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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161583/chrysin-sources-beneficial-pharmacological-activities-and-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#1
REVIEW
Renuka Mani, Vijayakumar Natesan
In recent years, public and scientific interest in plant flavonoids has tremendously increased because of their postulated health benefits. This review was mainly focuses on the flavone chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), which occurs naturally in many plants, honey, and propolis. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the therapeutic effects of chrysin against various diseases. In general, chrysin exhibits many biological activities and pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral activities...
November 18, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160840/cloning-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-alpha-glucosidase-malh-from-the-halophilic-archaeon-haloquadratum-walsbyi
#2
Mara F Cuebas-Irizarry, Ricardo A Irizarry-Caro, Carol López-Morales, Keyla M Badillo-Rivera, Carlos M Rodríguez-Minguela, Rafael Montalvo-Rodríguez
We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi. A 2349 bp region (Hqrw_2071) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6...
November 21, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159050/preliminary-evidence-for-differential-olfactory-and-trigeminal-processing-in-combat-veterans-with-and-without-ptsd
#3
Bernadette M Cortese, Aicko Y Schumann, Ashley N Howell, Patrick A McConnell, Qing X Yang, Thomas W Uhde
Structural and functional changes in the olfactory system are increasingly implicated in the expression of PTSD. Still, very little is known about the neurobiological networks of trauma-related odor sensitivity or how they relate to other objective and subjective measures of olfaction and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to replicate prior findings and further characterize olfactory function in trauma-exposed combat veterans with and without PTSD. We also sought to extend this area of research by exploring the effects of time since the combat-related index trauma (TST) on post-trauma olfactory function, as well as by correlating odor-elicited brain activity to general olfactory ability and odor-elicited PTSD symptoms...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159043/neuroimaging-and-other-modalities-to-assess-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Natalie Neale, Concepcion Padilla, Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca, Tony Holland, Shahid Zaman
People with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher rates and a younger age of onset compared to the general population. As the average lifespan of people with DS is increasing, AD is becoming an important health concern in this group. Neuroimaging is becoming an increasingly useful tool in understanding the pathogenesis of dementia development in relation to clinical symptoms. Furthermore, neuroimaging has the potential to play a role in AD diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutics. This review describes major recent findings from in vivo neuroimaging studies analysing DS and AD via ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET), [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159037/reorganization-of-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-associated-with-impaired-sensory-tracts
#5
Christos Papadelis, Erin E Butler, Madelyn Rubenstein, Limin Sun, Lilla Zollei, Donna Nimec, Brian Snyder, Patricia Ellen Grant
Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158326/women-and-substance-use-a-qualitative-study-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-women-who-use-drugs-in-delhi-india
#6
Vartika Sharma, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Ibou Thior, Ira Madan, Stanley Luchters
OBJECTIVES: To explore contextual factors that increase vulnerabilities to negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes and possible differences in SRH-related behaviours and the needs of women who use drugs (WUD) through non-injecting and injecting routes. DESIGN: Qualitative study design using semi-structured in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty women who injected drugs in the past 3 months and 28 women who reported using drugs through non-injecting routes in the past 1 month...
November 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158283/antimicrobial-octapeptin-c4-analogues-active-against-cryptococcus-species
#7
Jessica L Chitty, Mark S Butler, Azzah Suboh, David J Edwards, Matthew A Cooper, James A Fraser, Avril A B Robertson
Resistance to antimicrobials is a growing problem in both developed and developing countries. In nations where AIDS is most prevalent, the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant contributor to mortality, and its growing resistance to current antifungals an ever-expanding threat. We investigated octapeptin C4, from the cationic cyclic lipopeptide class of antimicrobials, as a potential new antifungal. Octapeptin C4 was a potent, selective inhibitor of this fungal pathogen with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157863/structure-activity-relationship-study-of-aib-containing-amphipathic-helical-peptide-cyclic-rgd-conjugates-as-carriers-for-sirna-delivery
#8
Shun-Ichi Wada, Anna Takesada, Yurie Nagamura, Eri Sogabe, Rieko Ohki, Junsuke Hayashi, Hidehito Urata
The conjugation of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cyclo(-Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Cys-) (cRGDfC) at the C-terminus of the helix peptide (PI) has been reported to be useful for constructing a carrier for targeted siRNA delivery into cells. In order to explore structure-activity relationships for the development of potential carriers for siRNA delivery, we synthesized conjugates of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cRGDfC at the N-terminus (PII) and both the N- and C-termini (PIII) of the helical peptide...
November 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157284/malaria-control-in-rural-malawi-implementing-peer-health-education-for-behaviour-change
#9
Tumaini Malenga, Alinune Nathanael Kabaghe, Lucinda Manda-Taylor, Asante Kadama, Robert S McCann, Kamija Samuel Phiri, Michèle van Vugt, Henk van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential behaviour change strategy for malaria control. The strategy aims to influence a change in mind-set of vulnerable populations to encourage self-reliance, using community volunteers known as Health Animators...
November 20, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157207/an-ethnographic-study-of-the-effects-of-cognitive-symptoms-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-the-impact-study
#10
Bjarke Ebert, Kamilla Miskowiak, Morten Kloster, Jon Johansen, Cara Eckholm, Torbjörn Wærner, Mads Holme, Louise Meldgaard Bruun
BACKGROUND: The manifestation of major depressive disorder (MDD) may include cognitive symptoms that can precede the onset of MDD and persist beyond the resolution of acute depressive episodes. However, little is known about how cognitive symptoms are experienced by MDD patients and the people around them. METHODS: In this international (Brazil, Canada, China, France, and Germany) ethnographic study, we conducted semi-structured interviews and observations of remitted as well as symptomatic MDD patients (all patients self-reported being diagnosed by an HCP and self-reported being on an antidepressant) aged 18-60 years with self-reported cognitive symptoms (N = 34)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157199/characterization-of-wheat-myb-genes-responsive-to-high-temperatures
#11
Yue Zhao, Xuejun Tian, Fei Wang, Liyuan Zhang, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
BACKGROUND: Heat stress is one of the most crucial environmental factors, which reduces crop yield worldwide. In plants, the MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs). Although some wheat stress-related MYB TFs have been characterized, their involvement in response to high-temperature stress has not been properly studied. RESULTS: Six novel heat-induced MYB genes were identified by comparison with previously established de novo transcriptome sequencing data obtained from wheat plants subjected to heat treatment; genomic and complete coding sequences of these genes were isolated...
November 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157005/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-of-anti-hiv-integrase-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-norm-indexes
#12
Y Wang, F Yan, Q Jia, Y Dai, Q Wang
The development of new and safe anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) drugs has been an urgent task for medical research recently. Herein, based on the norm-index descriptors proposed in this work and previous works, a couple of models were developed for investigating the quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationship (QSAR/QSTR) of dual-target anti-HIV integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. The validation results proved that the developed models were stable and reliable, both in statistical quality and predictive capacity...
November 20, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156984/genkwalathins-a-and-b-new-lathyrane-type-diterpenes-from-daphne-genkwa
#13
Nguyen Van Minh, Baek-Soo Han, Ha-Young Choi, JeongSu Byun, Ji-Su Park, Won-Gon Kim
Screening for new natural anti-neuroinflammatory compounds was performed with the traditional folk medicine Genkwa Flos, which potently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-activated microglial BV-2 cells. Two new lathyrane-type diterpenes, genkwalathins A (1) and B (2), and 14 known daphnane-type diterpenes (3-16) were isolated. The lathyrane-type diterpenes were isolated for the first time from the Thymelaeaceae family in this study. Compounds 1 and 2 moderately inhibited LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells without affecting cell viability, while six daphnane-type diterpenes (3, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10) potently reduced NO production with IC50 values less than 1 μM, although they did display weak cytotoxicity...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156559/tocotrienols-a-family-of-molecules-with-specific-biological-activities
#14
REVIEW
Raffaella Comitato, Roberto Ambra, Fabio Virgili
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering foetal re-absorption in deficient rodents or the development of encephalomalacia in chickens. In humans, Vitamin E activity is generally considered to be solely related to the antioxidant properties of the tocolic chemical structure...
November 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156420/a-concise-synthesis-of-rhamnan-oligosaccharides-with-alternating-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-2-1%C3%A2-3-linkages-and-repeating-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-3-linkages-by-iterative-%C3%AE-glycosylation-using-disaccharide-building-blocks
#15
Hidenori Tanaka, Yu Hamaya, Nagatoshi Nishiwaki, Hideharu Ishida
A concise synthetic route to rhamnan oligosaccharides with alternating α-(1→2)/(1→3)-linkages and repeating α-(1→3)-linkages is reported. This synthesis was achieved by iterative α-glycosylation using disaccharide building blocks and through orthogonal coupling between thioglycosides of L-rhamnose. To investigate the detailed structure-activity relationship of rhamnan sulfate from Monostroma nitidum against herpes simplex virus type 2, the synthesized oligosaccharides, bearing different orthogonal protecting groups (i...
November 14, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156132/the-pp1-tautomycetin-complex-reveals-a-path-towards-the-development-of-pp1-specific-inhibitors
#16
Meng S Choy, Mark Swingle, Brandon D'Arcy, Kevin Abney, Scott F Rusin, Arminja N Kettenbach, Rebecca Page, Richard E Honkanen, Wolfgang Peti
Selective inhibitors for each serine/threonine phosphatase (PPP) are essential to investigate the biological actions of PPPs and to guide drug development. Although multiple organisms (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, beetles, etc.) produce natural toxins that bind and inhibit the active sites of PPPs, they are largely non-selective, typically inhibiting one or more family members with equal potencies. Thus, the use of these toxins as chemical tools to study the relationship between individual PPPs and their biological substrates, and how disruptions in these relationships contributes to human disease, is severely limited...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155767/a-wireless-bidirectional-interface-for-in-vivo-recording-and-stimulation-of-neural-activity-in-freely-behaving-rats
#17
Liana Melo-Thomas, K-Alexander Engelhardt, Uwe Thomas, Dirk Hoehl, Sascha Thomas, Markus Wöhr, Bjoern Werner, Frank Bremmer, Rainer K W Schwarting
In vivo electrophysiology is a powerful technique to investigate the relationship between brain activity and behavior at a millisecond and micrometer scale. However, current methods mostly rely on tethered cable recordings or only use unidirectional systems, allowing either recording or stimulation of neural activity, but not at the same time or same target. Here, a new wireless, bidirectional device for simultaneous multichannel recording and stimulation of neural activity in freely behaving rats is described...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155719/exploring-deep-space-uncovering-the-anatomy-of-periventricular-structures-to-reveal-the-lateral-ventricles-of-the-human-brain
#18
Alexandru S Colibaba, Aicee Dawn B Calma, Alexandra L Webb, Krisztina Valter
Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155027/serum-level-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-is-associated-with-left-atrial-voltage-in-patients-with-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Shilu Zhao, Mingfang Li, Weizhu Ju, Lingyun Gu, Fengxiang Zhang, Hongwu Chen, Kai Gu, Bing Yang, Minglong Chen
BACKGROUND: Atrial tissue fibrosis can cause electrical or structural remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation. Transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling acts as a central role in fibroblast activation. In this report, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum level of TGF-β1 and mean left atrial voltage in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF). METHODS: A total of 16 consecutive adult patients with CAF who underwent catheter ablation were enrolled...
November 15, 2017: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154542/diterpenoid-alkaloids-from-two-aconitum-species-with-antifeedant-activity-against-spodoptera-exigua
#20
Ji-Fa Zhang, Lin Chen, Shuai Huang, Lian-Hai Shan, Feng Gao, Xian-Li Zhou
Twenty-five diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the roots of two Aconitum species. The structures of seven new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, apetaldines A-G (1-7), and 10 known alkaloids (8-17) from Aconitum apetalum and eight known alkaloids (18-25) from Aconitum franchetii var. villosulum were elucidated via HRESIMS, IR, and NMR data. Alkaloids 1-10, 15, 16, and 18-25 were screened for their antifeedant activity. Among the compounds tested, chasmanthinine (19) showed highly potent antifeedant activity with an effective concentration for 50% feeding reduction (EC50) at 0...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
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