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Work physiology

Po-Han Chen, Jen-Tsan Chi, Michael Boyce
In metazoans, thousands of intracellular proteins are modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to a wide range of stimuli and stresses. In particular, a complex and evolutionarily conserved interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and oxidative stress has emerged in recent years. Here, we review the current literature on the connections between O-GlcNAc and oxidative stress, with a particular emphasis on major signaling pathways, such as KEAP1/NRF2, FOXO, NFκB, p53 and cell metabolism...
March 14, 2018: Glycobiology
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
Walter Edward Dandy did pioneering work in Neurosurgery in the early part of the 19th century. He worked all his life at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in USA and contributed extensively to research in hydrocephalus, the physiology of the cerebrospinal fluid and devised the technique of pneumoencephalography, apart from performing the first clipping operation in cerebral aneurysm and the division of the trigeminal nerve in neuralgic pain. This article summarizes his immense contributions in the field of Neurosurgery...
March 2018: Neurology India
Sarah Herzog, Wendy D'Andrea, Jonathan DePierro, Vivian Khedari
There is need for further work clarifying attention-physiology interactions by degree of exposure to early victimization, as it is clear that cumulative trauma in childhood, that is, polyvictimization, may have lasting effects on the stress response that differ from those of acute traumatization. The present study examined relationships between baseline and task-related physiology (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] and heart rate [HR], respectively), and attention biases (via the dot probe task), in 63 community-dwelling adult women stratified on the basis of self-reported exposure to multiple types of childhood interpersonal victimization (i...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Venkatraman Ravi, Aditi Jain, Faiz Ahamed, Nowrin Fathma, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Nagalingam R Sundaresan
Heart is a dynamic organ that undergoes remodeling in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. One of the fundamental cellular processes that facilitates changes in the size and shape of this muscular organ is the protein synthesis. Traditionally changes in cardiac protein synthesis levels were measured by radiolabeled tracers. However, these methods are often cumbersome and suffer from radioactive risk. Recently a nonradioactive method for detecting protein synthesis under in vitro conditions called the Surface Sensing of Translation (SUnSET) was described in cell lines of mouse dendrites and T cells...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Nourdine Chakouri, Cyril Reboul, Doria Boulghobra, Adrien Kleindienst, Stéphane Nottin, Sandrine Gayrard, François Roubille, Stefan Matecki, Alain Lacampagne, Olivier Cazorla
BACKGROUND: The interplay between oxidative stress and other signaling pathways in the contractile machinery regulation during cardiac stress and its consequences on cardiac function remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of the crosstalk between β-adrenergic and redox signaling on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, Myosin Binding Protein-C (MyBP-C) and Troponin I (TnI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We mimicked in vitro high level of physiological cardiac stress by forcing rat hearts to produce high levels of oxidized glutathione...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
H A Alhazmi
Transferrin is iron (III)-binding protein that transports Fe (III) ion to cells in different parts of the body. At saturation level 70% of transferrin remains free from iron (apo-transferrin), suggesting a broader scope of binding capabilities with non-iron (III) metal ions. Our previous work demonstrated that transferrin can effectively coordinate with noble metal ions. Hence to improve our understanding of the in-vitro metal-interaction behavior of the protein and how it correlates with its functions invivo, the interactions between apo-transferrin and medicinally important noble metals, Au (I), Au (III), Os (III), Pt (IV), Ir (III) and Ru (III) were investigated in the mobility shift mode of affinity capillary electrophoresis...
March 5, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Aekaansh Verma, Mahdi Esmaily, Jessica Shang, Richard Figliola, Jeffrey A Feinstein, Tain-Yen Hsia, Alison L Marsden
BACKGROUND: First-stage single-ventricle palliation is challenging to manage, and significant interstage morbidity and mortality remain. Prior computational and in vitro studies of the assisted bidirectional Glenn (ABG), a novel first-stage procedure that has shown potential for early conversion to a more stable augmented Glenn physiology, demonstrated increased pulmonary flow and oxygen delivery while decreasing cardiac work, as compared to conventional stage-1 alternatives. This study aims to identify optimal shunt designs for the ABG to improve pulmonary flow while maintaining or decreasing superior vena caval (SVC) pressure...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Kumaran Nagalingam, Michał T Lorenc, Sahana Manoli, Stephen L Cameron, Anthony R Clarke, Kevin J Dudley
Interactions between DNA and proteins located in the cell nucleus play an important role in controlling physiological processes by specifying, augmenting and regulating context-specific transcription events. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used methodology to study DNA-protein interactions and has been successfully used in various cell types for over three decades. More recently, by combining ChIP with genomic screening technologies and Next Generation Sequencing (e.g. ChIP-seq), it has become possible to profile DNA-protein interactions (including covalent histone modifications) across entire genomes...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
David P Bishop, Nerida Cole, Tracy Zhang, Philip A Doble, Dominic J Hare
Chemical imaging provides new insight into the fundamental atomic, molecular, and biochemical composition of tissue and how they are interrelated in normal physiology. Visualising and quantifying products of pathogenic reactions long before structural changes become apparent also adds a new dimension to understanding disease pathogenesis. While chemical imaging in isolation is somewhat limited by the nature of information it can provide (e.g. peptides, metals, lipids, or functional groups), integrating immunohistochemistry allows simultaneous, targeted imaging of biomolecules while also mapping tissue composition...
March 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Eduardo F Gallo, Jozsef Meszaros, Jeremy D Sherman, Muhammad O Chohan, Eric Teboul, Claire S Choi, Holly Moore, Jonathan A Javitch, Christoph Kellendonk
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulate motivated behavior, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we show that selective upregulation of D2Rs in the indirect pathway of the adult NAc enhances the willingness to work for food. Mechanistic studies in brain slices reveal that D2R upregulation attenuates inhibitory transmission at two main output projections of the indirect pathway, the classical long-range projections to the ventral pallidum (VP), as well as local collaterals to direct pathway medium spiny neurons...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Vanessa Koehlé-Divo, Carole Cossu-Leguille, Sandrine Pain-Devin, Cécile Simonin, Carole Bertrand, Bénédicte Sohm, Catherine Mouneyrac, Simon Devin, Laure Giambérini
The rapid development of nanotechnology and the increased use of nanomaterials in products used in everyday life have raised the question of the potential release of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment. Their fate and effects in natural ecosystems are not currently well understood but harmful effects of nanoparticles have been demonstrated at low concentrations on some freshwater and marine species. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are produced in large quantities and used in products in many different fields, such as automotives or optics...
February 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Matthew Hernandez, Joaquim Havens, Shahid Shafi, Marie Crandall
Patients with emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases display variable severity. The extent of disease can be amplified by comorbidity or dramatic changes in presenting physiology. Estimating the extent of disease severity in order to adequately provide prognosis, determine optimal operative or non-operative management, and plan for potential outcomes is difficult. A variety of risk factors have been studied for specific diseases but these criteria may not be universally applied. This limits the generalizability of prior work...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Silvia Ravera, Maria Grazia Signorello, Martina Bartolucci, Sara Ferrando, Lucia Manni, Federico Caicci, Daniela Calzia, Isabella Panfoli, Alessandro Morelli, Giuliana Leoncini
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Energy demand in human platelets is very high, to carry out their functions. As for most human cells, the aerobic metabolism represents the primary energy source in platelets, even though mitochondria are negligibly represented. Following the hypothesis that other structures could be involved in chemical energy production, in this work, we have investigated the functional expression of an extramitochondrial aerobic metabolism in platelets. RESULTS: Oximetric and luminometric analyses showed that platelets consume large amounts of oxygen and produce ATP in the presence of common respiring substrates, such as pyruvate + malate or succinate, although morphological electron microscopy analysis showed that these contain few mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Gavin D Perkins, Alain Cariou
Sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is the most time-critical medical emergency. In the second paper of this Series on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, we considered important issues in the prehospital management of cardiac arrest. Successful resuscitation relies on a strong chain of survival with the community, dispatch centre, ambulance, and hospital working together. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation has the greatest impact on survival. If the community response does not restart the heart, resuscitation is continued by emergency medical services' staff...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Julian M M Rogasch, Holger Amthauer, Christian Furth, Patrick Hundsdoerfer, Florian Wedel, Imke Schatka
AIM: According to German guidelines, I-123-MIBG scintigraphy in neuroblastoma (NB) is preferably performed as early (about 4 h p.i.) and late (24 h p.i.) planar imaging and single- photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT 24 h p.i. This study evaluated if the work-up could be reduced to a single timepoint. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 37 examinations in 26 patients (f:8; m:18; age, 0.5-23.5a) with NB (initial, 15; restaging, 22). All 74 (early + late) pairs of ventral/dorsal planar whole-body images were reviewed by 3 independent readers in random order blinded to clinical data (1, certainly physiological; 2, likely physiological; 3, likely malignant; 4, certainly malignant)...
February 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
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