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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342285/serial-participation-and-the-ethics-of-phase-1-healthy-volunteer-research
#1
Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341271/review-shows-that-early-fetal-alcohol-exposure-may-cause-adverse-effects-even-when-the-mother-consumes-low-levels
#2
Ihsan Sarman
AIM: Studies are increasingly focusing on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on child health. The aim of this review was to provide paediatricians with new insights to help them communicate key messages about avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. METHODS: Inspired by the 7th International Conference on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, which focused on integrating research, policy and practice, we studied English language papers published since 2010 on how early PAE triggered epigenetic mechanisms that had an impact on the development of some chronic diseases...
January 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340512/articulation-between-health-services-and-indigenous-medicine-anthropological-reflections-on-policies-and-reality-in-brazil
#3
Esther Jean Langdon, Luiza Garnelo
This paper contributes to the dialogue between the social sciences and social medicine in Latin America by exploring therapeutic pluralism in indigenous health policies and services in Brazil. It reviews recent anthropological research, concepts and current debates to critically examine Brazilian indigenous health policy and its concept of "differentiated care," which proposes articulation between official health practices and indigenous therapies. A number of contradictions and tensions are present in the structural organizational of the indigenous health subsystem at the national level and in the daily practices of health teams at the local level...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340445/-health-universalism-in-argentina-between-2003-and-2015-assessments-and-challenges-based-in-a-macro-institutional-approach
#4
Magdalena Chiara, María Crojethovic, Ana Ariovich
Debates about universalism in health have been gaining ground in Latin America and have entered the policy agenda with differing results. Notwithstanding the country's federalism, the most profound changes that took place in Argentina in the last decade occurred in the arena of national politics. Based on the theoretical contributions of historical neo-institutionalism and implementation studies, this paper aims to analyze, from a macro institutional approach, the scope of the national policy regarding health universalization...
October 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340312/ckd-screening-and-surveillance-in-australia-past-present-and-future
#5
REVIEW
Sree K Venuthurupalli, Wendy E Hoy, Helen G Healy, Anne Cameron, Robert G Fassett
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was largely a hidden health problem until the publication of an internationally agreed approach to its identification, monitoring, and treatment. The 2002 National Kidney Foundation CKD classification and the subsequent 2006 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations are powerful tools for translating thinking about CKD into clinical practice. These guidelines were strongly endorsed by the international community, including Australia, and were incorporated into CKD practice guidelines...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339565/a-home-visiting-parenting-program-and-child-obesity-a-randomized-trial
#6
Monica Roosa Ordway, Lois S Sadler, Margaret L Holland, Arietta Slade, Nancy Close, Linda C Mayes
BACKGROUND: Young children living in historically marginalized families are at risk for becoming adolescents with obesity and subsequently adults with increased obesity-related morbidities. These risks are particularly acute for Hispanic children. We hypothesized that the prevention-focused, socioecological approach of the "Minding the Baby" (MTB) home visiting program might decrease the rate of childhood overweight and obesity early in life. METHODS: This study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study in which we include data collected during 2 phases of the MTB randomized controlled trial...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339470/a-randomized-controlled-design-reveals-barriers-to-citizenship-for-low-income-immigrants
#7
Jens Hainmueller, Duncan Lawrence, Justin Gest, Michael Hotard, Rey Koslowski, David D Laitin
Citizenship endows legal protections and is associated with economic and social gains for immigrants and their communities. In the United States, however, naturalization rates are relatively low. Yet we lack reliable knowledge as to what constrains immigrants from applying. Drawing on data from a public/private naturalization program in New York, this research provides a randomized controlled study of policy interventions that address these constraints. The study tested two programmatic interventions among low-income immigrants who are eligible for citizenship...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339115/toddler-drinks-formulas-and-milks-labeling-practices-and-policy-implications
#8
Jennifer L Pomeranz, Maria J Romo Palafox, Jennifer L Harris
Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations...
January 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338794/a-systematic-review-of-group-walking-in-physically-healthy-people-to-promote-physical-activity
#9
Catherine Meads, Josephine Exley
BACKGROUND: Walking is a good way to meet physical activity guidelines. We examined the effectiveness of walking in groups compared with walking alone or inactive controls in physically healthy adults on physical activity and quality of life. (PROSPERO CRD42016033752). METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Knowledge Science Citation Index, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2016, for any comparative studies, in physically healthy adults, of walking in groups compared with inactive controls or walking alone, reporting any measure of physical activity...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338767/effect-of-exercise-versus-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-or-no-intervention-on-anxiety-depression-fitness-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-previous-methamphetamine-dependency-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Linzette Morris, Jessica Stander, Wardah Ebrahim, Stephanie Eksteen, Orissa Anna Meaden, Ané Ras, Annemarie Wessels
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant used by approximately 52 million people worldwide. Chronic MA abuse leads to detrimental physiological and neurological changes, as well as increases in anxiety and depression, and decreases in overall fitness and quality of life. Exercise has been reported to possibly reverse physiological and neurological damage caused by previous MA use, and to reduce anxiety and depression in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, clinically appraise and synthesise the available evidence for the effectiveness of exercise, compared to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), standard care or no intervention, on decreasing anxiety and depression and improving fitness and quality of life in previous MA users...
January 16, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338699/assessing-predictors-of-intention-to-prescribe-sick-leave-among-primary-care-physicians-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#11
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338563/the-long-term-effects-of-the-youth-crime-prevention-program-new-perspectives-on-delinquency-and-recidivism
#12
Sanne L A de Vries, Machteld Hoeve, Jessica J Asscher, Geert Jan J M Stams
New Perspectives (NP) aims to prevent persistent criminal behavior. We examined the long-term effectiveness of NP and whether the effects were moderated by demographic and delinquency factors. At-risk youth aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (NP, n = 47) or care as usual (CAU, n = 54). Official and self-report data were collected to assess recidivism. NP was not more effective in reducing delinquency levels and recidivism than CAU. Also, no moderator effects were found. The overall null effects are discussed, including further research and policy implications...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337427/outcomes-from-the-first-helene-fuld-health-trust-national-institute-for-evidence-based-practice-in-nursing-and-healthcare-invitational-expert-forum
#13
Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk, Lynn Gallagher-Ford, Cindy Zellefrow, Sharon Tucker, Laurel Van Dromme, Bindu Koshy Thomas
BACKGROUND: Even though multiple positive outcomes are the result of evidence-based care, including improvements in healthcare quality, safety, and costs, it is not consistently delivered by clinicians in healthcare systems throughout the world. AIMS: In an attempt to accelerate the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) across the United States, an invitational Interprofessional National EBP Forum to determine major priorities for the advancement of EBP was held during the launch of the newly established Helene Fuld Health Trust National Institute for Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare at The Ohio State University College of Nursing...
January 16, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337312/china-co2-emission-accounts-1997-2015
#14
Yuli Shan, Dabo Guan, Heran Zheng, Jiamin Ou, Yuan Li, Jing Meng, Zhifu Mi, Zhu Liu, Qiang Zhang
China is the world's top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China's CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337069/a-survey-instrument-for-measuring-vaccine-acceptance
#15
Dilshani Sarathchandra, Mark C Navin, Mark A Largent, Aaron M McCright
Accurately measuring vaccine acceptance is important, especially under current conditions in which misinformation may increase public anxiety about vaccines and politicize vaccine policies. We integrated substantive knowledge, conceptualization and measurement expertise, and survey design principles to develop an instrument for measuring vaccine acceptance across the general public. Given this broad goal, we expect our novel instrument will complement, rather than replace, existing instruments designed specifically to measure parents' vaccine hesitancy...
January 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336923/report-on-who-meeting-on-immunization-in-older-adults-geneva-switzerland-22-23-march-2017
#16
M Teresa Aguado, Jane Barratt, John R Beard, Bonnie B Blomberg, Wilbur H Chen, Julian Hickling, Terri B Hyde, Mark Jit, Rebecca Jones, Gregory A Poland, Martin Friede, Justin R Ortiz
Many industrialized countries have implemented routine immunization policies for older adults, but similar strategies have not been widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In March 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify policies and activities to promote access to vaccination of older adults, specifically in LMICs. Participants included academic and industry researchers, funders, civil society organizations, implementers of global health interventions, and stakeholders from developing countries with adult immunization needs...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336921/legal-and-policy-issues-for-lgbt-patients-with-cancer-or-at-elevated-risk-of-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Sean R Cahill
OBJECTIVE: To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. DATA SOURCES: LGBT health policy research. CONCLUSION: Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients...
January 11, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336701/coming-out-of-the-shadows-and-the-closet-visibility-schemas-among-undocuqueer-immigrants
#18
Jesus Cisneros, Christian Bracho
Centering the experiences of 31 undocuqueer immigrants, this study seeks to understand the ways that undocuqueer immigrants negotiate the boundaries of social performance by revealing or concealing their gender, sexuality, and immigration status. Findings of this study reveal how, in order to avoid the constant threat of rejection (both legal and social), undocuqueer immigrants engage visibility schemas and make strategic decisions about coming out of the shadows and the closet across different contexts. Undocuqueer immigrants' narratives reveal the ways the closet resembles the shadows in that both provide protection from the outside world, yet neither are considered suitable places for sustaining life...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335170/risk-factors-associated-with-rural-water-supply-failure-a-30-year-retrospective-study-of-handpumps-on-the-south-coast-of-kenya
#19
Tim Foster, Juliet Willetts, Mike Lane, Patrick Thomson, Jacob Katuva, Rob Hope
An improved understanding of failure risks for water supplies in rural sub-Saharan Africa will be critical to achieving the global goal of safe water for all by 2030. In the absence of longitudinal biophysical and operational data, investigations into water point failure risk factors have to date been limited to cross-sectional research designs. This retrospective cohort study applies survival analysis to identify factors that predict failure risks for handpumps installed on boreholes along the south coast of Kenya from the 1980s...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335089/associations-between-clinical-indicators-of-quality-and-aged-care-residents
#20
Yun-Hee Jeon, Anne-Nicole Casey, Kha Vo, Kris Rogers, Belinda Poole, Judith Fethney
Objectives To ascertain Australian multistate prevalence and incidence of five commonly collected clinical indicators of aged-care home quality and to measure associations between these clinical indicators and levels of care needs and consumer and staff satisfaction.Methods A retrospective analysis of national audit data collected from 426 facilities between 2015 and 2016 was performed. Regression models were used to examine associations between five clinical indicators (falls, pressure injury, physical restraint, unplanned weight loss and polypharmacy) and level of care needs measured by the Aged Care Funding Instrument (ACFI) and consumer and care staff survey responses...
January 16, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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