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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341897/toxicity-and-toxicokinetics-of-amanita-exitialis-in-beagle-dogs
#1
Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124...
January 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341825/a-predictive-model-of-rats-calorie-intake-as-a-function-of-diet-energy-density
#2
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Yada Treesukosol, Takeru Igusa, Timothy H Moran
Easy access to high-energy food has been linked to high rates of obesity in the world. Understanding the way that access to palatable (high fat or high calorie) food can lead to overconsumption is essential for both preventing and treating obesity. Although the body of studies focused on the effects of high energy diets is growing, our understanding of how different factors contribute to food choices is not complete. In this study, we present a mathematical model that can predict rats' calorie intake to a high-energy diet based on their ingestive behavior to a standard chow diet...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341609/probing-and-quantifying-the-food-borne-pathogens-and-toxins-from-in-vitro-to-in-vivo
#3
Jing-Min Liu, Zhi-Hao Wang, Hui Ma, Shuo Wang
Development of real-time and in situ analytical methods for determination of food-borne pathogens and toxins ingested into human body would be a promising research direction in the food safety area. The present review starts with summarization of the up-to-date progress of the nanomaterial-assisted in vitro detection methods for pathogens and toxins, and finally focused on application of animal bioimaging to in vivo study, including prospective strategies for in vivo quantification of target pathogens or toxins and in vivo investigation of their behaviors inside the living body, with the assistance of real-time and non-invasive optical bioimaging...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340159/recurrent-lactic-acidosis-and-hypoglycemia-with-inadvertent-metformin-use-a-case-of-look-alike-pills
#4
Tess Jacob, Renee Garrick, Michael D Goldberg
Metformin is recommended as the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although this drug has a generally good safety profile, rare but potentially serious adverse effects may occur. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis, although very uncommon, carries a significant risk of mortality. The relationship between metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis is complex and is affected by the presence of comorbid conditions such as renal and hepatic disease. Plasma metformin levels do not reliably correlate with the severity of lactic acidosis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#5
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339650/oral-immunotherapy-in-japanese-children-with-anaphylactic-peanut-allergy
#6
Ken-Ichi Nagakura, Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Makoto Nishino, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Kiyotake Ogura, Motohiro Ebisawa
BACKGROUND: Reports on oral immunotherapy (OIT) for anaphylactic food allergy are lacking. We investigated the efficacy and safety of peanut OIT for anaphylactic patients. METHODS: We enrolled 22 peanut anaphylactic patients who underwent OIT between 2011 and 2013, all of whom demonstrated anaphylaxis during a baseline double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. After starting in-hospital OIT, participants gradually increased ingestion to 795 mg of peanut protein per day at home and then took a maintenance dose (795 mg) daily...
January 16, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339452/effects-of-colostrum-feeding-method-and-oral-igf1-on-porcine-uterine-development
#7
Ashley F George, Kathleen M Rahman, Dori J Miller, Anne A Wiley, Meredith E Camp, Frank Bartol, Carol A Bagnell
Nursing ensures lactocrine delivery of maternally-derived, milk-borne bioactive factors to offspring, which affects postnatal development of female reproductive tract tissues. Disruption of lactocrine communication for two days from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) by feeding milk replacer in lieu of nursing or consumption of colostrum alters porcine uterine gene expression globally by PND 2 and inhibits uterine gland genesis by PND 14. Here, objectives were to determine effects of: 1) nursing or milk replacer feeding from birth; 2) a single dose of colostrum or milk replacer and method of feeding; and 3) a single feeding of colostrum or milk replacer, with or without oral supplementation of IGF1, administered at birth on aspects of porcine uterine development at 12 h postnatally...
January 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339337/adsorption-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-on-microplastics-under-environmental-conditions
#8
Marta Llorca, Gabriella Schirinzi, Mònica Martínez, Damià Barceló, Marinella Farré
Plastic debris has become an environmental problem during recent years. Among the plastic debris, microplastics (<5 mm; MPLs) imply an extra problem due to their capacity to enter into the fauna through ingestion. In this work, we study the capacity of three MPLs, that include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS) and polystyrene carboxylate (PS-COOH), to sorb 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs; including carboxylic acids, sulphonates and one sulphonamide) from the surrounding waters (freshwater and seawater)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339336/organophosphate-and-brominated-flame-retardants-in-australian-indoor-environments-levels-sources-and-preliminary-assessment-of-human-exposure
#9
Chang He, Xianyu Wang, Phong Thai, Christine Baduel, Christie Gallen, Andrew Banks, Paul Bainton, Karin English, Jochen F Mueller
Concentrations of nine organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in samples of indoor dust (n = 85) and air (n = 45) from Australian houses, offices, hotels, and transportation (buses, trains, and aircraft). All target compounds were detected in indoor dust and air samples. Median ∑9OPFRs concentrations were 40 μg/g in dust and 44 ng/m3 in indoor air, while median ∑8PBDEs concentrations were 2.1 μg/g and 0.049 ng/m3. Concentrations of FRs were higher in rooms that contained carpet, air conditioners, and various electronic items...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338584/effect-of-acute-ingestion-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-salts-on-the-response-to-graded-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#10
Mark Evans, Ella Patchett, Rickard Nally, Rachel Kearns, Matthew Larney, Brendan Egan
Acute ingestion of ketone salts induces nutritional ketosis by elevating β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), but few studies have examined the metabolic effects of ingestion prior to exercise. Nineteen trained cyclists (12 male, 7 female) undertook graded exercise (8 min each at ∼30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer on two occasions separated by either 7 or 14 days. Trials included ingestion of boluses of either (i) plain water (3.8 mL kg body mass-1) (CON) or (ii) βHB salts (0.38 g kg body mass-1) in plain water (3...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337837/accidental-rivaroxaban-intoxication-in-a-boy-some-lessons-in-managing-new-oral-anticoagulants-in-children
#11
Julieta Weirthein, Dennis Scolnik, Nili Yanai Milshtein, Tali Capua, Miguel Glatstein
Novel oral anticoagulants offer equivalent or improved therapeutic profiles compared with warfarin, with less risk of bleeding, no interactions with food, and no need for routine laboratory monitoring. Caution must be exercised in using these drugs in certain patient populations, for example, renal insufficiency, those receiving additional antithrombotic therapy, those with questionable compliance, children, and those with a high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. One of the novel oral anticoagulants, rivaroxaban, is a direct Factor Xa inhibitor, used to reduce risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337831/the-acute-effects-of-a-caffeine-containing-supplement-on-anaerobic-power-and-subjective-measurements-of-fatigue-in-recreationally-active-males
#12
Chelsea J Hahn, Andrew R Jagim, Clayton L Camic, Matthew J Andre
Studies show mixed results for the effects of caffeine on performance, warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue during resisted sprinting on males. Fourteen recreationally-active males [N=14; (mean±SD), age: 21.0±0.7 yrs., height: 178.5±5.1 cm, weight: 77.3±9.6 kg, percent body fat: 12.6±4.8%] participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects crossover design study...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337587/use-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-yeasts-to-reduce-exposure-to-chemical-food-contaminants-and-toxicity
#13
Gabriela Matuoka Chiocchetti, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Vicente Monedero, Manuel Zúñiga, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa
Chemical contaminants that are present in food pose a health problem and their levels are controlled by national and international food safety organizations. Despite increasing regulation, foods that exceed legal limits reach the market. In Europe, the number of notifications of chemical contamination due to pesticide residues, mycotoxins and metals is particularly high. Moreover, in many parts of the world, drinking water contains high levels of chemical contaminants owing to geogenic or anthropogenic causes...
January 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337071/lower-protein-and-higher-carbohydrate-intake-is-related-with-altering-metabolic-syndrome-components-in-elderly-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Hellen C G Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paulo Junior Sugihara, Rodrigo Dos Reis Fernandes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Melissa Antunes, Roberto Carlos Burini, Danielle Venturini, Décio S Barbosa, Analiza Mônica Silva, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is an energy-disturbance disease associated with insulin resistance. Hence, the intake of energy-rich macronutrients might affect some MetS components. The aim of this study was to explore the association of ingested macronutrients with MetS components in older women. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in 245 older women (≥60 years). Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess total body fat, percentage body fat (absolute and relative), and skeletal muscle mass...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337053/oral-ingestion-of-plasmalogens-can-attenuate-the-lps-induced-memory-loss-and-microglial-activation
#15
Md Shamim Hossain, Ayako Tajima, Satoshi Kotoura, Toshihiko Katafuchi
Plasmalogens (Pls) are the special phospholipids which were reported to be reduced in brain and blood samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, suggested a possibility that an oral ingestion of Pls may prevent the disease progression. Interestingly, the clinical study showed that the daily oral ingestion of Pls among the mild AD patients improved cognition. However, it is unknown of whether the oral ingestion of Pls inhibits the AD like changes in brain e.g., glial activation and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336990/failure-of-intracardiac-pacing-after-fatal-propafenone-overdose-a-case-report
#16
Ivan Zeljković, Nikola Bulj, Matea Kolačević, Vedran Čabrilo, Diana Delić Brkljačić, Šime Manola
BACKGROUND: Propafenone is a sodium-channel blocker, class IC antiarrhythmic drug, frequently used to manage supraventricular dysrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation. We report a self mono-intoxication with propafenone. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old woman presented with a decreased level of consciousness, hypotension, and electrocardiogram showing QRS widening with atrial asystole and extreme bradycardia < 20 beats/min. After initial stabilization with transcutaneous pacing, laboratory findings detected normal electrolyte ranges and metabolic acidosis, and her medical history revealed availability of propafenone due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and depressive syndrome, which led to the suspicion of intoxication...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335445/trophic-ecology-of-glass-sponge-reefs-in-the-strait-of-georgia-british-columbia
#17
Amanda S Kahn, Jackson W F Chu, Sally P Leys
Sponges link the microbial loop with benthic communities by feeding on bacteria. Glass sponge reefs on the continental shelf of western Canada have extremely high grazing rates, consuming seven times more particulate carbon than can be supplied by vertical flux alone. Unlike many sponges, the reef building species Aphrocallistes vastus has no microbial symbionts and removes little dissolved organic carbon. To determine how reef sponges therefore get enough food to sustain such substantial grazing we measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of water, sediment and sponge tissues...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335039/replacing-carbohydrate-during-a-glucose-challenge-with-the-egg-white-portion-or-whole-eggs-protects-against-postprandial-impairments-in-vascular-endothelial-function-in-prediabetic-men-by-limiting-increases-in-glycaemia-and-lipid-peroxidation
#18
Joshua D McDonald, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Jinhui Li, Eunice Mah, Allison N Labyk, Elizabeth J Reverri, Kevin D Ballard, Jeff S Volek, Richard S Bruno
Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK)...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333721/carbohydrate-dose-influences-liver-and-muscle-glycogen-oxidation-and-performance-during-prolonged-exercise
#19
Andy J King, John P O'Hara, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Roderick F G J King
This study investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) dose and composition on fuel selection during exercise, specifically exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) CHO oxidation. Ten trained males cycled in a double-blind randomized order on 5 occasions at 77% V˙O2max for 2 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial (TT) while ingesting either 60 g·h-1 (LG) or 75 g·h-113 C-glucose (HG), 90 g·h-1 (LGF) or 112.5 g·h-113 C-glucose-13 C-fructose ([2:1] HGF) or placebo. CHO doses met or exceed reported intestinal transporter saturation for glucose and fructose...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333612/fosfomycin-residues-in-colostrum-impact-on-morpho-physiology-and-microbiology-of-suckling-piglets
#20
M B Fernández Paggi, G Martínez, S N Diéguez, D S Pérez Gaudio, J M Decundo, M B Riccio, F A Amanto, M O Tapia, A L Soraci
Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic widely used in pig farms for the treatment of a wide variety of bacterial infections. In this study, the elimination of disodium fosfomycin in colostrum/milk of the sow and the impact of this antibiotic on the microbiota and intestinal morpho-physiology of suckling piglets were analyzed. The average amount of fosfomycin eliminated in colostrum (after administration of 15 mg/kg IM) during the first 10 hr postpartum was 0.85 μg/ml, and the mean residual amount ingested by the piglets was 0...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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