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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#1
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341729/printing-non-euclidean-solids
#2
Giuseppe Zurlo, Lev Truskinovsky
Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construction. We use the mechanics of incompatible surface growth to show that geometrical frustration developing during deposition can be fine-tuned to ensure a particular behavior of the system in physiological (or working) conditions...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340931/vascutrainer-a-mobile-and-disposable-bioreactor-system-for-the-conditioning-of-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts
#3
Frederic Wolf, Diana M Rojas González, Ulrich Steinseifer, Markus Obdenbusch, Werner Herfs, Christian Brecher, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Thomas Schmitz-Rode
In vitro tissue engineering of vascular grafts requires dynamic conditioning in a bioreactor system for in vitro tissue maturation and remodeling to receive a mechanically adequate and hemocompatible implant. The goal of the current work was to develop a bioreactor system for the conditioning of vascular grafts which is (i) able to create a wide range of flow, pressure and frequency conditions, including physiological ones; (ii) compact and easy to assemble; (iii) transportable; (iv) disposable. The system is driven by a small centrifugal pump controlled via a custom-made control unit, which can also be operated on batteries to allow for autonomous transportation...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339763/glucocorticoid-receptor-gr%C3%AE-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-ocular-hypertension-in-mice
#4
Gaurang C Patel, Yang Liu, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Prolonged glucocorticoid (GC) therapy can cause GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT), which if left untreated progresses to iatrogenic glaucoma and permanent vision loss. The alternatively spliced isoform of glucocorticoid receptor GRβ acts as dominant negative regulator of GR activity, and it has been shown that overexpressing GRβ in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells inhibits GC-induced glaucomatous damage in TM cells. The purpose of this study was to use viral vectors to selectively overexpress the GRβ isoform in the TM of mouse eyes treated with GCs, to precisely dissect the role of GRβ in regulating steroid responsiveness...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339758/mirna-seq-based-profiles-of-mirnas-in-mulberry-phloem-sap-provide-insight-into-the-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-mulberry-yellow-dwarf-disease
#5
Ying-Ping Gai, Huai-Ning Zhao, Ya-Nan Zhao, Bing-Sen Zhu, Shuo-Shuo Yuan, Shuo Li, Fang-Yue Guo, Xian-Ling Ji
A wide range of miRNAs have been identified as phloem-mobile molecules that play important roles in coordinating plant development and physiology. Phytoplasmas are associated with hundreds of plant diseases, and the pathogenesis involved in the interactions between phytoplasmas and plants is still poorly understood. To analyse the molecular mechanisms of phytoplasma pathogenicity, the miRNAs profiles in mulberry phloem saps were examined in response to phytoplasma infection. A total of 86 conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs were identified, and 30 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed upon infection with phytoplasmas...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338682/soybean-mads-box-gene-gmagl1-promotes-flowering-via-the-photoperiod-pathway
#6
Xuanrui Zeng, Hailun Liu, Hongyang Du, Sujing Wang, Wenming Yang, Yingjun Chi, Jiao Wang, Fang Huang, Deyue Yu
BACKGROUND: The MADS-box transcription factors are an ancient family of genes that regulate numerous physiological and biochemical processes in plants and facilitate the development of floral organs. However, the functions of most of these transcription factors in soybean remain unknown. RESULTS: In this work, a MADS-box gene, GmAGL1, was overexpressed in soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GmAGL1 overexpression not only resulted in early maturation but also promoted flowering and affected petal development...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338454/chemical-computational-and-functional-insights-into-the-chemical-stability-of-the-hedgehog-pathway-inhibitor-gant61
#7
Andrea Calcaterra, Valentina Iovine, Bruno Botta, Deborah Quaglio, Ilaria D'Acquarica, Alessia Ciogli, Antonia Iazzetti, Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Lospinoso Severini, Paola Infante, Lucia Di Marcotullio, Mattia Mori, Francesca Ghirga
This work aims at elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of hydrolysis of GANT61, the first and most-widely used inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway that targets Glioma-associated oncogene homologue (Gli) proteins, and at confirming the chemical nature of its bioactive form. GANT61 is poorly stable under physiological conditions and rapidly hydrolyses into an aldehyde species (GANT61-A), which is devoid of the biological activity against Hh signalling, and a diamine derivative (GANT61-D), which has shown inhibition of Gli-mediated transcription...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338309/oral-microbiota-reduce-wound-healing-capacity-of-epithelial-monolayers-irrespective-of-the-presence-of-5-fluorouracil
#8
Eline Vanlancker, Barbara Vanhoecke, Tom Sieprath, Janie Bourgeois, Annelore Beterams, Barbara De Moerloose, Winnok H De Vos, Tom Van de Wiele
Oral mucositis is still one of the most painful side effects of chemotherapeutic treatment and a mounting body of evidence suggests a key role for the oral microbiome in mucositis development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this work, we have investigated the interactions between the host, the microbiome, and chemotherapeutic treatments in more detail. The effect of 5-fluorouracil, commonly inducing mucositis, was assessed on a co-culture model that consists of an epithelial cell layer and a biofilm derived from oral microbiota from different types of samples (saliva, buccal swabs and tongue swabs) and donors (healthy individuals and patients suffering from mucositis)...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338185/injectable-and-thermo-sensitive-hydrogel-and-pdlla-electrospun-nanofiber-membrane-composites-for-guided-spinal-fusion
#9
Ying Qu, BeiYu Wang, Bingyang Chu, Chenlu Liu, Xin Rong, Hua Chen, JinRong Peng, Zhiyong Qian
Spinal fusion is the classic treatment to achieve spinal stability for the treatment of the spinal disease. Generally, spinal fusion still has to combine a certain of bone matrix for promoting bone formation to achieve the desired fusion effect based on the surgery, including the traditional bone matrix, such as the autologous bone, allografts and xenografts. Nevertheless, some problems still existed such as the immunogenic problems, the secondary wound, and pathogenic transfer and so on. Here the injectable thermosensitive hydrogel could substitute to avoid the problems as a potential biological scaffold for tissue engineering...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337578/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-lead-optimization-i-evaluation-and-adaptation-of-gastroplus-to-predict-bioavailability-of-medchem-series
#10
Pankaj R Daga, Michael B Bolger, Ian S Haworth, Robert Daniel Clark, Eric J Martin
When medicinal chemists need to improve bioavailability (%F) within a chemical series during lead optimization, they synthesize new series members with systematically modified properties mainly by following experience and general rules of thumb. More quantitative models that predict %F of proposed compounds from chemical structure alone have proven elusive. Global empirical %F quantitative structure-property (QSPR) models perform poorly and projects have too little data to train local %F QSPR models. Mechanistic oral absorption and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models simulate the dissolution, absorption, systemic distribution, and clearance of a drug in preclinical species and humans...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337289/antioxidant-activity-of-hydrated-carboxylated-nanodiamonds-and-its-influence-on-water-%C3%AE-radiolysis
#11
Karla Santacruz-Gomez, Andrei Sarabia-Sainz, Monica Acosta-Elias, Manuel Sarabia-Sainz, Woraphong Janetanakit, Nathan Khosla, Rodrigo Melendrez, Martin Pedroza-Montero, Ratnesh Lal
Water radiolysis involves the chemical decomposition of the water molecule into free radicals after the exposure with ionizing radiation. These free radicals have deleterious effects on normal cell physiology. Carboxylated nanodiamonds (cNDs) appear to modulate the deleterious effects of γ-irradiation on red blood cells (RBCs) pathophysiology. In the present work, the antioxidant activity of hydrated-cNDs (h-cNDs) on limiting the oxidative damage (water radiolysis effect) by γ-irradiation was confirmed. Our results show that h-cNDs has remarkable free radicals scavenging ability and preserves the catalase enzymatic activity after γ-irradiation...
January 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336892/gene-therapy-and-gene-editing-strategies-for-hemoglobinopathies
#12
REVIEW
Maria Rosa Lidonnici, Giuliana Ferrari
Gene therapy for hemoglobinopathies is currently based on transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells genetically modified with an integrating lentiviral vector expressing a globin gene under the control of globin transcriptional regulatory elements. Studies and safety works demonstrated the potential therapeutic efficacy and safety of this approach, providing the rationale for clinical translation. The outcomes of early clinical trials, although showing promising results, have highlighted the current limitations to a more general application...
January 3, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336812/enhancing-surgical-performance-by-adopting-expert-musicians-practice-and-performance-strategies
#13
Mei Rui, Jeffrey E Lee, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Claudius Conrad
BACKGROUND: Surgery is a performing art-each surgical procedure is a live performance that has immediate and irreversible consequences for both the performer and the audience. Surgeons operate with surgical instruments, whereas musicians perform with musical instruments. Both perform in high-stress, high-risk work environments, where small errors in motor performance or judgment can have immediate negative consequences. While there is abundant literature on musical performance and their impact on outcome, little similar research has been published in the field of surgery...
January 11, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336060/what-the-non-nephrologist-needs-to-know-about-dialysis
#14
Matt Foy, C John Sperati
The End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) program now serves approximately 675,000 individuals in the United States at a cost of $26.1 billion to the Medicare system. Given the size of this population, healthcare providers from all disciplines will deliver care to patients on dialysis. Mortality remains high among patients on chronic dialysis, with 42.3% surviving 5 years. As this is a vulnerable population, it is important in the care of ESRD patients that non-nephrologists have a working knowledge of issues germane to dialysis...
January 15, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335842/direct-repression-of-igf2-is-implicated-in-the-anti-angiogenic-function-of-microrna-210-in-human-retinal-endothelial-cells
#15
Qinbo Yang, Peiwei Wang, Xiaoye Du, Wenjian Wang, Teng Zhang, Yu Chen
Pathological angiogenesis leads to the development of retinal vasculopathies and causes severe vision impairment. Increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying the angiogenic behavior of retinal endothelial cells helps provide new insights for developing treatment of retinal vasculopathies. Pro-angiogenic function of miR-210 has previously been identified. However, the functional implication of miR-210 in retinal endothelial cells remains unknown. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) were employed to investigate the impact of miR-210 on the angiogenic capacity of retinal endothelial cells...
January 15, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335836/adipogenesis-and-lipid-production-in-adipocytes-subjected-to-sustained-tensile-deformations-and-elevated-glucose-concentration-a-living-cell-scale-model-system-of-diabesity
#16
Maayan Lustig, Amit Gefen, Dafna Benayahu
Adipocyte fate commitment is characterized by morphological changes of fibroblastic pre-adipocyte cells, and specifically by accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) as part of the adipogenesis metabolism. Formation of LDs indicates the production of triglycerides from glucose through an insulin-regulated glucose internalization process. In obesity, adipocytes typically become insulin resistant, and glucose transport into the cells is impaired, resulting in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we monitored the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cultured cells exposed to high (450 mg/dL hyperglycemia) and low (100 mg/dL physiological) glucose concentrations, in a novel cell culture model system of diabesity...
January 15, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335583/the-effect-of-differentiation-and-tgf%C3%AE-on-mitochondrial-respiration-and-mitochondrial-enzyme-abundance-in-cultured-primary-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#17
Christoph Hoffmann, Selina Höckele, Lisa Kappler, Martin Hrabĕ de Angelis, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Cora Weigert
Measuring mitochondrial respiration in cultured cells is a valuable tool to investigate the influence of physiological and disease-related factors on cellular metabolism; however, the details of the experimental workflow greatly influence the informative value of the results. Working with primary cells and cell types capable of differentiation can be particularly challenging. We present a streamlined workflow optimised for investigation of primary human skeletal muscle cells. We applied the workflow to differentiated and undifferentiated cells and we investigated the effect of TGFβ1 treatment...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335369/the-rate-of-telomere-loss-is-related-to-maximum-lifespan-in-birds
#18
Gianna M Tricola, Mirre J P Simons, Els Atema, Raoul K Boughton, J L Brown, Donald C Dearborn, G Divoky, John A Eimes, Charles E Huntington, Alexander S Kitaysky, Frans A Juola, David B Lank, Hannah P Litwa, Ellis G A Mulder, Ian C T Nisbet, Kazuo Okanoya, Rebecca J Safran, Stephan J Schoech, Elizabeth A Schreiber, Paul M Thompson, Simon Verhulst, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, David W Winkler, Rebecca Young, Carol M Vleck, Mark F Haussmann
Telomeres are highly conserved regions of DNA that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can signal an irreversible change to a cell's state, including cellular senescence. Senescent cells no longer divide and can damage nearby healthy cells, thus potentially placing them at the crossroads of cancer and ageing. While the epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology of telomeres are well studied, a newer field exploring telomere biology in the context of ecology and evolution is just emerging...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334566/deficiency-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-disrupts-memory-processes-in-rats
#19
Vladimir I Arkhipov, Ekaterina V Pershina, Sergey G Levin
Cytokines, in addition to their participation in immune and inflammatory processes, play an important role in synaptic plasticity, neoneurogenesis, and cognitive functions. In our work, we aimed to clarify the role of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which is recognized as a multifunctional cytokine, in memory processes. Behavioral experiments were carried out in rats using step-through passive avoidance test. The results obtained showed that the learning of animals after treatment with SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β receptors, was impaired, which indicated a significant memory deterioration...
January 12, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334186/natural-humic-acid-based-phototheranostic-agent
#20
Zhao-Hua Miao, Kai Li, Pei-Ying Liu, Zhenglin Li, Huanjie Yang, Qingliang Zhao, Manli Chang, Qingzhu Yang, Liang Zhen, Cheng-Yan Xu
Humic acids, a major constituent of natural organic carbon resources, are naturally formed through the microbial biodegradation of animal and plant residues. Due to numerous physiologically active groups (phenol, carboxyl, and quinone), the biomedical applications of humic acid have been already investigated across different cultures for several centuries or even longer. In this work, sodium humate, the sodium salt of humic acid, is explored as phototheranostic agent for light-induced photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy based on intrinsic absorption in the near-infrared region...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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