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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036912/caustic-ingestion-in-the-elderly-influence-of-age-on-clinical-outcome
#1
Blazena Caganova, Tatiana Foltanova, Erik Puchon, Elena Ondriasova, Silvia Plackova, Tomas Fazekas, Magdalena Kuzelova
Caustic poisonings are still associated with many fatalities. Studies focusing on the elderly are rare. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion injury in elderly and non-elderly adults with regard to gender, intent of exposure, substance ingested, severity of mucosal injury, complications, and mortality. Caustic substance exposures reported to the National Toxicological Information Centre in Slovakia during 1998-2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: the non-elderly (<60 years) and elderly adults (≥60 years)...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036640/toxicokinetics-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinohexanophenone
#2
Yuji Fujita, Toshinori Mita, Kiyotaka Usui, Yoshito Kamijo, Satoshi Kikuchi, Makoto Onodera, Yasuhisa Fujino, Yoshihiro Inoue
Synthetic cathinones inhibit monoamine transporters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transporters, and act on the central nervous system via increasing synaptic concentrations of monoamines. These compounds, which are highly addictive and potentially poisonous, are new psychoactive substances. In this study, we investigated the toxicokinetics of the synthetic cathinone, α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP), and assessed the relationship between the toxicokinetics and the long-term clinical symptoms induced by α-PHP in a male patient...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036310/baclofen-self-poisoning-in-the-era-of-changing-indication-multicentric-reports-to-a-french-poison-control-centre
#3
Maxime Léger, Marion Brunet, Gaël Le Roux, Nicolas Lerolle, David Boels
Aims: Baclofen has gained interest in treating alcohol use disorder patients. These patients are at risk of voluntary drug intoxications. Understanding the context of baclofen's widespread use for alcohol use disorder, a recent evaluation of the epidemiology, morbidity and mortality of baclofen self-poisoning episodes is necessary. Methods: All baclofen self-poisoning reported to the Western France Poison Control Centre between January 2008 and December 2015 were included for analysis in this retrospective study...
September 28, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035611/are-people-who-inject-drugs-frequent-users-of-emergency-department-services-a-cohort-study-2008-2013
#4
Dhanya Nambiar, Tim Spelman, Mark Stoové, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of emergency services, the majority of research is cross-sectional and involves records from a single emergency department (ED). OBJECTIVES: We describe characteristics of state-wide ED presentations in a cohort of PWID, and compare presentation rates to the general population. We also examine characteristics associated with frequent ED use. METHODS: We used data from a retrospective linkage of public ED presentations from a cohort of 678 PWID between January 2008 and June 2013...
October 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035192/bacillus-cereus-bacteremia-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-a-neuropathological-study
#5
Jean Philippe Brouland, Nathalie Sala, Selin Tusgul, Caterina Rebecchini, Enikö Kovari
Bacillus cereus is a widely-distributed, gram-positive or variable, rod-shaped bacterium frequently considered a contaminant in clinical specimens. It is recognized as a potential pathogen inducing self-limiting emetic or diarrheal food poisoning or localized infection in immunocompetent patients. True B. cereus bacteremia is uncommon and mainly observed in fragile patients, notably in immunocompromised individuals. We report clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a 64-year-old patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia who initially presented a fever while neutropenic after the induction of a second cycle of chemotherapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035144/risk-factors-for-multiple-suicide-attempts-among-roma-in-hungary
#6
Mónika Ditta Tóth, Szilvia Ádám, Tamás Zonda, Emma Birkás, György Purebl
In recent years, suicide rates in Hungary have been among the highest in the European Union. Attempted suicide rates in the Roma population are 2-3 times higher than in the non-Roma population. Since individuals making multiple attempts have a higher pro-bability of eventual death by suicide, and there are limited data on suicidal behaviour of the Roma population, the aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic and psychological background factors of multiple suicide attempts in the Hungarian Roma population...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034647/seasonality-in-violent-and-nonviolent-methods-of-suicide-attempts-a-cross-sectional-study-on-systematic-registry-data
#7
Yousef Veisani, Ali Delpisheh, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Ghobad Moradi, Jafar Hassanzadeh
Little attention has been paid to seasonality in suicide in Iran. Time pattern in suicide deaths and suicide attempts for some related factors such as gender, mental disorders has been found. In present study, we focus on suicide methods and the association with seasonality and other putative covariates such as gender. Through a cross-sectional study, overall identified suicide attempts and suicide deaths in the province of Ilam from 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 were enrolled. We used Edwards' test for test of seasonality in suicide methods...
August 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034186/medicinal-biological-and-phytochemical-properties-of-gentiana-species
#8
REVIEW
Fatemeh Mirzaee, Amirsaeed Hosseini, Hossein Bakhshi Jouybari, Ali Davoodi, Mohammad Azadbakht
Gentiana, a cosmopolitan and important genus of the Gentianaceae family, comprises 400 species distributed among the world. Based on the studies of Iranian traditional medicine texts, there are some promising bioactivities for this genus that is unknown in modern medicine and some of them are still the basis of new remedies. In traditional medicine texts, Gentiana's different exclusive forms of preparations are effective for treatment of some disorders such as menstrual over-bleeding, conjunctivitis, vitiligo, animals venom poisoning, injuries, infected wounds, pain and swelling of liver, spleen, stomach and sprains of muscles...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033890/an-enigmatic-case-of-acute-mercury-poisoning-clinical-immunological-findings-and-platelet-function
#9
Ilka Kleffner, Susann Eichler, Tobias Ruck, Lisa Schüngel, Steffen Pfeuffer, Philipp Polzer, Ralf Dittrich, Rainer Dziewas, Catharina C Gross, Kerstin Göbel, Heinz Wiendl, Beate E Kehrel, Sven G Meuth
Severe mercury intoxication is very rare in developed countries, but still occurs as the result of volatile substance abuse, suicide attempts, occupational hazards, or endemic food ingestion as reported in the cases of public health disasters in Iraq and in Minamata Bay, Japan. Here, we describe the dramatic physical and cognitive decline of a 23-year-old patient caused by a severe methyl mercury (MeHg) intoxication of unknown origin. We show serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the patient's brain, as well as ex vivo analyses of blood and cerebrospinal fluid including multicolor flow cytometric measurements, functional assays of hemostaseologic efficacy, and evaluation of regulatory effector molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032872/assessing-bleeding-risk-in-patients-with-intentional-overdoses-of-novel-antiplatelet-and-anticoagulant-medications
#10
Michael Levine, Michael C Beuhler, Anthony Pizon, F Lee Cantrel, Meghan B Spyres, Frank LoVecchio, Aaron B Skolnik, Daniel E Brooks
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In recent years, the use of novel anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents has become widespread. Little is known about the toxicity and bleeding risk of these agents after acute overdose. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the relative risk of all bleeding and major bleeding in patients with acute overdose of novel antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. METHODS: This study is a retrospective study of acute ingestion of apixaban, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, dabigatran, edoxaban, prasugrel, rivaroxaban, and ticagrelor reported to 7 poison control centers in 4 states during a 10-year span...
October 9, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032023/social-determinants-of-drug-related-mortality-in-a-general-population
#11
Sanna Rönkä, Karoliina Karjalainen, Pekka Martikainen, Pia Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between social determinants and a broad selection of drug-related deaths in a general population. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up of an 11% random sample of working-age Finnish residents for 1996-2007 linked with an oversampling of deaths and population registration data on social characteristics. We defined total drug-related deaths as those from psychoactive substance use disorders and drug-induced poisonings (drug-induced deaths) as well as drug-related accidents, homicides, illnesses, and suicides...
October 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031804/transcriptional-response-after-exposure-to-domoic-acid-producing-pseudo-nitzschia-in-the-digestive-gland-of-the-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#12
Antonio J Pazos, Pablo Ventoso, Roi Martínez-Escauriaza, M Luz Pérez-Parallé, Juan Blanco, Juan C Triviño, José L Sánchez
Bivalve molluscs are filter feeding species that can accumulate biotoxins in their body tissues during harmful algal blooms. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) is caused by species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which produces the toxin domoic acid. The Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland transcriptome was de novo assembled based on the sequencing of 12 cDNA libraries, six obtained from control mussels and six from mussels naturally exposed to domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis...
October 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031132/effectiveness-of-policy-changes-to-reduce-harm-from-unrecorded-alcohol-in-russia-between-2005-and-now
#13
Maria Neufeld, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Consumption of unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is not taxed and reflected in official statistics, but consumed as a beverage) has been identified as one of the main contributors to alcohol-attributable premature mortality in Russia. The problem was highlighted by a recent a mass poisoning with surrogate alcohol occurred in the Siberian city of Irkutsk. METHODS: Based on key publications and legislative documents, a narrative review was undertaken about alcohol-related harm reduction policies in Russia for the period between 2005 and 2017, as well as the impact of these policies on the recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption and alcohol market...
October 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030180/designing-a-direct-elisa-kit-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-rnterotoxin-a-in-raw-milk-samples-from-tehran-province
#14
Arezoo Nouri, Hamed Ahari, Delavar Shahbazzadeh
Under favorable growth conditions, Staphylococcus aureus infects and causes illnesses in humans and animals. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are considered the most important factor for food poisoning, with these toxins usually found in milk and its byproducts. This study investigated the presence of a classical enterotoxin of S. aureus (enterotoxin A) in raw cow milk samples obtained from Region 3 of Tehran. Sixty cow milk samples were collected from traditional dairy sales centers in the study site. Electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, sandwich ELISA, and direct ELISA were evaluated as methods for detecting toxins in the milk...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030107/ammodytin-l-is-the-main-cardiotoxic-component-of-the-vipera-ammodytes-ammodytes-venom
#15
Svjetlana Karabuva, Boris Lukšić, Ivica Brizić, Zorica Latinović, Adrijana Leonardi, Igor Križaj
Venom of the nose-horned viper (V. a. ammodytes) as also venoms of some related European viperids can induce also cardiotoxic effects in mammals. In this work we demonstrated that the protein in the V. a. ammodytes venom acting on heart is a myotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 analogue ammodytin L (AtnL). In the isolated perfused rat heart AtnL induced significant and irreversible cardiotoxicity characterized by atrioventricular (AV) blockade. This venom protein induced appearance of high levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and troponin I in the sinus effluent of the isolated heart, indicative for myocardial damage, which is obviously the primary cause of its cardiotoxic action...
October 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029268/development-and-validation-of-a-method-for-the-detection-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-endosulfan-organochlorine-insecticide-in-calliphora-vomitoria-diptera-calliphoridae
#16
Paola A Magni, Marco Pazzi, Marco Vincenti, Valerio Converso, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology studies employ analytical methods and instrumentation to detect chemical substances in carrion insects feeding from the decomposing tissues. The identification of such chemicals may determine the cause of death and may be used for the estimation of the minimum time since death. To date, the main focus of entomotoxicological studies has been the detection of drugs, whereas little information concerns the effects of pesticides on blowflies. Pesticides are generally freely available and more affordable than drugs but they can also be a home hazard and an accessible candidate poison at a crime scene...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028252/surveillance-and-analysis-of-occupational-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-the-paris-region
#17
Eric Dos Santos, Antoine Villa, Robert Garnier, Laurene Dufayet, Jerome Langrand
Objectives: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common and often severe. Domestic causes have been extensively documented, while occupational exposures have been reported less frequently. We analyse occupational carbon monoxide poisonings from the available data of the carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance network for Paris and its region, and identify predictive factors of severity for occupational poisoning in order to identify priority prevention actions. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all events of acute accidental carbon monoxide exposures which occurred in the Paris region, at the work place, and notified to the surveillance network from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2011...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027721/n-doped-carbon-nano-fibrous-network-derived-from-bacterial-cellulose-for-the-loading-of-pt-nanoparticles-for-methanol-oxidation-reaction
#18
Fanshu Yuan, Yang Huang, Mengmeng Fan, Chuntao Chen, Jieshu Qian, Qingli Hao, Jiazhi Yang, Dongping Sun
It is still challenging to prepare Pt based catalysts with high activity and durability with low cost on a large scale for methanol oxidation reaction. The key is to look for suitable supporting materials. In this paper, we report a facile preparation of N-doped carbon nano-fibrous network by annealing a gel containing two inexpensive and eco-friendly precursors, i.e. bacterial cellulose and urea, for the loading of Pt nanoparticles. An undoped analog was also prepared for comparison. Meanwhile, we evaluated the effect of the annealing temperature on the performance of the catalysts...
October 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027621/use-of-carboxyhemoglobin-as-a-biomarker-of-environmental-co-exposure-critical-evaluation-of-the-literature
#19
Agnese Veronesi, Valentina Pecoraro, Stefano Zauli, Marta Ottone, Giovanni Leonardi, Paolo Lauriola, Tommaso Trenti
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the primary cause for access to emergency department (ED) services for more than 50,000 persons in Europe and the USA every year. CO poisoning diagnosis is based on multiple factors and is usually confirmed by high carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood. We conducted a systematic evaluation of literature to investigate the usefulness of COHb as a biomarker of environmental CO exposure. We conducted an electronic search in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027440/-analysis-on-composition-principles-of-tibetan-medicine-containing-terminalia-chebula-by-data-mining
#20
Wen-Juan Yang, Yong-Zhong Zeweng, Yi Zhang, Zang-Jia Geng, Jia Nie
This study using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support software(TCMISS) to analyze the prescription rules of Tibetan medicine containing Terminalia chebula in the Encyclopedia of Chinese Medicine-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Composition Preparation of Modern Research and Clinical Application and Common Interpretation of Tibetan Medicine and so on. TCMISS(V2.5) was used to build a prescription database of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula.The software statistical statement module, association rules and improved mutual information method and other data mining technologies were adopted to analyze the common herbs, combination rules and core combination of prescriptions containing T...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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