving left with blue dots moving right) support accurate conjunction discrimination at alternation frequencies of around 10 Hz and greater...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417848/dynamic-range-adaptation-in-primary-motor-cortical-populations
#18
Robert G Rasmussen, Andrew Schwartz, Steven M Chase
Neural populations from various sensory regions demonstrate dynamic range adaptation in response to changes in the statistical distribution of their input stimuli. These adaptations help optimize the transmission of information about sensory inputs. Here, we show a similar effect in the firing rates of primary motor cortical cells. We trained monkeys to operate a brain-computer interface in both two- and three-dimensional virtual environments. We found that neurons in primary motor cortex exhibited a change in the amplitude of their directional tuning curves between the two tasks...
April 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416693/insect-haptoelectrical-stimulation-of-venus-flytrap-triggers-exocytosis-in-gland-cells
#19
Sönke Scherzer, Lana Shabala, Benjamin Hedrich, Jörg Fromm, Hubert Bauer, Eberhard Munz, Peter Jakob, Khaled A S Al-Rascheid, Ines Kreuzer, Dirk Becker, Monika Eiblmeier, Heinz Rennenberg, Sergey Shabala, Malcolm Bennett, Erwin Neher, Rainer Hedrich
The Venus flytrap Dionaea muscipula captures insects and consumes their flesh. Prey contacting touch-sensitive hairs trigger traveling electrical waves. These action potentials (APs) cause rapid closure of the trap and activate secretory functions of glands, which cover its inner surface. Such prey-induced haptoelectric stimulation activates the touch hormone jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway, which initiates secretion of an acidic hydrolase mixture to decompose the victim and acquire the animal nutrients. Although postulated since Darwin's pioneering studies, these secretory events have not been recorded so far...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415156/endocytosis-of-tight-junction-proteins-and-the-regulation-of-degradation-and-recycling
#20
REVIEW
Svetlana M Stamatovic, Allison M Johnson, Nikola Sladojevic, Richard F Keep, Anuska V Andjelkovic
Internalization of tight junction (TJ) proteins from the plasma membrane is a pivotal mechanism regulating TJ plasticity and function in both epithelial and endothelial barrier tissues. Once internalized, the TJ proteins enter complex vesicular machinery, where further trafficking is directly dependent on the initiating stimulus and downstream signaling pathways that regulate the sorting and destiny of TJ proteins, as well as on cell and barrier responses. The destiny of internalized TJ proteins is recycling to the plasma membrane or sorting to late endosomes and degradation...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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