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Malihe Botyar, Maryam Kashanian, Zahra Rezaei Habib Abadi, Maryam Heidarian Noor, Rozita Khoramroudi, Monire Monfaredi, Golnar Nasehe
Background: Self-medication is a serious health problem that leads to an increased per capita consumption of medications, drug resistance, lack of optimal treatment, drug poisoning, and other unwanted complications. This study was conducted to compare self-medication in pregnant and nonpregnant women presenting to Shahid Akbar Abadi Teaching Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: To conduct this cross-sectional study, 210 pregnant women and 210 nonpregnant women aged 15-45 years presenting to Shahid Akbar Abadi Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were selected through random sampling...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Magdalena Lopatek, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a widespread bacterium in marine environment responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. Food-borne infections are mainly associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked fish and shellfish. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors and genetic profiles of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood originating from different countries. A total of 104 (17.5%) isolates were recovered from 595 analyzed samples. The isolates were tested for the presence of the tdh and trh genes, involved in the pathogenesis of V...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ping Qin, Shihua Sun, Anne Seljenes Bøe, Barbara Stanley, Lars Mehlum
BACKGROUND: Adolescents treated for self-poisoning with medication have a high prevalence of mental health problems and constitute a high-risk population for self-harm repetition. However, little is known about whether this population is also prone to injuries of other forms. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Norwegian Patient Registry to include all incidents of treated injuries in adolescents aged 10-19 years who were treated for self-poisoning with medication during 2008-2011...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Stefanie Geith, Martin Ganzert, Sabrina Schmoll, Daniela Acquarone, Michael Deters, Oliver Sauer, Andreas Stürer, Erol Tutdibi, Rafael Wagner, Florian Eyer
BACKGROUND: In Germany, intoxications cause the bulk of emergencies in children, to be prevented or attenuated by preventive measures. Therefore, knowledge about intoxications is essential for pediatricians. The present work provides general and epidemiologic data about intoxications and most frequent categories and single toxicants. METHODS: Data of intoxications in children and adolescents from 6 German poison centers (2012-2016 and 2002-2016) were retrospectively analyzed...
June 18, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
Katherine Lees, Mark Fitzsimons, Jason Snape, Alan Tappin, Sean Comber
Under many circumstances chemical risk assessments for pharmaceuticals and other substances are required to differentiate between 'loss' of a chemical from the aqueous phase as a result of abiotic (sorption or precipitation reactions) or biotic (biodegradation) processes. To distinguish only abiotic processes, it is necessary to work under sterile conditions. Reported methods include poisoning the soil with sodium azide, irradiation and autoclaving. However, a key aspect of any testing is the representativeness of the matrix and so any sterilisation procedure needs to ensure that the integrity of the sample is maintained, in particular particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon partitioning potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Elina Koivisto, Andrea Santangeli, Pertti Koivisto, Tapio Korkolainen, Timo Vuorisalo, Ilpo K Hanski, Iida Loivamaa, Sanna Koivisto
The most common rodent control method worldwide is anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs), which cause death by internal bleeding. ARs can transfer to non-target predators via secondary exposure, i.e. by consuming contaminated rodents. Here we quantify the prevalence of seven AR substances in the liver tissues of altogether 17 mammalian or avian predator or scavenger species in Finland. In addition, we identify the environmental and biological factors potentially linked to secondary AR poisoning. No previous AR screenings have been conducted in the country, despite the widespread use of ARs and their potential impacts on the high levels of the ecosystem food chain...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dietrich Mebs, Werner Pogoda, Stefan W Toennes
Toads of the genus Melanophryniscus contain toxic alkaloids sequestered from a diet of mainly ants and mites. Wild-caught specimens of M. klappenbachi were fed an alkaloid-free diet and their alkaloid profile was analyzed during 38 months in captivity. Individual alkaloid patterns varied considerably. Over time, the concentration of two alkaloids, pumiliotoxin 251D and 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 195B, significantly declined, suggesting that the toads depend on continuous access to alkaloid-containing prey to maintain natural levels of their chemical defense...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Chisato Hoshina, Tomohiro Omura, Katsuhiro Okuda, Hiroki Tanaka, Masaru Asari, Shotaro Isozaki, Kie Horioka, Hiromi Yamada, Hiroki Doi, Hiroshi Shiono, Kazuo Matsubara, Keiko Shimizu
Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide in the world despite being highly toxic to humans. PQ causes fatal damage to multiple organs, especially the lungs. While oxidative stress is the main toxic mechanism of PQ, there is no established standard therapy for PQ poisoning. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) on PQ toxicity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Phosphorylation levels of major survival signaling kinases Akt and ERK, as well as expression levels of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were examined...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Fatma Erden, Erol Rauf Agis, Meside Gunduzoz, Omer Hinc Yilmaz
Background Fixed drug eruptions (FDE) are characterized by recurrent, usually solitary erythematous or dark red macular, plaque or bullous lesions, all at the same site. Among the first choices for antidotal treatment in mercury exposure, 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) is generally a drug with a low incidence of side effects. FDE due to DMPS was not detected in our literature research and so we aimed to present this rare case. Case Report Forty-eight-year-old male patient, gunpowder and explosives factory worker, was admitted to our hospital because of mercury exposure and we started DMPS treatment...
June 18, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Asuman Gürkan, Melahat Melek Oğuz, Esin Boduroğlu Cengiz, Saliha Şenel
Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory drug that has a narrow therapeutic index. Poisoning typically shows 3 phases with systemic symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms dominate in the first phase. Dermatologic manifestations usually appear, with skin eruptions in the second phase where multiorgan failure occurs and alopecia in the third phase where organ derangements resolve. Alopecia is a cardinal feature of the third phase, but there is no specifically defined eruption for toxication. Here, we report a case of colchicine intoxication in a 16-year-old girl with maculopapular/purpuric rash and alopecia...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Shannon O'Connor, Vera Grywacheski, Krista Louie
The rise in opioid-related harms is an issue of increasing public health importance in Canada. This analysis used data from the Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System to determine the number of opioid poisoning hospitalizations and emergency department visits in Canada. Opioid poisoning hospitalizations have increased over the past 10 years, reaching 15.6 per 100 000 population in 2016/17. Emergency department visits due to opioid poisoning have also increased in Alberta and Ontario, the two provinces that collect emergency department data at the level of detail required for this analysis...
June 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Quanguo Jiang, Jianfeng Zhang, Zhimin Ao, Huajie Huang, Haiyan He, Yuping Wu
The CO oxidation mechanism on graphene with divacancy (DG) embedded with transition metal from Sc to Zn has been studied by using first principles calculations. The results indicate that O2 molecule is preferentially adsorbed on Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe-DG, which can avoid the CO poisoning problem that many catalysts facing and is beneficial to the CO oxidation progress. Further study indicates that Mn-DG shows the best catalytic properties for CO oxidation with consideration of both Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) oxidation mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Zhehui Li, Thomas M Rayder, Lianshun Luo, Jeffery A Byers, Chia-Kuang Tsung
The aperture-opening process resulting from dissociative linker exchange in zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66 was used to encapsulate the ruthenium complex (tBuPNP)Ru(CO)HCl in the framework (tBuPNP = 2,6-bis((di-tert-butyl-phosphino)methyl)pyridine). The resulting encapsulated complex, [Ru]@UiO-66, was a very active catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to formate. Unlike the analogous homogeneous catalyst, [Ru]@UiO-66 could be recycled five times, showed no evidence for bimolecular catalyst decomposition, and was less prone to catalyst poisoning...
June 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Faiçal El Hattimy, Fouad Chafiq, Hinde Hami, Abdelrhani Mokhtari, Abdelmajid Soulaymani, Rachida Soulaymani Bencheikh
Objectives: Snakebite envenoming is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of snake bites and evaluate the time-space trends in snakebite incidence, mortality and case fatality in Morocco. Methods: This is a retrospective study of snake bite cases, reported to the Moroccan Poison Control Center between 1999 and 2013. Results: During the study period, 2,053 people were bitten by snakes in Morocco...
June 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Jie Zhang, Kun Sheng, Wenda Wu, Haibin Zhang
Trichothecene mycotoxins commonly contaminate cereal grains and are often linked to human and animal food poisoning. The rapid onset of anorexia is a common hallmark of trichothecenes-induced toxicity. Although the neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) are known to regulate appetite, it remains unknown whether these two neurotransmitters are involved in type A trichothecenes-induced anorectic response. The goal of this study is to relate plasma 5-HT and SP to anorectic responses induced by type A trichothecenes T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and neosolaniol (NEO)...
June 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rodrigo Tavares Dantas, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Dânya Bandeira Lima, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Jader Almeida Canuto, Marcos Hikari Toyama, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most important complications of bothropic poisoning and its early identification remains challenging. The nephrotoxicity of Bothrops insularis venom (BinsV) was previously described by our research group. In this study, we continued to evaluate the effect of BinsV on kidney function in mice and LLC-MK2 proximal tubule cells, evaluating KIM-1 protein as an early AKI biomarker. Male Swiss mice were inoculated with BinsV intramuscularly and observed for 24 h in a metabolic cage model...
June 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Martin J Brodie, Toufic Fakhoury, Belinda McDonough, Anny-Odile Colson, Armel Stockis, Sami Elmoufti, John Whitesides
To assess the association, if any, between brivaracetam (BRV)-induced elevated carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) and toxicity and efficacy in patients with epilepsy. Data were pooled from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies of adjunctive BRV in adults with uncontrolled focal seizures (N01252/NCT00490035, N01253/NCT00464269, N01358/NCT01261325). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of interest (ataxia, diplopia, dizziness, nystagmus, somnolence, accidental overdose or poisoning, and toxicity), discontinuations due to TEAEs, and serious TEAEs (SAEs) were assessed in subgroups who did/did not receive carbamazepine (CBZ) at study entry (CBZ+ and CBZ-)...
June 4, 2018: Epilepsy Research
James S Krause, Yue Cao, Nicole D DiPiro, Emma Cuddy
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk and protective factors for unintentional death related to drug poisoning from prescription medications, including opioid-related deaths, and death due to all other causes among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Large specialty hospital in the Southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Two cohorts of SCI participants, totaling 3070 adults (>18 years old) with chronic (>1 year) traumatic SCI...
June 13, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Thibaut Le Corfec, Olga Maurin, Stéphane Foucher, Kilian Bertho, Hugues Lefort
Colourless and odourless, each year carbon monoxide is responsible for several thousand cases of poisoning. Often collective, their symptoms are non specific and can result in serious neurological sequelae or even death, if they are not detected in time. The (pre-) hospital emergency nurse plays an important role in the management of these patients, in terms of assessment, treatment and monitoring as well as the organisation of the admittance of victims, categorisation and medical triage. As part of a team, the nurse ensures that the patient enters an adapted, regulated pathway, with the most serious cases being directed towards a hospital equipped with a hyperbaric medicine facility...
June 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
Haojie Cui, Ge Xiong, Chunlin Zhang, Zirun Xiao
Objective: To investigate pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of crush syndrome of chest and arm. Methods: Between January 2010 and January 2015, 5 cases of crush syndrome of chest and arm caused by pressing oneself in a coma after CO poisoning or alcoholic intoxication were treated. There were 4 males and 1 female with an average age of 36.7 years (range, 28-46 years). Two patients involved left upper limb and chest, while the other three patients involved right upper limb and chest...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
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