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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549911/insecticidal-activity-of-stemona-collinsiae-root-extract-against-parasarcophaga-ruficornis-diptera-sarcophagidae
#1
Aurapa Sakulpanich, Siriluck Attrapadung, Wandee Gritsanapan
In Thai indigenous knowledge, Stemona plant has traditionally been used as insecticide on plantations. Recently, S. collinsiae extract was showed to be an anti-feedant and growth inhibitor and to exert strong insecticidal activity. Here, the insecticidal activity of S. collinsiae root extract against Parasarcophaga ruficornis is studied. The larvicidal and pupacidal activities of the ethanolic root extract of S. collinsiae were tested using contact toxicity tests, and adulticidal activity was tested using the topical contact toxicity and sugar bait methods The ethanolic extract at concentration ranging of 0...
May 23, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549573/the-dose-makes-the-poison-nutritional-overload-determines-the-life-traits-of-blood-feeding-arthropods
#2
REVIEW
Marcos Sterkel, José Henrique M Oliveira, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva, Pedro L Oliveira
Vertebrate blood composition is heavily biased towards proteins, and hemoglobin, which is a hemeprotein, is by far the most abundant protein. Typically, hematophagous insects ingest blood volumes several times their weight before the blood meal. This barbarian feast offers an abundance of nutrients, but the degradation of blood proteins generates toxic concentrations of amino acids and heme, along with unparalleled microbiota growth. Despite this challenge, hematophagous arthropods have successfully developed mechanisms that bypass the toxicity of these molecules...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549063/food-addiction-and-obesity-unnecessary-medicalization-of-hedonic-overeating
#3
REVIEW
Graham Finlayson
The concept of addiction is loaded with connotations and is often used for its political as much as its medical utility. The scientific case for 'food addiction' as a clinical phenotype currently rests on its association with generic diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders being applied to everyday foods and eating-related problems. This has fused the concept of obesity with addiction regardless of whether it fits the definition. The hedonic, or reward, system can account for the ingestion of foods and drugs, confirming that they share neural substrates that differentiate liking and wanting...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548831/folate-biofortification-in-hydroponically-cultivated-spinach-by-the-addition-of-phenylalanine
#4
Sho Watanabe, Yuta Ohtani, Yohei Tatsukami, Wataru Aoki, Takashi Amemiya, Yasunori Sukekiyo, Seiichi Kubokawa, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, genetically modified foods may have adverse effects, and their production and sales are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548289/effects-of-food-borne-nanomaterials-on-gastrointestinal-tissues-and-microbiota
#5
REVIEW
Hans Bouwmeester, Meike van der Zande, Mark A Jepson
Ingestion of engineered nanomaterials is inevitable due to their addition to food and prevalence in food packaging and domestic products such as toothpaste and sun cream. In the absence of robust dosimetry and particokinetic data, it is currently challenging to accurately assess the potential toxicity of food-borne nanomaterials. Herein, we review current understanding of gastrointestinal uptake mechanisms, consider some data on the potential for toxicity of the most commonly encountered classes of food-borne nanomaterials (including TiO2 , SiO2, ZnO, and Ag nanoparticles), and discuss the potential impact of the luminal environment on nanoparticle properties and toxicity...
May 26, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547912/clinical-characteristics-of-functional-dyspepsia-depending-on-chemosensitivity-to-capsaicin
#6
J Hammer, M Führer
BACKGROUND: Augmented chemosensitivity to capsaicin has been demonstrated in approximately half of functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. AIM: We determined clinical characteristics of FD patients with and without chemical hypersensitivity at baseline and after capsaicin ingestion for 4 weeks. METHODS: N=49 outpatients with confirmed FD received an oral sensitivity test with 0.75 mg capsaicin at three occasions, before and after ingesting 0...
May 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547870/survival-without-peripheral-neuropathy-after-massive-acute-arsenic-poisoning-treated-by-2-3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate
#7
P-H Lu, J-C Tseng, C-K Chen, C-H Chen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Massive acute arsenic poisoning is rare yet potentially life-threatening. 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS) appears to have the appropriate chelating property. However, clinical experience on the use of DMPS in massive arsenic poisoning is limited. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old woman attempted suicide by ingesting 37.5 g of arsenic trioxide. DMPS was promptly initiated based on history and clinical symptoms. The patient recovered completely, with no complications or side effects of the therapy...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547657/compartmentalized-expression-patterns-of-pancreatic-and-gastric-related-genes-in-the-alimentary-canal-of-the-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-evolutionary-insights-into-the-functional-regionality-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-olfactores
#8
Satoshi Nakayama, Michio Ogasawara
Many heterotrophic animals have a one-way alimentary canal that is essential for their nutrition and sequential steps of the digestive system, namely ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination, are widely shared among bilaterians. Morphological, functional and molecular knowledge of the alimentary canal has been obtained in particular from mammalian research but the shared features and evolution of these aspects of the highly diverged alimentary canal in the animal kingdom are still unclear. We therefore investigate spatial gene expression patterns of pancreatic- and gastric-related molecules of ascidians (a sister group of vertebrates) with special reference to the functional regionality of the gastrointestinal tract...
May 25, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547577/pramipexole-overdose-associated-with-visual-hallucinations-agitation-and-myoclonus
#9
Adeline Cardon-Dunbar, Tom Robertson, Michael S Roberts, Geoffrey K Isbister
INTRODUCTION: Pramipexole is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist used to treat idiopathic Parkinson's disease and primary restless legs syndrome. There is limited information on pramipexole overdose. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old male ingested 3 mg pramipexole, 2250 mg venlafaxine, 360 mg mirtazapine, with suicidal intent. He presented alert, had normal vital observations and normal pupillary reflexes. He was mildly agitated, reported visual hallucinations and was given 5 mg diazepam...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546483/finished-whole-genome-sequences-of-two-clostridium-botulinum-type-a-b-isolates
#10
Jessica L Halpin, Karen Hill, Shannon L Johnson, David Carlton Bruce, T Brian Shirey, Janet K Dykes, Carolina Lúquez
Clostridium botulinum secretes a potent neurotoxin that causes devastating effects when ingested, including paralysis and death if not treated. In the United States, some clinically significant strains produce toxin type A while also harboring a silent B gene. These are the first two closed genome sequences published for this subset.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546039/relation-of-rice-intake-and-biomarkers-of-cadmium-for-general-population-in-korea
#11
Soo-Hwaun Kim, Young-Wook Lim, Kyung-Su Park, Ji-Yeon Yang
Environmental exposure to cadmium can cause renal damage. Foods containing cadmium are generally regarded as the main environmental sources of human exposure to cadmium. In this study, foods that are ingested in large amounts, including rice and other types of food with a high concentration of cadmium, were investigated to determine the correlation between the foods' cadmium content and biomarkers. The datasets required for this study, including blood cadmium concentration, biomarker concentration, and data on the amount of consumption by food item, were obtained from KNHNES...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545738/-fluoride-intake-through-consumption-of-water-from-municipal-network-in-the-inma-gipuzkoa-cohort
#12
Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Loreto Santa-Marina, Mónica Otazua, Mikel Ayerdi, Ane Galarza, Mara Gallastegi, Enrique Ulibarrena, Amaia Molinuevo, Asier Anabitarte, Jesús Ibarluzea
OBJECTIVE: To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. METHOD: 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS)...
May 22, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545546/emulsifying-dietary-fat-modulates-postprandial-endotoxemia-associated-with-chylomicronemia-in-obese-men-a-pilot-randomized-crossover-study
#13
Cécile Vors, Jocelyne Drai, Gaëlle Pineau, Martine Laville, Hubert Vidal, Fabienne Laugerette, Marie-Caroline Michalski
BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperlipemia is recognized as a major cardio-metabolic risk factor, recently linked to the co-absorption of pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharides with dietary lipids. This causes endotoxemia that is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance, but to date the impact of food formulation is unknown. We tested a novel concept that endotoxin absorption can be modulated by fat emulsified structure in the meal, and potentially differently in obese vs...
May 25, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545504/a-case-report-of-zinc-phosphide-poisoning-complicated-by-acute-renal-failure-and-tubulo-interstitial-nephritis
#14
Nilukshana Yogendranathan, H M M T B Herath, Thenuka Sivasundaram, R Constantine, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: Run Rat® is a rodenticide widely used against small mammals. It comprises of a minimum of 32% zinc phosphide which is highly toxic in acute exposures to humans. It may be consumed accidentally or intentionally. It enters the body via skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Zinc phosphide is hydrolyzed by the gastric acid and is transformed into phosphine gas. Phosphine is a respiratory toxin that inhibits cytochrome C oxidase system resulting in renal failure and liver failure...
May 25, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545213/safe-utilization-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-farmland-by-mulberry-tree-cultivation-and-silk-production
#15
Xiaoming Wan, Mei Lei, Tongbin Chen, Yongbi Tan, Junxing Yang
Heavy-metal-contaminated soil threatens human health and environmental safety. Complete remediation of contaminated soil is expensive; therefore, phytomanagement has emerged as a cost-effective alternative. The current study investigated mulberry tree (Morus alba) plantation, silkworm cultivation, and silk production as phytomanagement options. Results defined the safety of planting mulberry trees in soils with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) concentrations lower than 369 and 180mgkg(-1), respectively. Silkworms fed with mulberry leaves collected from slightly contaminated soil exhibited productive growth and normal silk production...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545090/neotropical-bats-that-co-habit-with-humans-function-as-dead-end-hosts-for-dengue-virus
#16
Amanda Vicente-Santos, Andres Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Andrea Chaves, Jan Felix Drexler, Juan Alberto Morales, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar
Several studies have shown Dengue Virus (DENV) nucleic acids and/or antibodies present in Neotropical wildlife including bats, suggesting that some bat species may be susceptible to DENV infection. Here we aim to elucidate the role of house-roosting bats in the DENV transmission cycle. Bats were sampled in households located in high and low dengue incidence regions during rainy and dry seasons in Costa Rica. We captured 318 bats from 12 different species in 29 households. Necropsies were performed in 205 bats to analyze virus presence in heart, lung, spleen, liver, intestine, kidney, and brain tissue...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545077/the-regional-hydrologic-extremes-assessment-system-a-software-framework-for-hydrologic-modeling-and-data-assimilation
#17
Konstantinos M Andreadis, Narendra Das, Dimitrios Stampoulis, Amor Ines, Joshua B Fisher, Stephanie Granger, Jessie Kawata, Eunjin Han, Ali Behrangi
The Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS) is a prototype software framework for hydrologic modeling and data assimilation that automates the deployment of water resources nowcasting and forecasting applications. A spatially-enabled database is a key component of the software that can ingest a suite of satellite and model datasets while facilitating the interfacing with Geographic Information System (GIS) applications. The datasets ingested are obtained from numerous space-borne sensors and represent multiple components of the water cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544610/phenol-enriched-olive-oils-modify-paraoxonase-related-variables-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-trial
#18
Sara Fernández-Castillejo, Ana-Isabel García-Heredia, Rosa Solà, Jordi Camps, Maria-Carmen López de la Hazas, Marta Farràs, Anna Pedret, Úrsula Catalan, Laura Rubió, Maria-José Motilva, Olga Castañer, María-Isabel Covas, Rosa-Maria Valls
SCOPE: Low paraoxonase (PON)1 activities, and high PON1 and low PON3 protein levels are characteristic of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess short and long-term effects of virgin olive oils (VOO), enriched with their own phenolic compounds (PC; FVOO) or with them plus complementary PC from thyme (FVOOT), on PON-related variables and the mechanisms involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two randomized, controlled, double-blind, and crossover interventions were conducted...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544202/breaking-up-sedentary-time-with-seated-upper-body-activity-can-regulate-metabolic-health-in-obese-high-risk-adults-a-randomised-crossover-trial
#19
Matthew McCarthy, Charlotte L Edwardson, Melanie J Davies, Joseph Henson, Alex Rowlands, James King, Danielle H Bodicoat, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas Yates
AIMS: To investigate the impact of performing short bouts of seated upper body activity on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels during prolonged sitting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants undertook two 7 · 5 hour experimental conditions in a randomised order: 1) prolonged sitting only 2) sitting interspersed with 5 minutes of seated arm ergometry every 30 minutes. Blood samples were obtained while fasting and throughout the postprandial period following ingestion of two standardised meals...
May 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543918/gut-microbiota-of-the-pine-weevil-degrades-conifer-diterpenes-and-increases-insect-fitness
#20
Aileen Berasategui, Hassan Salem, Christian Paetz, Maricel Santoro, Jonathan Gershenzon, Martin Kaltenpoth, Axel Schmdit
The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis), a major pest of conifer forests throughout Europe, feeds on the bark and cambium, tissues rich in terpenoid resins that are toxic to many insect herbivores. Here we report the ability of the pine weevil gut microbiota to degrade the diterpene acids of Norway spruce. The diterpene acid levels present in ingested bark were substantially reduced on passage through the pine weevil gut. This reduction was significantly less upon antibiotic treatment, and supplementing the diet with gut suspensions from untreated insects restored the ability to degrade diterpenes...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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