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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346350/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-crohn-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
H Jiang, J Shen, Z Ran
Crohn's disease (CD) is often accompanied by the complications of intestinal strictures and fistulas. These complications remain obstacles in CD treatment. In recent years, the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis of CD-associated fistulas and intestinal fibrosis has become apparent. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition refers to a dynamic change, wherein epithelial cells lose their polarity and adherence and acquire migratory function and fibroblast features. During formation of CD-associated fistulas, intestinal epithelial cells dislocate from the basement membrane and migrate to the lining of the fistula tracts, where they convert into transitional cells as a compensatory response under the insufficient wound healing condition...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345635/genetic-risk-dysbiosis-and-treatment-stratification-using-host-genome-and-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Ahmed Moustafa, Weizhong Li, Ericka L Anderson, Emily H M Wong, Parambir S Dulai, William J Sandborn, William Biggs, Shibu Yooseph, Marcus B Jones, J Craig Venter, Karen E Nelson, John T Chang, Amalio Telenti, Brigid S Boland
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are characterized by a complex pathophysiology that is thought to result from an aberrant immune response to a dysbiotic luminal microbiota in genetically susceptible individuals. New technologies support the joint assessment of host-microbiome interaction. METHODS: Using whole genome sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, we studied the clinical features, host genome, and stool microbial metagenome of 85 IBD patients, and compared the results to 146 control individuals...
January 18, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345374/ship-negatively-regulates-type-ii-immune-responses-in-mast-cells-and-macrophages
#3
REVIEW
Peter Dobranowski, Laura M Sly
SHIP is a hematopoietic-specific lipid phosphatase that dephosphorylates PI3K-generated PI(3,4,5)-trisphosphate. SHIP removes this second messenger from the cell membrane blunting PI3K activity in immune cells. Thus, SHIP negatively regulates mast cell activation downstream of multiple receptors. SHIP has been referred to as the "gatekeeper" of mast cell degranulation as loss of SHIP dramatically increases degranulation or permits degranulation in response to normally inert stimuli. SHIP also negatively regulates Mϕ activation, including both pro-inflammatory cytokine production downstream of pattern recognition receptors, and alternative Mϕ activation by the type II cytokines, IL-4, and IL-13...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345146/quantitative-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-for-monitoring-vedolizumab-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-a-pilot-study
#4
Ruediger S Goertz, Daniel Klett, Dane Wildner, Raja Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Deike Strobel
Background Microvascularization of the bowel wall can be visualized and quantified non-invasively by software-assisted analysis of derived time-intensity curves. Purpose To perform software-based quantification of bowel wall perfusion using quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) according to clinical response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with vedolizumab. Material and Methods In a prospective study, in 18 out of 34 patients, high-frequency ultrasound of bowel wall thickness using color Doppler flow combined with CEUS was performed at baseline and after 14 weeks of treatment with vedolizumab...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345029/high-prevalence-and-functional-effects-of-serum-antineuronal-antibodies-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
A Lütt, K Michel, D Krüger, M S Volz, M Nassir, E Schulz, L Poralla, P Tangermann, C Bojarski, M Höltje, B Teegen, W Stöcker, M Schemann, B Siegmund, H Prüss
BACKGROUND: Antineuronal antibodies can be associated with both gastrointestinal (GI) and brain disorders. For example, antibodies against the potassium channel subunit dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) bind to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and myenteric plexus and cause encephalitis, commonly preceded by severe unspecific GI symptoms. We therefore investigated the prevalence of antineuronal antibodies indicative of treatable autoimmune CNS etiologies in GI patients...
January 18, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342997/-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-deficiency-manifested-as-crohn-s-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
L J Xu, Y Y Luo, J D Yu, J G Lou, Y H Fang, J Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficient patients with clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. Methods: Clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations, genetic testing and therapeutic interventions of one case of XIAP deficiency who was admitted to Department of Gastroenterology in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine in May 2016 were summarized. PubMed and Chinese database for articles published from January 2016 to June 2017 were searched using the key words of'Crohn's disease'and'XIAP', and the relevant literature was reviewed...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340807/long-term-outcome-of-infliximab-optimization-for-overcoming-immunogenicity-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Konstantinos Papamichael, Ravy K Vajravelu, Mark T Osterman, Adam S Cheifetz
BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that treatment optimization can reverse immunogenicity and regain response in patients with IBD and secondary loss of response (SLR) to anti-TNF therapy due to antidrug antibodies. However, data regarding the long-term outcome of these patients are scarce. AIMS: We aimed to investigate drug retention in IBD patients of whom infliximab was optimized to overcome immunogenicity and variables associated with drug retention. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive IBD patients with antibodies to infliximab (ATI), based on either proactive or reactive therapeutic drug monitoring, who underwent infliximab optimization (increasing dose, shortening interval, adding an immunomodulator, or combination) to overcome immunogenicity from September 2012 to July 2015; they were followed through December 2015...
January 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338679/therapeutic-role-of-methotrexate-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Zlatko Djurić, Ljiljana Šaranac, Ivana Budić, Voja Pavlović, Jelena Djordjević
The main role of therapy in Crohn's disease is to achieve long-term clinical remission, and to allow for normal growth and development of children. The immunomodulatory drugs used for the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease include thiopurines (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) and methotrexate. Development of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in some patients with inflammatory bowel disease, treated with thiopurines independently or in combination with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, resulted in a growing interest in the therapeutic application of methotrexate in children suffering from Crohn's disease...
January 16, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338066/endoscopic-scoring-indices-for-evaluation-of-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis
#9
REVIEW
Nadia Mohammed Vashist, Mark Samaan, Mahmoud H Mosli, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald, Sigrid A Nelson, G Y Zou, Brian G Feagan, Reena Khanna, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic assessment of mucosal disease activity is routinely used to determine eligibility and response to therapy in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis. The operating properties of the existing endoscopic scoring indices are unclear. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of endoscopic scoring indices for the evaluation of ulcerative colitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL from inception to 5 July 2016...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337777/rescue-diverting-loop-ileostomy-an-alternative-to-emergent-colectomy-in-the-setting-of-severe-acute-refractory-ibd-colitis
#10
Tara A Russell, Aaron J Dawes, Danielle S Graham, Stephanie A K Angarita, Christina Ha, Jonathan Sack
BACKGROUND: Severe acute refractory colitis has traditionally been an indication for emergent colectomy in IBD, yet under these circumstances patients are at elevated risk for complications because of their heightened inflammatory state, nutritional deficiencies, and immunocompromised state. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that rescue diverting loop ileostomy may be a viable alternative to emergent colectomy, providing the opportunity for colonic healing and patient optimization before more definitive surgery...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337776/l%C3%A3-mann-index-at-diagnosis-predicts-the-risk-of-early-surgery-in-crohn-s-disease
#11
Wei Liu, Wei Zhou, Jianjian Xiang, Qian Cao, Jinzhou Zhu, Weilin Qi, Pengpeng Chen, Qingwen Xie
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with Crohn's disease with rapid disease progress or high risk of early surgery is crucial to clinical decision making. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the correlation between the Lémann index at diagnosis and abdominal surgery in the first year after Crohn's disease diagnosis and to find the risk factors for early surgery. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary hospital...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337765/digestive-tract-damage-a-predictor-of-early-surgical-intervention-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-crohn-s-disease
#12
Evangelos Messaris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337040/colonic-perforation-due-to-gi-histoplasmosis-in-an-immunocompetent-host-mimicking-crohn-s-disease
#13
Pir Saad, Hani Zamil, Marc F Catalano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336524/human-intestinal-dendritic-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#14
REVIEW
David Bernardo, María Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a serious, costly and persistent health problem with an estimated prevalence in Western countries around 0.5% of the general population; its socioeconomic impact is comparable with that for chronic diseases such as diabetes. Conventional treatment involves escalating drug regimens with concomitant side effects followed, in some cases, by surgical interventions which are often multiple, mainly in Crohn's disease. The goal of finding a targeted gut-specific immunotherapy for IBD patients is therefore an important unmet need...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336432/increased-mortality-rates-with-prolonged-corticosteroid-therapy-when-compared-with-antitumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-directed-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
James D Lewis, Frank I Scott, Colleen M Brensinger, Jason A Roy, Mark T Osterman, Ronac Mamtani, Meenakshi Bewtra, Lang Chen, Huifeng Yun, Fenglong Xie, Jeffrey R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that compromise quality of life and may increase mortality. This study compared the mortality risk with prolonged corticosteroid use vs. antitumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) drugs in IBD. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries from 2001 to 2013 with IBD prescribed either >3,000 mg of prednisone or equivalent within a 12-month period or new initiation of anti-TNF therapy, each treated as time-updating exposures...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335491/validation-and-optimization-of-the-systemic-inflammation-based-modified-glasgow-prognostic-score-in-predicting-postoperative-outcome-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-preliminary-data
#16
Chenyan Zhao, Chao Ding, Tingbin Xie, Tenghui Zhang, Xujie Dai, Yao Wei, Yi Li, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu
Systemic Inflammation-Based modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) was developed as an objective tool to grade state of inflammation. However, the association between mGPS and postoperative complications for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients was still unknown. In our study, 270 IBD patients [Crohn's disease (CD), n = 186; Ulcerative colitis (UC), n = 84] from January 2013 and January 2016 who underwent elective bowel resection were retrospectively analyzed, and, the levels of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin were included as parameters of mGPS...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335008/multi-omics-differentially-classify-disease-state-and-treatment-outcome-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#17
Gavin M Douglas, Richard Hansen, Casey M A Jones, Katherine A Dunn, André M Comeau, Joseph P Bielawski, Rachel Tayler, Emad M El-Omar, Richard K Russell, Georgina L Hold, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has an unclear etiology, but there is growing evidence of a direct link with a dysbiotic microbiome. Many gut microbes have previously been associated with CD, but these have mainly been confounded with patients' ongoing treatments. Additionally, most analyses of CD patients' microbiomes have focused on microbes in stool samples, which yield different insights than profiling biopsy samples. RESULTS: We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene (16S) and carried out shotgun metagenomics (MGS) from the intestinal biopsies of 20 treatment-naïve CD and 20 control pediatric patients...
January 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334724/disparity-in-crohn-s-disease-activity-between-home-and-clinics-is-associated-with-unscheduled-hospital-visits-due-to-disease-flares
#18
Eun Soo Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Kyeong Ok Kim, Eun Young Kim, Hyun Seok Lee, Seong Woo Jeon, Sang Gyu Kwak
Background/Aims: E-health technologies have been implemented for the management of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to identify differences between patient activities at home and at routine clinic visits using a web-based self-reporting CD symptom diary (CDSD) and to determine the impact of this disparity on clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients with CD from three tertiary hospitals were invited to assess their symptoms at least once a week using CDSD. We identified patients who showed disparities in disease activity (high activity at home but normal at the next hospital visit) and evaluated clinical outcomes of these patients such as unscheduled visits due to flares using Kaplan-Meier analyses...
January 17, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334518/is-ileocecal-valve-intubation-essential-for-routine-colonoscopic-examination
#19
Murat Meral, Göksel Bengi, Hasan Kayahan, Mesut Akarsu, Müjde Soytürk, Ömer Topalak, Hale Akpinar, Özgül Sağol
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of terminal ileum intubation during routine colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We routinely performed terminal ileum intubation in all patients who underwent colonoscopy at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between February 2014 and June 2015. Two gastroenterology fellows performed colonoscopies in the Central Endoscopy Unit. Demographic data of patients, indications of colonoscopies, cecum and ileum intubation rate/time, and endoscopic and histopathologic findings of the terminal ileum were all assessed...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334503/family-history-of-autoimmune-diseases-and-risk-of-gastric-cancer-a-national-cohort-study
#20
Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
A personal history of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased incidence of gastric cancer, but whether they share familial susceptibility is still unknown. The contribution of shared environmental or genetic factors toward the observed familial aggregation has not been determined. We used a few Swedish registers, including the Swedish Multigeneration Register and the Cancer Register, to examine the familial risk of gastric cancer among individuals with a family history of a set of autoimmune diseases...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
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