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autism spectrum

Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Chloè Bontinck, Petra Warreyn, Sara Van der Paelt, Ellen Demurie, Herbert Roeyers
Although sibling interactions play an important role in children's early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Audra Sterling
Purpose: Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Method: Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Wendy J Ungar
Background: Inefficient diagnostic practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to longer wait times, delaying access to intervention. The objectives were to describe the diagnostic practices of Canadian pediatricians and to identify determinants of longer wait time for ASD diagnosis. Methods: An online survey was conducted through the Canadian Paediatric Society's developmental pediatrics, community pediatrics, and mental health sections. Participants were asked for demographic information, whether they diagnosed ASD, and elements of their diagnostic assessment...
2018: Molecular Autism
Mami Miyasaka, Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Laura C Politte, Lawrence Scahill, Janet Figueroa, James T McCracken, Bryan King, Christopher J McDougle
In a prior report, we showed that extended-release guanfacine (GEXR) is safe and effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) accompanied by ADHD symptoms. Here, we examine the impact of GEXR on oppositional behavior, anxiety, repetitive behavior, and sleep disturbance. Sixty-two subjects with ASD (53 boys, 9 girls; ages 5-14 years) were randomly assigned to GEXR (n = 30) or placebo (n = 32) for 8 weeks. Outcomes include the Home Situation Questionnaire-Modified for ASD (HSQ-ASD), Anxiety scale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Modified for ASD (CYBOCS-ASD), and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ping-Tao Tseng, Yu-Shian Cheng, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Paul Whiteley, Andre F Carvalho, Dian-Jeng Li, Tien-Yu Chen, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chia-Hung Tang, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Pao-Yen Lin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, and nutritional deficiency may play a role in the development of ASD. A relationship between ASD and iron levels/iron deficiency (ID) has been reported; however, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to examine the relationship between ASD and ID following the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Julia S Anixt, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Halley Estridge, Laura Smith, William B Brinkman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of treatment decisions to address challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Parents of children aged 4 to 15 years with ASD seen in a developmental behavioral pediatric (DBP) clinic completed validated measures to characterize their child's behaviors and their own level of stress. Parents reported their treatment priority before the visit. During the visit, we assessed shared decision making (SDM) using the Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale and alignment of the clinician's treatment plan with the parent's priority...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Kelly McGuire, Matthew Siegel
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are admitted to inpatient psychiatric units at markedly high rates. As health insurance companies and government healthcare systems and regulators seek more evidence for healthcare outcomes, it is important to learn more about the effectiveness of psychiatric inpatient admissions for children with ASD to best inform decisions on provision and access to this level of care. Evidence for models of inpatient treatment for youth with ASD is presented, and key characteristics and consensus recommendations for care are discussed...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Rebecca J Landa
With advances in the field's ability to identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at younger ages, the need for information about the evidence-base for early intervention continues to rise. This review of the ASD early intervention (EI) literature focuses on efficacy studies published within the past 15 years. The neurodevelopmental context for early intervention, timing of initiating intervention, primary intervention approaches, and predictors of treatment outcomes are discussed. The evidence indicates that young children with ASD benefit from EI, and their parents learn to implement child-responsive engagement strategies when a parent-coaching intervention is provided...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
L Bell, C Oliver, A Wittkowski, J Moss, D Hare
BACKGROUND: Catatonia-like presentations in people with autism have been increasingly recognised within research and diagnostic guidelines. The recently developed Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has identified that attenuated behaviour [autistic catatonia] is very prevalent in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and associated with repetitive behaviour. In the current study, we investigated attenuated behaviour within two genetic syndromes associated with ASD and examined ASD and repetitive behaviour as longitudinal predictors of attenuated behaviour...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Alan S Lewis, Gerrit Ian van Schalkwyk, Mayra Ortiz Lopez, Fred R Volkmar, Marina R Picciotto, Denis G Sukhodolsky
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly the α7 nAChR, are implicated in the pathophysiology of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and aggressive behavior. We explored the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of targeting nAChRs using transdermal nicotine to reduce aggressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Eight subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover trial of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo, each for 1 week. All participants tolerated nicotine treatment well...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jihong Lee, Sun Haeng Lee, Boram Lee, In Jun Yang, Gyu Tae Chang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinical practice patterns of Korean medicine doctors (KMDs) through questionnaire survey. METHODS: Questionnaires on Korean medicine (KM) treatment for ASD were distributed to 255 KMDs on December 5, 2016. The KMDs were psychiatrists, pediatricians, or general practitioners, who treated patients with ASD. The questionnaire covered items on treatment methods, aims of treatment, KM syndrome differentiation, diagnostic tools, and sociodemographic characteristics...
March 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mehdi Zarrei, Geoffrey G Hicks, James N Reynolds, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Worrawat Engchuan, Molly Pind, Sylvia Lamoureux, John Wei, Zhouzhi Wang, Christian R Marshall, Richard F Wintle, Albert E Chudley, Stephen W Scherer
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by a combination of neurological, developmental, and congenital defects that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. Earlier reports showed that large chromosomal anomalies may link to FASD. Here, we examined the prevalence and types of copy number variations (CNVs) in FASD cases previously diagnosed by a multidisciplinary FASD team in sites across Canada. We genotyped 95 children with FASD and 87 age-matched, typically developing controls on the Illumina Human Omni2...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
K Francis, A Dougali, K Sideri, C Kroupis, V Vasdekis, K Dima, A Douzenis
OBJECTIVE: Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. METHOD: BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Nataly Lim, Mark F O'Reilly, Jeff Sigafoos, Giulio E Lancioni
The practice of advising bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to speak in a single language, often the majority language of the region, with their child with ASD seems to be common. Such advice, however, is not grounded on empirical evidence but appears to be based more on logical arguments and assumptions. In this commentary, fears surrounding dual language exposure and empirical evidence supporting bilingualism in children with ASD are discussed. Suggestions for future research and three key steps that clinicians can consider taking to better address the needs of diverse learners are provided...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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