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Work physiology

Karolina A Majorek, Tomasz Osinski, David T Tran, Alina Revilla, Wayne F Anderson, Wladek Minor, Misty L Kuhn
Members of Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily catalyze the acetylation of a wide range of small molecule and protein substrates. Due to their abundance in all kingdoms of life and diversity of their functions, they are implicated in many aspects of eukaryotic and prokaryotic physiology. Although numerous GNATs have been identified thus far, many remain structurally and functionally uncharacterized. The elucidation of their structures and functions is critical for broadening our knowledge of this diverse and important superfamily...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michael R Sladek, Leah D Doane, Catherine B Stroud
Prior work has identified alterations in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a potential mechanism underlying stress-induced emotional health problems, which disproportionately impact girls beginning in mid-adolescence. How adolescent girls differ from one another in dispositional coping tendencies and shift specific coping strategies in response to varying stressors have been theorized as important predictors of their adaptation, health, and well-being during this dynamic period of development...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Devasena Ponnalagu, Harpreet Singh
Mitochondria are the "power house" of a cell continuously generating ATP to ensure its proper functioning. The constant production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation demands a large electrochemical force that drives protons across the highly selective and low-permeable mitochondrial inner membrane. Besides the conventional role of generating ATP, mitochondria also play an active role in calcium signaling, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress responses, and regulation of cell-death pathways...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Alessandra Ammazzalorso, Barbara De Filippis, Cristina Campestre, Antonio Laghezza, Alessandro Marrone, Rosa Amoroso, Paolo Tortorella, Mariangela Agamennone
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs) have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shi-Peng Chen, Chih-Hsien Kuo, Hsueh-Han Lu, Hui-Shan Lo, Kai-Wun Yeh
IbNAC1 is known to activate the defense system by reprogramming a genetic network against herbivory in sweet potato. This regulatory activity elevates plant defense potential but relatively weakens plants by IbNAC1-mediated JA response. The mechanism controlling IbNAC1 expression to balance plant vitality and survival remains unclear. In this study, a wound-responsive G-box cis-element in the IbNAC1 promoter from -1484 to -1479 bp was identified. From a screen of wound-activated transcriptomic data, one transcriptional activator, IbbHLH3, and one repressor, IbbHLH4, were selected that bind to and activate or repress, respectively, the G-box motif in the IbNAC1 promoter to modulate the IbNAC1-mediated response...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Shawn M Wilder, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Global warming and predation risk can have important impacts on animal physiology and life histories that can have consequences for ecosystem function. Zhang et al. () recently tested the separate and interactive effects of warming and predation risk on the body composition of Daphnia magna. By measuring both the elemental and biochemical composition of individuals, they showed that D. magna body elemental composition responded opposite to theoretical predictions and previous studies but that these changes were explained by adaptive life-history shifts in allocation to protein in eggs versus body lipid reserves...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jihoon Lee, Inah Kim, Sooyong Roh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the characteristics of claimed mental disorders. Because the workers believed the cause of the mental disorders was work-related stress or a specific event, we could identify the major work-related stressor for claimed cases. METHODS: We included claimed cases of occupational mental disorder or suicide reported during 2010-2014 to the Korea Workers Compensation and Welfare Service (KCOMWEL), established by Industrial Accidents Insurance (IACI) Act...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Dean R Freestone, Kelvin J Layton, Levin Kuhlmann, Mark J Cook
Data-driven model-based analysis of electrophysiological data is an emerging technique for understanding the mechanisms of seizures. Model-based analysis enables tracking of hidden brain states that are represented by the dynamics of neural mass models. Neural mass models describe the mean firing rates and mean membrane potentials of populations of neurons. Various neural mass models exist with different levels of complexity and realism. An ideal data-driven model-based analysis framework will incorporate the most realistic model possible, enabling accurate imaging of the physiological variables...
June 9, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Matthew Osmond, Sarah M Bernier, Mina B Pantcheva, Melissa D Krebs
Glaucoma is a disease in which damage to the optic nerve leads to progressive, irreversible vision loss. The intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma and its lowering is considered a useful strategy for preventing or slowing down the progression of glaucomatous neuropathy. Elevated intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma is due to increased aqueous humor outflow resistance, primarily through the trabecular meshwork (TM) of the eye. Current in vitro models of the trabecular meshwork are oversimplified and do not capture the organized and complex three-dimensional nature of this tissue that consists primarily of collagen and glycoasaminoglycans...
October 24, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Gabriel Ruiz, Natividad Sánchez
William Horsley Gantt is well known as one to the principal proponents of Pavlovian methodology in the U.S. After a long stay at Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's laboratory in Leningrad from 1925 to 1929, Gantt was invited by Adolf Meyer to join the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, where he founded and directed the Pavlovian Laboratory from 1930 to 1964. Soon after his arrival at Phipps Clinic in 1931, Gantt began a Pavlovian research program that included the investigation of nervous disturbances in dogs and clinical researches with psychiatric patients...
October 24, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Ashley Page, David Perry, Philip Young, Daniel A Mitchell, Bruno G Frenguelli, Patrick R Unwin
A vast range of interfacial systems exhibit charge heterogeneities on the nanoscale. These differences in local surface charge density are challenging to visualize, but recent work has shown the scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) to be a very promising tool to spatially resolve and map surface charge and topography via a hopping potential sweep technique with a single nanopipette probe, with harmonic modulation of a bias applied between quasi-reference counter electrodes in the nanopipette and bulk solution, coupled with lock-in detection...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy
Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg), Lead acetate (100 mg/kg) + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg) + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug)...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Phil J Peacock, Anna Woodman, Wendy McCay, Sarah E Bates
INTRODUCTION: Non-pediatric trainees working in pediatrics in the UK are expected to attend newborn deliveries and provide initial newborn life support if needed. In Swindon, new junior doctors receive a 90-minute teaching session at the start of their pediatrics rotation, but the content has not previously been standardized, and it may be several weeks before a doctor attends a newborn delivery. Thus, the confidence and competence in newborn resuscitation of doctors attending deliveries can vastly vary...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Hugh S O'Neill, Caroline C Herron, Conn L Hastings, Roel Deckers, Adolfo Lopez Noriega, Helena M Kelly, Wim E Hennink, Ciarán O McDonnell, Fergal J O'Brien, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernández, Garry P Duffy
Lysolipid-based thermosensitive liposomes (LTSL) embedded in a chitosan-based thermoresponsive hydrogel matrix (denoted Lipogel) represents a novel approach for the spatiotemporal release of therapeutic agents. The entrapment of drug-loaded liposomes in an injectable hydrogel permits local liposome retention, thus providing a prolonged release in target tissues. Moreover, release can be controlled through the use of a minimally invasive external hyperthermic stimulus. Temporal control of release is particularly important for complex multi-step physiological processes, such as angiogenesis, in which different signals are required at different times in order to produce a robust vasculature...
October 20, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Liu Yang, Peter M Piermarini
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane-bound proteins, originally described as water-channels, that broadly exist in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, some AQPs can transport small molecules (e.g. urea, glycerol) along with or preferentially to water. Previous work in the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae have characterized the molecular expression of one or more AQP genes and shown that they are involved in water homeostasis after blood feeding, tolerance to dehydration and heat stresses, and development of Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Erica T Goddard, Ryan C Hill, Alexander Barrett, Courtney Betts, Qiuchen Guo, Ori Maller, Virginia F Borges, Kirk C Hansen, Pepper Schedin
Normal epithelium exists within a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) that is tuned to regulate tissue specific epithelial cell function. As such, ECM contributes to tissue homeostasis, differentiation, and disease, including cancer. Though it is now recognized that the functional unit of normal and transformed epithelium is the epithelial cell and its adjacent ECM, we lack a basic understanding of tissue-specific ECM composition and abundance, as well as how physiologic changes in ECM impact cancer risk and outcomes...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
P Tenreiro, S Rebelo, F Martins, M Santos, E D Coelho, M Almeida, A P Alves de Matos, O A B da Cruz E Silva
Synaptosomes are isolated nerve terminals. They represent an extremely attractive in vitro model system to study synaptic physiology since they preserve morphological and functional characteristics of the synapse. As such they have been used to investigate synaptic dysfunctions associated with neuropathologies like Alzheimer's disease. In the present work two simple methodologies for isolating synaptosomal-enriched fractions were compared for the first time. The starting points of both protocols were rat cortical or hippocampal homogenized tissues that underwent several differential centrifugation steps followed by a final purification of synaptosomal-enriched fractions using either a Percoll gradient or a Sucrose gradient...
October 19, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
S Anandhakumar, G Krishnamoorthy, K M Ramkumar, A M Raichur
In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) based on biopolymers or peptides are gaining popularity for the encapsulation and release of drug molecules, especially for cancer therapy, due to their ability for targeted and controlled release. The use of collagen peptide (CP) for the preparation of chitosan (CN) NPs is especially interesting as it results in NPs that are stable under physiological conditions. In this work, mono-dispersed pH responsive CPCN NPs of about 100nm were prepared via ionic gelation method by simple and mild co-precipitation of CN and CP...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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