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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548872/seasonal-and-time-of-day-variations-in-acute-non-image-forming-effects-of-illuminance-level-on-performance-physiology-and-subjective-well-being
#1
L M Huiberts, K C H J Smolders, Y A W De Kort
This study investigated seasonal and time-of-day dependent moderations in the strength and direction of acute diurnal non-image forming (NIF) effects of illuminance level on performance, physiology, and subjective well-being. Even though there are indications for temporal variations in NIF-responsiveness to bright light, scientific insights into potential moderations by season are scarce. We employed a 2 (Light: 165 versus 1700 lx at the eye level, within) × 2 (Season: autumn/winter versus spring, between) × 2 (Time of day: morning versus afternoon, between) mixed-model design...
May 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548698/novel-porcine-experimental-model-of-severe-progressive-thoracic-scoliosis-with-compensatory-curves-induced-by-interpedicular-bent-rigid-temporary-tethering
#2
Carlos Barrios, José Miguel Lloris, Juan Alonso, Borja Maruenda, Jesús Burgos, Rafael Llombart-Blanco, Luis Gil, Viviana Bisbal
Using flexible tethering techniques, porcine models of experimental scoliosis have shown scoliotic curves with vertebral wedging but very limited axial rotation. The aim of this experimental work was to induce a severe progressive scoliosis in a growing porcine model for research purposes. A unilateral spinal bent rigid tether was anchored to two ipsilateral pedicle screws in eight pigs. The spinal tether was removed after 8 weeks. Ten weeks later, the animals were sacrificed. Conventional radiographs and 3D CT-scans were taken to evaluate changes in the alignment of the thoracic spine...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548666/zinc-and-the-iron-donor-frataxin-regulate-oligomerization-of-the-scaffold-protein-to-form-new-fe-s-cluster-assembly-centers
#3
B K Galeano, W Ranatunga, O Gakh, D Y Smith, J R Thompson, G Isaya
Early studies of the bacterial Fe-S cluster assembly system provided structural details for how the scaffold protein and the cysteine desulfurase interact. This work and additional work on the yeast and human systems elucidated a conserved mechanism for sulfur donation but did not provide any conclusive insights into the mechanism for iron delivery from the iron donor, frataxin, to the scaffold. We previously showed that oligomerization is a mechanism by which yeast frataxin (Yfh1) can promote assembly of the core machinery for Fe-S cluster synthesis both in vitro and in cells, in such a manner that the scaffold protein, Isu1, can bind to Yfh1 independent of the presence of the cysteine desulfurase, Nfs1...
May 26, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548479/insular-gliomas-a-surgical-reappraisal-based-on-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Domenico Murrone, Rodolfo Maduri, Afif Afif, Domenico Chirchiglia, Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat, Jacques Guyotat, Francesco Signorelli
INTRODUCTION: Insular gliomas are heterogeneous lesions whose management presents multiple challenges for their tendency to affect young patients in good neurological and cognitive conditions, their deep anatomic location and proximity with critical functional and vascular structures. The appropriate management of insular gliomas requires a multidisciplinary evidence-centred teamwork grounded on the best anatomic, neurophysiological and oncological knowledge. The present study provides a reappraisal of the management of insular gliomas based on a systematic review of the literature with the aim of guiding clinicians in the management of such tumors...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548368/developing-minimum-clinical-standards-for-physiotherapy-in-south-african-icus-a-qualitative-study
#5
Heleen van Aswegen, Shane Patman, Natascha Plani, Susan Hanekom
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Physiotherapists are integral members of the intensive care unit (ICU) team. Clinicians working in ICU are dependent on their own experience when making decisions regarding individual patient management thus resulting in variation in clinical practice. No formalized clinical practice guidelines or standards exist for the educational profile or scope of practice requirements for ICU physiotherapy. This study explored perceptions of physiotherapists on minimum clinical standards that ICU physiotherapists should adhere to for delivering safe, effective physiotherapy services to critically ill patients...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548098/rationally-designed-mineralization-for-selective-recovery-of-the-rare-earth-elements
#6
Takaaki Hatanaka, Akimasa Matsugami, Takamasa Nonaka, Hideki Takagi, Fumiaki Hayashi, Takao Tani, Nobuhiro Ishida
The increasing demand for rare earth (RE) elements in advanced materials for permanent magnets, rechargeable batteries, catalysts and lamp phosphors necessitates environmentally friendly approaches for their recovery and separation. Here, we propose a mineralization concept for direct extraction of RE ions with Lamp (lanthanide ion mineralization peptide). In aqueous solution containing various metal ions, Lamp promotes the generation of RE hydroxide species with which it binds to form hydrophobic complexes that accumulate spontaneously as insoluble precipitates, even under physiological conditions (pH ∼6...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545829/gut-microbiota-and-hepatitis-b-virus-induced-chronic-liver-disease-implications-for-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545666/mahuannin-b-an-adenylate-cyclase-inhibitor-attenuates-hyperhidrosis-via-suppressing-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-camp-signaling-pathway
#8
Zengyong Wang, Yu Cui, Guoyu Ding, Mengge Zhou, Xiaoyao Ma, Yuanyuan Hou, Min Jiang, Dailin Liu, Gang Bai
BACKGROUND: Based on the traditional application of traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), Ephedra Herba (EH) is used to cure cold fever by inducing sweating, whereas Ephedra Radix (ER) is used to treat hyperhidrosis. Although they come from the same plant, Ephedra sinica Stapf, but have play opposing roles in clinical applications. EH is known to contain ephedrine alkaloids, which is the driver of the physiological changes in sweating, heart rate and blood pressure. However, the active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) of ER and the mechanisms by which it restricts sweating remain unknown...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#9
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#10
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544664/to-reproduce-or-work-insect-castes-emerge-from-socially-induced-changes-in-nutrition-related-genes
#11
Amy L Toth
In social species, there is a fundamental trade-off between 'me' and 'we'; that is, should I reproduce, or should I work to help others to reproduce? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Okada et al. () delve into the evolution and genetic mechanisms of this core question, focusing on social caste formation in insects. The authors take advantage of a unique ant in the genus Diacamma, which has secondarily lost the classic, highly different queens and workers found in many other ants, bees and wasps. Instead, Diacamma ant castes are decided via aggressive dominance interactions among adult females, similar to dominance hierarchies seen in primitively social insects and many social vertebrates...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544472/engineering-muscle-cell-alignment-through-3d-bioprinting
#12
Pamela Mozetic, Sara Maria Giannitelli, Manuele Gori, Marcella Trombetta, Alberto Rainer
Processing of hydrogels represents a main challenge for the prospective application of additive manufacturing (AM) to soft tissue engineering. Furthermore, direct manufacturing of tissue precursors with a cell density similar to native tissues has the potential to overcome the extensive in vitro culture required for conventional cell-seeded scaffolds seeking to fabricate constructs with tailored structural and functional properties. In this work, we present a simple AM methodology that exploits the thermoresponsive behavior of a block copolymer (Pluronic®) as a means to obtain good shape retention at physiological conditions and to induce cellular alignment...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544357/classification-of-esophageal-motor-findings-in-gastro-esophageal-reflux-disease-conclusions-from-an-international-consensus-group
#13
REVIEW
C P Gyawali, S Roman, A J Bredenoord, M Fox, J Keller, J E Pandolfino, D Sifrim, R Tatum, R Yadlapati, E Savarino
BACKGROUND: High-resolution manometry (HRM) has resulted in new revelations regarding the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The impact of new HRM motor paradigms on reflux burden needs further definition, leading to a modern approach to motor testing in GERD. METHODS: Focused literature searches were conducted, evaluating pathophysiology of GERD with emphasis on HRM. The results were discussed with an international group of experts to develop a consensus on the role of HRM in GERD...
May 24, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544235/absence-of-juvenile-hormone-signalling-regulates-the-dynamic-expression-profiles-of-nutritional-metabolism-genes-during-diapause-preparation-in-the-cabbage-beetle-colaphellus-bowringi
#14
W Liu, Q-Q Tan, L Zhu, Y Li, F Zhu, C-L Lei, X-P Wang
Temperate insects have evolved diapause, a period of programmed developmental arrest during specific life stages, to survive unfavourable conditions. During the diapause preparation phase (DPP), diapause-destined individuals generally store large amounts of fat by regulating nutrition distribution for the energy requirement during diapause maintenance and postdiapause development. Although nutritional patterns during the DPP have been investigated at physiological and biochemical levels in many insects, it remains largely unknown how nutritional metabolism is regulated during the DPP at molecular levels...
May 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543362/commd1-a-multifunctional-regulatory-protein
#15
Mario Riera Romo
The COMMD Protein Family is highly conserved among multicellular eukaryotic organisms and many orthologs of human COMMD genes have been found in different species of plants, invertebrates, lower vertebrates and mammals. COMMD1 is the best characterized member of the family and is conserved among vertebrates. This protein represents a pleiotropic factor involved in the regulation of many cellular and physiological processes that include copper and cholesterol homeostasis, ionic transport, oxidative stress, protein aggregation, protein trafficking, NF-κB-mediated transcription, hypoxia induced transcription, DNA damage response and oncogenesis...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541673/fenton-s-reagent-catalysed-release-of-carbon-monooxide-from-1-3-dihydroxy-acetone
#16
Tumpa Sadhukhan, Dharitri Das, Pratik Kalekar, Vidya Avasare, Sourav Pal
Triose sugar, 1,3-Dihydroxy acetone (DHA) on treatment with Fenton's reagent releases CO under physiological conditions. The release of CO has been demonstrated by myoglobin assay and quantum chemical studies. The mechanistic study has been carried out using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) and CCSD(T)//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theories in aqueous medium with dielectric constant of 78.39 by employing polarized continuum model (PCM). The theoretical investigation shows that DHA breaks down completely into two equivalents of CO, one equivalent of CO2 and six equivalents of H2O without formation of toxic metabolites...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540720/specifically-increased-paclitaxel-release-in-tumor-and-synergetic-therapy-by-a-hyaluronic-acid-tocopherol-nanomicelle
#17
Hanbo Zhang, Wei Li, Xiaomeng Guo, Fenfen Kong, Zuhua Wang, Chunqi Zhu, Lihua Luo, Qingpo Li, Jie Yang, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
Recently, interest in tumor-targeting and site-specific drug release from nanoparticles as a means of drug delivery has increased. In this study, we reported on a smart nanosized micelle formed by hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugated with D-α-Tocopherol Succinate (TOS) using a disulfide bond as the linker (HA-SS-TOS, HSST). HSST micelles can specifically bind to the CD44 receptors that are overexpressed on cancer cells. The high levels of glutathione (GSH) in tumor cells selectively break the disulfide bond linker...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540165/nanotechnology-based-strategies-for-treatment-of-ocular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Yuhua Weng, Juan Liu, Shubin Jin, Weisheng Guo, Xingjie Liang, Zhongbo Hu
Ocular diseases include various anterior and posterior segment diseases. Due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the eye, efficient ocular drug delivery is a great challenge to researchers and pharmacologists. Although there are conventional noninvasive and invasive treatments, such as eye drops, injections and implants, the current treatments either suffer from low bioavailability or severe adverse ocular effects. Alternatively, the emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology are playing an important role in the development of novel strategies for ocular disease therapy...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539924/therapeutic-development-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-or-their-extracellular-vesicles-to-inhibit-autoimmune-mediated-inflammatory-processes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#19
REVIEW
Juhi Sharma, Jeffrey M Hampton, Giancarlo R Valiente, Takuma Wada, Holly Steigelman, Matthew C Young, Rachel R Spurbeck, Alisa D Blazek, Steffi Bösh, Wael N Jarjour, Nicholas A Young
Since being discovered over half a century ago, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively to characterize their cellular and physiological influences. MSCs have been shown to possess immunosuppressive capacity through inhibiting lymphocyte activation/proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion while simultaneously demonstrating limited allogenic reactivity, which subsequently led to the evaluation of therapeutic feasibility to treat inflammatory diseases. Although regulatory constraints have restricted MSC development pharmacologically, limited clinical studies have shown encouraging results using MSC infusions to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); but, more trials will have to be performed to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy of MSCs to treat SLE...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539434/estrogens-in-male-physiology
#20
REVIEW
Paul S Cooke, Manjunatha K Nanjappa, CheMyong Ko, Gail S Prins, Rex A Hess
Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
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