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Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Neural discrimination of auditory intensity is one of the fundamental questions in human auditory perception. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated specific neural activations during intensity discrimination tasks. The detailed functional anatomy, however, remains elusive. Most of the existing studies examined the entire auditory cortex as a whole, neglecting the potential functional differentiation within the auditory cortex. Moreover, these previous results based on controlled auditory stimuli might not necessarily extend to the neural mechanism of natural auditory processing...
October 21, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
W Xia, C D Mørch, D Matre, O K Andersen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain amplification induced by cutaneous 10-Hz conditioning electrical stimulation (CES). METHODS: Conditioned pain modulation was induced by cold pressor conditioning stimulus (CPCS) (4 °C) which was applied immediately before CES in the active session. In the control session, water with a temperature of 32 °C was used. Twenty subjects participated in two sessions in a randomized crossover design with at least 1-week interval...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams, Johanna Forst, Matthew J Mender, Erikson G Neilans, Fabio Idrobo, Laurel H Carney
Vowels make a strong contribution to speech perception under natural conditions. Vowels are encoded in the auditory nerve primarily through neural synchrony to temporal fine structure and to envelope fluctuations rather than through average discharge rate. Neural synchrony is thought to contribute less to vowel coding in central auditory nuclei, consistent with more limited synchronization to fine structure and the emergence of average-rate coding of envelope fluctuations. However, this hypothesis is largely unexplored, especially in background noise...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Amanda R de Oliveira, Adriano E Reimer, Fernando M C V Reis, Marcus L Brandão
Considering the complexity of aversive information processing and defensive response expression, a combined action of stress modulators may be required for an optimal performance during threatening situations. Dopamine is now recognized as one of the most active modulators underlying states of fear and anxiety. On the other hand, activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which leads to the release of corticosterone in rodents, has been considered a key part of the stress response. The current study is an extension of prior work investigating modulatory effects of dopamine and corticosterone on conditioned fear expression...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Swann Pichon, Raphael Guex, Patrik Vuilleumier
Unconscious processes are often assumed immune from attention influence. Recent behavioral studies suggest however that the processing of subliminal information can be influenced by temporal attention. To examine the neural mechanisms underlying these effects, we used a stringent masking paradigm together with fMRI to investigate how temporal attention modulates the processing of unseen (masked) faces. Participants performed a gender decision task on a visible neutral target face, preceded by a masked prime face that could vary in gender (same or different than target) and emotion expression (neutral or fearful)...
2016: PloS One
Markus Ostarek, Gabriella Vigliocco
Previous research has shown that processing words with an up/down association (e.g., bird, foot) can influence the subsequent identification of visual targets in congruent location (at the top/bottom of the screen). However, as facilitation and interference were found under similar conditions, the nature of the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. We propose that word comprehension relies on the perceptual simulation of a prototypical event involving the entity denoted by a word in order to provide a general account of the different findings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
D Zelle, E Dalhoff, A W Gummer
BACKGROUND: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are sound waves generated as byproducts of the cochlear amplifier. These are measurable in the auditory canal and represent an objective method for diagnosing functional disorders of the inner ear. Conventional DPOAE and TEOAE methods permit detection of hearing impairment, but with less than desirable accuracy. OBJECTIVE: By accounting for DPOAE generation mechanisms, the aim is to improve the accuracy of inner-ear diagnosis...
October 19, 2016: HNO
Wenjing Wu, Zhiqiang Li, Shijun Zhang, Yunling Ke, Yahui Hou
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0...
2016: PeerJ
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Aurore Lebrun, Douglas C Hooper, D Allan Butterfield, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
AIMS: Microglial cells are brain resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to LPS-activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yingjiao Xue, Shenda Hou, Hongbin Ji, Xiangkun Han
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Targeted therapy is beneficial in most cases, but the development of drug resistance stands as an obstacle to good prognosis. Multiple mechanisms were explored such as genetic alterations, activation of bypass signaling, and phenotypic transition. These intrinsic and/or extrinsic dynamic regulations facilitate tumor cell survival in meeting the demands of signaling under different stimulus. This review introduces lung cancer plasticity and heterogeneity and their correlation with drug resistance...
October 18, 2016: Protein & Cell
David P McGovern, Kevin S Walsh, Jason Bell, Fiona N Newell
Both spatial and temporal context influence our perception of visual stimuli. For instance, both nearby moving stimuli and recently viewed motion can lead to biases in the perceived direction of a moving stimulus. Due to similarities in the spatial tuning properties of these spatial and temporal context-dependent effects, it is often assumed that they share a functional goal in motion processing and arise from common neural mechanisms. However, the psychophysical evidence concerning this assumption is inconsistent...
October 17, 2016: Vision Research
Hideaki Kaneko, Shuo Zhang, Miho Sekiguchi, Takuya Nikaido, Koshi Makita, Jiro Kurata, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to lumbar mechanical stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although a modified activity of the NAc was characterized in cLBP patients, its pathological significance has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that NAc activation in response to pain might differ depending on the extent of psychiatric problems, which might be associated with the affective/motivational background of chronic pain...
October 17, 2016: Spine
David Calhoun
: Resistant hypertension refers to patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension, generally defined as needing three or more medications of different classes, including, if tolerated, a diuretic. Observational studies indicate that the prevalence of resistant hypertension based on the preceding definition of needing 3 or medications for blood pressure (BP) control is approximately 15-20% of patients being treated for hypertension. However, causes of pseudoresistance are common, including poor BP technique, poor adherence, white coat effects, and under-treatment, all of which must be identified in order to distinguish apparent resistance from true treatment resistance...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Kokkinos
A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
October 17, 2016: Brain Topography
Qiongshan Wang, Nian Liu, Xiyan Yang, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mehdi Molaei, Jian Sheng
Understanding how bacteria move close to a surface under various stimuli is crucial for a broad range of microbial processes including biofilm formation, bacterial transport and migration. While prior studies focus on interactions between single stimulus and bacterial suspension, we emphasize on compounding effects of flow shear and solid surfaces on bacterial motility, especially reorientation and tumble. We have applied microfluidics and digital holographic microscopy to capture a large number (>10(5)) of 3D Escherichia coli trajectories near a surface under various flow shear...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Steven Glautier, Tamaryn Menneer, Hayward J Godwin, Nick Donnelly, José A Aristizabal
Previous work showed that prior experience with discriminations requiring configural solutions (e.g., biconditional discrimination) confers an advantage for the learning of new configural discriminations (e.g., negative patterning) in comparison to prior experience with elemental discriminations. This effect is well established but its mechanism is not well understood. In the studies described below we assessed whether the saliences of configural and element cues were affected by prior training. We observed positive transfer to a new configural discrimination after configural pre-training but we were unable to find evidence for changes in cue salience using a signal-detection task...
July 2016: Experimental Psychology
Joanna Myriam Moussally, Tobias Brosch, Martial Van der Linden
Using a dot-probe discrimination task and a between-subjects design, we examined the time course of attentional biases (facilitated attention, delayed disengagement, and avoidance) toward thin versus fat bodies and explored the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on attention allocation among a sample of 163 women from the general population. Three stimulus presentation times were used: 100ms, 500ms, and 1500ms. We also used neutral body-shape-related stimuli as neutral stimuli related to the concept of interest to overcome the limitations of previous studies...
October 14, 2016: Body Image
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