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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650979/expression-of-cerebral-serotonin-related-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-c57bl-6-offspring-induced-by-repeated-subcutaneous-prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-lipopolysaccharide
#1
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Hsuan-Han Wang, Chiu-Lin Liu, Wei-Fen Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which likely occurs due to infection or contact with environmental allergens during pregnancy, is a proposed risk factor that induces anxiety- and autism spectrum disorder-like behaviors in offspring. However, the molecular and behavioral changes in offspring after maternal immune activation have not been completely identified. We hypothesized that a subcutaneous injection of LPS in a pregnant mouse would induce changes in cerebral serotonin (5-HT) in parallel to the appearance of anxiety-like behaviors in the dam's offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649923/detecting-abnormal-voice-prosody-through-single-word-utterances-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Yasushi Nakai, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Gakuyo Matsui, Noriko Yamaoka, Satoshi Takada
Abnormal prosody is often evident in the voice intonations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared a machine-learning-based voice analysis with human hearing judgments made by 10 speech therapists for classifying children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 30) and typical development ( n = 51). Using stimuli limited to single-word utterances, machine-learning-based voice analysis was superior to speech therapist judgments. There was a significantly higher true-positive than false-negative rate for machine-learning-based voice analysis but not for speech therapists...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649445/variable-phenotype-expression-in-a-family-segregating-microdeletions-of-the-nrxn1-and-mbd5-autism-spectrum-disorder-susceptibility-genes
#3
Marc Woodbury-Smith, Rob Nicolson, Mehdi Zarrei, Ryan K C Yuen, Susan Walker, Jennifer Howe, Mohammed Uddin, Ny Hoang, Janet A Buchanan, Christina Chrysler, Ann Thompson, Peter Szatmari, Stephen W Scherer
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition of early childhood onset, which impacts socio-communicative functioning and is principally genetic in etiology. Currently, more than 50 genomic loci are deemed to be associated with susceptibility to ASD, showing de novo and inherited unbalanced copy number variants (CNVs) and smaller insertions and deletions (indels), more complex structural variants (SVs), as well as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) deemed of pathological significance. However, the phenotypes associated with many of these genes are variable, and penetrance is largely unelaborated in clinical descriptions...
May 3, 2017: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649315/effects-of-a-social-stimulus-on-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#4
Tiffany D Rogers, Allison M J Anacker, Travis M Kerr, C Gunnar Forsberg, Jing Wang, Bing Zhang, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: People with fragile X syndrome (FXS) often have deficits in social behavior, and a substantial portion meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Though the genetic cause of FXS is known to be due to the silencing of FMR1, and the Fmr1 null mouse model representing this lesion has been extensively studied, the contributions of this gene and its protein product, FMRP, to social behavior are not well understood. METHODS: Fmr1 null mice and wildtype littermates were exposed to a social or non-social stimulus...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649314/hierarchical-cortical-transcriptome-disorganization-in-autism
#5
Michael V Lombardo, Eric Courchesne, Nathan E Lewis, Tiziano Pramparo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are etiologically heterogeneous and complex. Functional genomics work has begun to identify a diverse array of dysregulated transcriptomic programs (e.g., synaptic, immune, cell cycle, DNA damage, WNT signaling, cortical patterning and differentiation) potentially involved in ASD brain abnormalities during childhood and adulthood. However, it remains unclear whether such diverse dysregulated pathways are independent of each other or instead reflect coordinated hierarchical systems-level pathology...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649313/the-eu-aims-longitudinal-european-autism-project-leap-clinical-characterisation
#6
Tony Charman, Eva Loth, Julian Tillmann, Daisy Crawley, Caroline Wooldridge, David Goyard, Jumana Ahmad, Bonnie Auyeung, Sara Ambrosino, Tobias Banaschewski, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sarah Baumeister, Christian Beckmann, Sven Bölte, Thomas Bourgeron, Carsten Bours, Michael Brammer, Daniel Brandeis, Claudia Brogna, Yvette de Bruijn, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Ineke Cornelissen, Flavio Dell' Acqua, Guillaume Dumas, Sarah Durston, Christine Ecker, Jessica Faulkner, Vincent Frouin, Pilar Garcés, Lindsay Ham, Hannah Hayward, Joerg Hipp, Rosemary J Holt, Johan Isaksson, Mark H Johnson, Emily J H Jones, Prantik Kundu, Meng-Chuan Lai, Xavier Liogier D'ardhuy, Michael V Lombardo, David J Lythgoe, René Mandl, Luke Mason, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Carolin Moessnang, Nico Mueller, Laurence O'Dwyer, Marianne Oldehinkel, Bob Oranje, Gahan Pandina, Antonio M Persico, Barbara Ruggeri, Amber N V Ruigrok, Jessica Sabet, Roberto Sacco, Antonia San Jóse Cáceres, Emily Simonoff, Roberto Toro, Heike Tost, Jack Waldman, Steve C R Williams, Marcel P Zwiers, Will Spooren, Declan G M Murphy, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study on biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper describes the clinical characteristics of the LEAP cohort and examines age, sex and IQ differences in ASD core symptoms and common co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. A companion paper describes the overall design and experimental protocol and outlines the strategy to identify stratification biomarkers...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649312/the-eu-aims-longitudinal-european-autism-project-leap-design-and-methodologies-to-identify-and-validate-stratification-biomarkers-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Eva Loth, Tony Charman, Luke Mason, Julian Tillmann, Emily J H Jones, Caroline Wooldridge, Jumana Ahmad, Bonnie Auyeung, Claudia Brogna, Sara Ambrosino, Tobias Banaschewski, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sarah Baumeister, Christian Beckmann, Michael Brammer, Daniel Brandeis, Sven Bölte, Thomas Bourgeron, Carsten Bours, Yvette de Bruijn, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Daisy Crawley, Ineke Cornelissen, Flavio Dell' Acqua, Guillaume Dumas, Sarah Durston, Christine Ecker, Jessica Faulkner, Vincent Frouin, Pilar Garces, David Goyard, Hannah Hayward, Lindsay M Ham, Joerg Hipp, Rosemary J Holt, Mark H Johnson, Johan Isaksson, Prantik Kundu, Meng-Chuan Lai, Xavier Liogier D'ardhuy, Michael V Lombardo, David J Lythgoe, René Mandl, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Carolin Moessnang, Nico Mueller, Laurence O'Dwyer, Marianne Oldehinkel, Bob Oranje, Gahan Pandina, Antonio M Persico, Amber N V Ruigrok, Barbara Ruggeri, Jessica Sabet, Roberto Sacco, Antonia San José Cáceres, Emily Simonoff, Roberto Toro, Heike Tost, Jack Waldman, Steve C R Williams, Marcel P Zwiers, Will Spooren, Declan G M Murphy, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: The tremendous clinical and aetiological diversity among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been a major obstacle to the development of new treatments, as many may only be effective in particular subgroups. Precision medicine approaches aim to overcome this challenge by combining pathophysiologically based treatments with stratification biomarkers that predict which treatment may be most beneficial for particular individuals. However, so far, we have no single validated stratification biomarker for ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649286/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-epileptic-encephalopathy-common-causes-many-questions
#8
REVIEW
Siddharth Srivastava, Mustafa Sahin
Epileptic encephalopathies represent a particularly severe form of epilepsy, associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired social-communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors that are the hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of epileptic encephalopathies is growing and demonstrates overlap with genes separately implicated in ASD. However, many questions remain about this connection, including whether epileptiform activity itself contributes to the development of ASD symptomatology...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647830/the-comprehension-of-syntactic-and-affective-prosody-by-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-accompanying-cognitive-deficits
#9
Maria Martzoukou, Despina Papadopoulou, Mary-Helen Kosmidis
The present study investigates the comprehension of syntactic and affective prosody in adults with autism spectrum disorder without accompanying cognitive deficits (ASD w/o cognitive deficits) as well as age-, education- and gender-matched unimpaired adults, while processing orally presented sentences. Two experiments were conducted: (a) an on-line sentence completion task containing local subject/object ambiguities and (b) an affective prosody task exploring the comprehension of six emotions. The syntactic prosody task revealed that the experimental group performed similar to the control group on the fillers and the object condition...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647439/testing-the-effects-of-expression-intensity-and-age-on-emotional-face-processing-in-asd
#10
Rhiannon J Luyster, Johanna Bick, Alissa Westerlund, Charles A Nelson
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly show global deficits in the processing of facial emotion, including impairments in emotion recognition and slowed processing of emotional faces. Growing evidence has suggested that these challenges may increase with age, perhaps due to minimal improvement with age in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we explored the role of age, emotion type and emotion intensity in face processing for individuals with and without ASD. Twelve- and 18 to 22- year-old children with and without ASD participated...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647363/cadps2-gene-expression-is-oppositely-regulated-by-lrrk2-and-alpha-synuclein
#11
Julia Obergasteiger, Christa Überbacher, Peter P Pramstaller, Andrew A Hicks, Corrado Corti, Mattia Volta
The Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2) is a member of the CAPS/CADPS protein family that play crucial roles in synaptic vesicle dynamics. Genomic variability in the CADPS2 gene has been associated to autism spectrum disorders and Alzheimer's disease, both characterized by altered neurotransmission. Biological evidence also linked CADPS2 to Parkinson's disease (PD), as a disease-causing mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) was reported to increase CADPS2 gene and protein expression...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647360/structure-of-an-unconventional-sh3-domain-from-the-postsynaptic-density-protein-shank3-at-ultrahigh-resolution
#12
Srinivas Kumar Ponna, Matti Myllykoski, Tobias M Boeckers, Petri Kursula
The Shank family comprises three large multi-domain proteins playing central roles as protein scaffolds in the neuronal postsynaptic density. The Shank proteins are closely linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders. One characteristic domain in the Shank family is the SH3 domain, assumed to play a role in protein-protein interactions; however, no specific ligand binding to any Shank SH3 domain has been described. We solved the crystal structure of the SH3 domain from Shank3 at sub-atomic resolution...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647013/autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-tourette-s-disorder-sample
#13
Sabrina M Darrow, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Participants with TD (n = 535) and their family members (n =234) recruited for genetic studies reported TD, OCD, and ADHD symptoms and completed the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS), which was used to characterize ASD symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647010/social-skills-training-for-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Nora Choque Olsson, Oskar Flygare, Christina Coco, Anders Görling, Anna Råde, Qi Chen, Katarina Lindstedt, Steve Berggren, Eva Serlachius, Ulf Jonsson, Kristiina Tammimies, Lars Kjellin, Sven Bölte
OBJECTIVE: Social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is widely applied, but effectiveness in real-world practice has not yet been properly evaluated. This study sought to bridge this gap. METHOD: This 12-week pragmatic randomized controlled trial of SSGT compared to standard care alone was conducted at 13 child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient units in Sweden. Twelve sessions of manualized SSGT ("KONTAKT") were delivered by regular clinical staff...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646372/psychophysiological-and-behavioral-responses-to-a-novel-intruder-threat-task-for-children-on-the-autism-spectrum
#15
Mikle South, Katherine M Taylor, Tiffani Newton, Megan Christensen, Nathan K Jamison, Paul Chamberlain, Oliver Johnston, Michael J Crowley, J Dee Higley
We measured skin conductance response (SCR) to escalating levels of a direct social threat from a novel, ecologically-relevant experimental paradigm, the Intruder Threat Task. We simultaneously evaluated the contribution of social symptom severity and behavioral movement. Children with AS group showed less psychophysiological reactivity to social threat than controls across all three phases of the experiment. In the AS group, greater social impairment was significantly associated with reduced SCR. However, movement activity predicted SCR while diagnosis did not...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645986/feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-investigate-the-effectiveness-of-using-a-humanoid-robot-to-improve-the-social-skills-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-kaspar-rct-a-study-protocol
#16
Silvana E Mengoni, Karen Irvine, Deepshikha Thakur, Garry Barton, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Karen Guldberg, Ben Robins, David Wellsted, Shivani Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Interventions using robot-assisted therapy may be beneficial for the social skills development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are lacking. The present research aims to assess the feasibility of conducting an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of a social skills intervention using Kinesics and Synchronisation in Personal Assistant Robotics (Kaspar) with children with ASD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Forty children will be recruited...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644991/glimpses-into-the-blind-spot-social-interaction-and-autism
#17
REVIEW
Kristen Bottema-Beutel
A primary feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked difficulty in social interactions. Despite the centrality of social interaction differences to the clinical presentation of ASD, only a small portion of research in this field characterizes interaction in everyday social contexts. This theoretical paper reviews the growing corpus of interactional research on ASD, including discourse analysis (DA) and conversation analysis (CA) approaches. DA and CA are micro-analytic methods aimed at understanding the organizational structure of, and actions pursued within, social encounters...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644796/design-of-an-autonomous-social-orienting-training-system-asots-for-young-children-with-autism
#18
Zhi Zheng, Qiang Fu, Huan Zhao, Amy R Swanson, Amy S Weitlauf, Zachary E Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
Social communication is among the core areas of impairment for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The training of social orientation is important for improving social communication of children with ASD. In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention had gained momentum due to its potential advantages in terms of precision, sustainability, flexibility and cost. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop autonomous computer system, named ASOTS, for training social orientation skills to young children with ASD...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642808/increasing-social-integration-for-college-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Kristen Ashbaugh, Robert Koegel, Lynn Koegel
Increasing numbers of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are entering postsecondary education; however, many report feeling lonely and isolated. These difficulties with socialization have been found to impact students' academic success, involvement within the university, and overall well being. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess, within the context of a multiple-baseline across participants design, whether a structured social planning intervention would increase social integration for college students with ASD...
April 2017: Behav Dev Bull
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642070/conceptualising-compensation-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-reflections-from-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Lucy Anne Livingston, Francesca Happé
Within research into neurodevelopmental disorders, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning changes in symptom severity across development. When the behavioural presentation of a condition improves/symptoms lessen, this may be because core underlying atypicalities in cognition/neural function have ameliorated. An alternative possibility is 'compensation'; that the behavioural presentation appears improved, despite persisting deficits at cognitive and neurobiological levels. There is, however, currently no agreed technical definition of compensation or its behavioural, cognitive and neural characteristics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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