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Ragnhild Undseth, Arnold Berstad, Jørgen Valeur
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often accompanied by extra‑intestinal symptoms, including fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. The present study aimed to investigate whether these symptoms were associated with markers of enterocyte disintegrity, endotoxemia and inflammation. Patients with IBS were recruited consecutively from our outpatient clinic (n=94) and compared with a group of healthy controls (n=20). Habitual symptoms were assessed using the IBS Severity Scoring System, the Fatigue Impact Scale and Visual Analogue Scales for measuring musculoskeletal pain...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
E Deflandre, V Bonhomme, A-C Courtois, S Degey, R Poirrier, J-F Brichant
Postoperative development or worsening of obstructive sleep apnea is a potential complication of anesthesia. The objective of this study was to study the effects of a premedication with alprazolam on the occurrence of apneas during the immediate postoperative period. Fifty ASA 1 - 2 patients undergoing a colonoscopy were recruited. Patients with a history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were excluded. Recruited patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: in Group A, they received 0.5 mg of alprazolam orally one hour before the procedure; and in Group C, they received placebo...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Dominique Colinet, Emeline Deleury, Maya Belghazi, Marc Ravallec, Julie Poulain, Carole Dossat, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti
Venom composition of parasitoid wasps attracts increasing interest - notably molecules ensuring parasitism success on arthropod pests - but its variation within and among taxa is not yet understood. We have identified here the main venom proteins of two braconid wasps, Psyttalia lounsburyi (two strains from South Africa and Kenya) and P. concolor, olive fruit fly parasitoids that differ in host range. Among the shared abundant proteins, we found a GH1 β-glucosidase and a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Benjamin C Maki, Kathryn R Hodges, Scott C Ford, Ruth M Sofield
Historic applications of lead arsenate pesticides and smelting activities have resulted in elevated concentrations of arsenic in Washington State soils. For example, old orchard topsoils in Washington have concentrations reaching upwards of 350 mg As/kg soil with an estimated 187,590 acres of arsenic contamination from pesticide application alone. Iron oxides have been indicated as a key factor in modulating the fate and transport of arsenic in the soil environment. We employed a factorial design to investigate the role of a specific iron oxide, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), and terrestrial organisms on the mobility, bioavailability, and fate of arsenic and iron in locally collected soils...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arunabha Chakravarti, Sunil Garg, Rahul Bhargava
A case of multiple esophageal foreign bodies, which were retrieved successfully by rigid esophagoscopy in a 1-year old child is being reported. There are few cases of multiple esophageal foreign bodies in children reported in the literature; this case was unique in presentation as there was no history of foreign body ingestion. This case also highlights the serious neglect present in our society towards children of lower socio-economic strata despite this child being the 1st child in the family.
August 8, 2016: Clinics and Practice
Midori Nakamura, Masanori Koide, Nobuyuki Udagawa
The objective of treating osteoporosis is to prevent fractures. Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption and increase bone density, thereby suppressing the occurrence of fractures. Bisphosphonates have a high affinity for hydroxyapatite. About 20-80%of bisphosphonates absorbed in vivo is adsorbed onto the bone surface. However, the absorption rates of orally ingested bisphosphonates are less than 1%. Bisphosphonates adhered to the bone surface are specifically incorporated into cells upon bone resorption by osteoclasts...
2016: Clinical Calcium
Simon Spalthoff, Rüdiger Zimmerer, Philipp Jehn, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Jörg Handschel, Gertrud Krüskemper
PURPOSE: In this study of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, the authors sought to clarify the functional and psychosocial harms of neck dissection (ND), which lessens quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included questionnaire responses from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,652) and clinicians (n = 1,489), as collected in the DÖSAK Rehab Study. Psychosocial and functional factors were assessed. Functional and psychosocial outcomes in patients who did not receive ND were compared with those in patients who underwent selective supraomohyoid ND (SND), modified radical ND (MND), and radical ND (RND)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
F Lee Cantrell, James Sherrard, Michael Andrade, Bethann Schaber, Iain M McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Death due to prescription opioid exposure has increased dramatically in North America. Currently, there is a lack of literature detailing potentially lethal doses as well as postmortem tissue analysis concentrations from prescription opioid fatalities in children. We report a pediatric hydromorphone fatality with postmortem peripheral blood, central blood, liver, and gastric concentrations. CASE REPORT: A 3-year-old male was found unresponsive on a couch...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Aiko Tanaka, Mie Nishimura, Yuji Sato, Hiroki Sato, Jun Nishihira
Pleurotus cornucopiae (Oyster mushroom, Tamogitake) has long been eaten as a functional food for enhancement of the immune system, but its effectiveness has not been well confirmed in humans. To this end, we set up a double-blind placebo-controlled human clinical trial to investigate the potential of Oyster mushrooms with respect to the up-regulation of the immune system. The subjects ingested Oyster mushroom extract for 8 weeks. We measured the serum cytokine levels involved in regulation of the immune system, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Christian Ostalecki, Sebastian Wittki, Jung-Hyun Lee, Miriam M Geist, Nadine Tibroni, Thomas Harrer, Gerold Schuler, Oliver T Fackler, Andreas S Baur
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key cytokine in HIV replication and pathogenesis. For reasons that are not entirely clear, the cytokine remains upregulated despite anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here we demonstrate that HIV Nef induces an alternative TNF secretion mechanism that remains active in chronic infection. Ingestion of Nef-containing plasma extracellular vesicles (pEV) from ART patients by primary immune cells, but also Nef expression, induced intracellular proTNF cleavage and secretion of vesicular TNF endosomes...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
Sophie Plumejeaud, Amelia Paula Reis, Virginie Tassistro, Carla Patinha, Yves Noack, Thierry Orsière
Due to their behavioral characteristics, young children are vulnerable to the ingestion of indoor dust, often contaminated with chemicals that are potentially harmful. Exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is currently exacerbated by their widespread use in several industrial, agricultural, domestic and technological applications. PHEs cause adverse health effects on immune and nervous systems and can lead to cancer development via genotoxic mechanisms. The present study is an integrated approach that aims at assessing the genotoxicity of bioaccessible PHEs following ingestion of contaminated house dust...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Jesús M López, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The present immunohistochemical study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of orexin-immunoreactive (OX-ir) cells and fibers throughout development in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, a model frequently used in developmental studies. Anurans undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages, and very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control functions such as appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain...
October 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Samel Park, Sunhyo Lee, Suyeon Park, Hyowook Gil, Eunyoung Lee, Jongoh Yang, Saeyong Hong
BACKGROUND: Water soluble and insoluble chemicals in the pesticide formulation may be eliminated more effectively in time if hemodialysis (HD) and hemoperfusion (HP) are performed concurrently. AIM: This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of concurrent HP and HD in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012, we used HP and HD consecutively (HP-HD group, 347 cases), and then during the next 2 years (January 2013 to December 2014), we used concurrent HP and HD (HPD group, 383 cases)...
October 22, 2016: Blood Purification
V Naidoo, K Wolter, C J Botha
Vulture populations in southern Africa have been on the decline for years, which unlike the Asian vulture crisis, has no one specific cause. Reasons attributable are deliberate and secondary poisonings, drowning, power line injuries, electrocutions, traditional medicine ("muti" trade) and calcium deficiencies. However, lead toxicity as a potential causal factor is hardly mentioned. The potential for lead toxicity needs to be considered as substantial game hunting occurs in the region with little regulatory control on bullet types...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Research
Lee E Morrow, Paul Wischmeyer
Clinicians have traditionally dichotomized bacteria as friendly commensals or harmful pathogens. However, the line separating the two has become blurred with the recognition that the intestinal microbiome is a complex entity wherein species can shift sides - from friend to foe and back again - based on crucial factors in their local environment. Significant disruptions in the homeostasis of the microbiome, a phenomenon called 'dysbiosis,' is increasingly associated with a host of untoward effects. Intensive care unit patients are at high risk for dysbiosis given high rates of antibiotic use, acute changes in diet, and the stress of critical illness...
October 19, 2016: Chest
Max Liboiron, France Liboiron, Emily Wells, Natalie Richárd, Alexander Zahara, Charles Mather, Hillary Bradshaw, Judyannet Murichi
Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
T Scovazzi
The paper reviews the international treaties that are today applicable for the protection of marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea. They include instruments applicable at the world or the regional level. Emphasis is put on the International Whaling Commission, which is today affected by a confrontation between the two opposing groups of nonwhaling and whaling parties, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS) and its implementation through the resolutions adopted by the Meeting of the Parties, as well as the subregional Agreement between France, Italy and Monaco for the establishment of a sanctuary for the protection of marine mammals (Pelagos Sanctuary)...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
G Notarbartolo di Sciara
Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Sara Biel, Maria-Dolores Mesa, Rafael de la Torre, Juan-Antonio Espejo, Jose-Ramón Fernández-Navarro, Montserrat Fitó, Estefanía Sánchez-Rodriguez, Carmen Rosa, Rosa Marchal, Juan de Dios Alche, Manuela Expósito, Manuel Brenes, Beatriz Gandul, Miguel Angel Calleja, María-Isabel Covas
BACKGROUND: Virgin olive oil, a recognized healthy food, cannot be consumed in great quantities. We aim to assess in humans whether an optimized virgin olive oil with high phenolic content (OVOO, 429 mg/Kg) and a functional one (FOO), both rich in phenolic compounds (429 mg/Kg) and triterpenic acids (389 mg/kg), could provide health benefits additional to those supplied a by a standard virgin olive oil (VOO). METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled study will be conducted...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Bogumiła Skotarczak
Toxoplasmosis is globally distributed, water- and food borne zoonosis caused by the single protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and probably one-third of the world’s human population is infected with this pathogen. Domestic and wild felids are definitive hosts of this pathogen and intermediate hosts for great variety of other homoeothermic animals. Human as other of the intermediate hosts may become infected in the main route of infection; it is the ingestion of parasite oocysts in contaminated water or soil and undercooked meat...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
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