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Philippe Glorennec, Jean-Paul Lucas, Anne-Camille Mercat, Alain-Claude Roudot, Barbara Le Bot
Children are exposed to toxic metals and metalloids via their diet and environment. Our objective was to assess the aggregate chronic exposure of children aged 3-6years, living in France, to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V present in diet, tap water, air, soil and floor dust in the years 2007-2009. Dietary data came from the French Total Diet Study, while concentrations in residential tap water, soil and indoor floor dust came from the 'Plomb-Habitat' nationwide representative survey on children's lead exposure at home...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Sainath S Kasar, Kiran R Marathe, Amey J Bhide, Abhijeet P Herwade, Ashok P Giri, Vijay L Maheshwari, Pankaj K Pawar
BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. RESULTS: A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with molecular weight 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II type α-AI from Wrightia religiosa...
October 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Lijuan Sun, Kevin Wei Jie Tan, Joseph Zhien Lim, Faidon Magkos, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: The magnitude of postprandial lipemia is influenced not only by the amount but also the type of fat and carbohydrate consumed. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in postprandial glucose and lipid responses after a mixed meal containing low- or high-glycemic-index (GI) carbohydrate and three different types of fat varying in the degree of saturation in healthy subjects. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, single-blinded crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese men...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
N A Nik Muhamad, R Hawari, H Shafie
Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is highly toxic and poisoning can result in high mortality rates. A 26-year-old female who allegedly ingested a toxic dose of ALP presented with vomiting and diarrhoea. She developed cardiac arrest with refractory pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Despite aggressive resuscitation, she succumbed to death seven hours following ingestion. In cases like this, a better outcome can be achieved with early arrival, prompt diagnosis, aggressive resuscitation and intensive monitoring.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
M Y Othman, S Srihari
Foreign body ingestion among children is common and most usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without requiring any intervention. Magnets, however, pose a greater threat especially when more than one are ingested. We report a case of multiple bowel perforation secondary to ingestion of magnetic beads in a 3-year-old.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
A Michael, D Benedict, I Razali, S N Jasjit, A A Zainal
Meckel's diverticulitis or Meckel's associated pathology frequently presents in childhood with gastrointestinal bleeding. It is rarely seen in adults. It is a congenital abnormality that commonly goes undetected. We present a case of a perforated Meckel's diverticulum due to fishbone ingestion in an elderly gentleman. The aim of this case report is to highlight the rare presentation of a perforation in a Meckel's diverticulum due to an extrinsic pathology and to outline diagnostic and management options in cases of Meckel's diverticulum...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Angela Sierras, Coby Schal
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. RESULTS: LC50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an in vitro feeder...
October 21, 2016: Pest Management Science
I Absah, A Rishi, N J Talley, D Katzka, M Halland
BACKGROUND: Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless and repetitive regurgitation of recently ingested food from the stomach to the oral cavity followed by either re-swallowing or spitting. Rumination is thought to occur due to a reversal of the esophagogastric pressure gradient. This is achieved by a coordinated abdominothoracic maneuver consisting of a thoracic suction, crural diaphragm relaxation and an increase in intragastric pressure...
October 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Jonathan Sabaté Del Río, Teresa Mairal, Markéta Svobodová, Mohammad S El-Shahawi, Abdulaziz S Bashammakh, Abdulrahman O Alyoubi, Ciara K O'Sullivan
Lupin is increasingly being used in a variety of food products due to its nutritional, functional and nutraceutical properties. However, several examples of severe and even fatal food-associated anaphylaxis due to lupin inhalation or ingestion have been reported, resulting in the lupin subunit β-conglutin, being defined as the Lup an 1 allergen by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) in 2008. Here, we report an innovative method termed aptamer-recombinase polymerase amplification (Apta-RPA) exploiting the affinity and specificity of a DNA aptamer selected against the anaphylactic β-conglutin allergen termed β-conglutin binding aptamer II (β-CBA II), facilitating ultrasensitive detection via isothermal amplification...
October 20, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Samantha Greenwald, Edward Seger, David Nichols, Andrew D Ray, Todd C Rideout, Luc E Gosselin
Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercises, 15 repetitions per exercise with 30 seconds rest between each exercise); or 3) high-intensity interval running (10 one-minute intervals at a workload corresponding to 90% VO2max interspersed with one-minute active recovery periods)...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
José L de Brito Alves, Vanessa P de Sousa, Marinaldo P Cavalcanti Neto, Marciane Magnani, Valdir de Andrade Braga, João H da Costa-Silva, Carol G Leandro, Hubert Vidal, Luciano Pirola
Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the most prevalent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CD) and is the main cause of deaths worldwide. Current research establish that dietary polyphenols may help to lower blood pressure (BP), thus contributing to the reduction of cardiovascular complications. In addition, the health benefits of probiotics on BP have also attracted increased attention, as probiotics administration modulates the microbiota, which, by interacting with ingested polyphenols, controls their bioavalability...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
A A Dos Reis, L Bertelli, W O Sousa
Radiological or nuclear emergency situations could lead to incorporation of radionuclides by the population. Intakes of radionuclides can be evaluated through measurements of radionuclides present in organs and tissues, or in urinary and/or fecal excretion. In an emergency situation involving a large number of people, the decision to provide medical treatment to an individual will likely be based on a single measurement. For that purpose, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has presented the Clinical Decision Guide (CDG) quantity, which corresponds to an intake amount of a radionuclide by an individual for which treatment is recommended...
October 7, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ann Esquivel, William W Busse
Anaphylaxis is a serious and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that may follow the ingestion of foods. Although these reactions usually follow a common clinical pattern and often demonstrate IgE sensitization to the antigen in question, both the clinical presentation and causative allergen may be atypical, surprising, and difficult to identify. Failure to identify the actual cause of the reaction can compromise treatment and complicate long-term care. Here, we present a patient who had symptoms of anaphylaxis after eating salmon, but confirmation of the causative allergen was not readily apparent...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Keiko Unno, Ayane Hara, Aimi Nakagawa, Kazuaki Iguchi, Megumi Ohshio, Akio Morita, Yoriyuki Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. STUDY DESIGN: We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Sagrario Martín-Aragón, Karim Lizeth Jiménez-Aliaga, Juana Benedí, Paloma Bermejo-Bescós
BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites may induce adaptive cellular stress-responses in a variety of cells including neurons at the sub-toxic doses ingested by humans. Such 'neurohormesis' phenomenon, activated by flavonoids such as quercetin or rutin, may involve cell responses driven by modulation of signaling pathways which are responsible for its neuroprotective effects. PURPOSE: We attempt to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the neurohormetic responses to quercetin and rutin exposure, in a SH-SY5Y cell line which stably overexpresses the amyloid precursor protein (APP) Swedish mutation, based on a biphasic concentration-response relationship for cell viability...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Simona Arena, Giovanni Renzone, Chiara D'Ambrosio, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni
Heating of milk and dairy products is done using various technological processes with the aim of preserving microbiological safety and extending shelf-life. These treatments result in chemical modifications in milk proteins, mainly generated as a result of the Maillard reaction. Recently, different bottom-up proteomic methods have been applied to characterize the nature of these structural changes and the modified amino acids in model protein systems and/or isolated components from thermally-treated milk samples...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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