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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732265/chronic-work-stress-and-decreased-vagal-tone-impairs-decision-making-and-reaction-time-in-jockeys
#1
Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D O'Halloran, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
The inverse relationship between acute stress and decision-making is well documented, but few studies have investigated the impact of chronic stress. Jockeys work exhaustive schedules and have extremely dangerous occupations, with safe performance requiring quick reaction time and accurate decision-making. We used the effort reward imbalance (ERI) occupational stress model to assess the relationship of work stress with indices of stress physiology and decision-making and reaction time. Jockeys (N=32) completed computerised cognitive tasks (Cogstate) on two occasions; September and November (naturally occurring lower and higher stress periods), either side of an acute stress test...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731846/presence-and-future-of-culturing-bacteria
#2
Jörg Overmann, Birte Abt, Johannes Sikorski
The cultivation of bacteria is highly biased toward a few phylogenetic groups. Many of the currently underexplored bacterial lineages likely have novel biosynthetic pathways and unknown biochemical features. New cultivation concepts have been developed based on an improved understanding of the ecology of previously not-cultured bacteria. Particularly successful were improved media that mimic the natural types and concentrations of substrates and nutrients, high-throughput cultivation techniques, and approaches that exploit biofilm formation and bacterial interactions...
July 21, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730385/the-role-of-f-actin-in-the-transport-and-secretion-of-chromaffin-granules-an-historic-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Luis M Gutiérrez, José Villanueva
Actin is one of the most ubiquitous protein playing fundamental roles in a variety of cellular processes. Since early in the 1980s, it was evident that filamentous actin (F-actin) formed a peripheral cortical barrier that prevented vesicles to access secretory sites in chromaffin cells in culture. Later, around 2000, it was described that the F-actin structure accomplishes a dual role serving both vesicle transport and retentive purposes and undergoing dynamic transient changes during cell stimulation. The complex role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuroendocrine secretion was further evidenced when it has been proved to participate in the scaffold structure holding together the secretory machinery at active sites and participate in the generation of mechanical forces that drive the opening of the fusion pore, during the first decade of the present century...
July 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729912/protection-of-the-biconcave-profile-of-human-erythrocytes-against-osmotic-damage-by-ultraviolet-a-irradiation-through-membrane-cytoskeleton-enhancement
#4
Cunbo Li, Zheming Li, Shuang Xun, Pengchong Jiang, Rui Yan, Mincai Chen, Fen Hu, Romano A Rupp, Xinzheng Zhang, Leiting Pan, Jingjun Xu
To perform various physiological functions, erythrocytes possess a unique biconcave shape provided by a special architecture of the membrane-skeleton system. In the present work, we use a simple irradiation method to treat human erythrocytes with 365 nm ultraviolet-A (UVA) light at the single-cell level in vitro. Depending on the irradiation dose, UVA show protection of the biconcave profile against the detrimental action of distilled water. This protective effect can also be confirmed for saponin that damages the membrane-skeleton by vesiculation and pore formation...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729870/plastid-nucleus-distance-alters-the-behavior-of-stromules
#5
Jessica L Erickson, Matthias Kantek, Martin H Schattat
Plastids send "retrograde" signals to the nucleus to deliver information regarding their physiological status. One open question concerning this signal transfer is how the signal bridges the cytoplasm. Based on individual reports of plastid derived tubular membrane extensions connecting to nuclei, these so-called stromules have been suggested to function as communication routes between plastids and nuclei in response to biotic stress. However, based on the data currently available it is unclear whether interactions between stromules and nuclei are truly intentional or observed as a result of an inflated stromule frequency throughout the cell, and are thus a random event...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729002/phosphenes-retinal-discrete-dark-noise-negative-afterimages-and-retinogeniculate-projection-a-review-of-a-new-explanatory-framework-based-on-endogenous-ocular-luminescence
#6
REVIEW
Vahid Salari, Felix Scholkmann, Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal, Noémi Császár, Mehdi Aslani, István Bókkon
Cellular luminescence is the emission of photons by living cells due to various biophysical and biochemical processes, mostly associated with cellular metabolism. In this review paper we summarize today's understanding of four luminescence-dependent phenomena in the eye, i.e., phosphenes, retinal discrete dark noise, negative afterimages and the development of retinogeniculate projections in the brain. We review the phenomena above in the context of knowledge gained from experimental and theoretical works. Finally we discuss this knowledge in terms of its physiological significance...
July 17, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728644/differential-associations-of-upps-p-impulsivity-traits-with-alcohol-problems
#7
Kayleigh N McCarty, David H Morris, Laura E Hatz, Denis M McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: The UPPS-P model posits that impulsivity comprises five factors: positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of planning, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Negative and positive urgency are the traits most consistently associated with alcohol problems. However, previous work has examined alcohol problems either individually or in the aggregate, rather than examining multiple problem domains simultaneously. Recent work has also questioned the utility of distinguishing between positive and negative urgency, as this distinction did not meaningfully differ in predicting domains of psychopathology...
July 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727993/how-do-nurse-practitioners-work-in-primary-health-care-settings-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Julian Grant, Lauren Lines, Philip Darbyshire, Yvonne Parry
OBJECTIVES: This scoping review explores the work of nurse practitioners in primary health care settings in developed countries and critiques their contribution to improved health outcomes. DESIGN: A scoping review design was employed and included development of a research question, identification of potentially relevant studies, selection of relevant studies, charting data, collating, summarising and reporting findings. An additional step was added to evaluate the methodological rigor of each study...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727854/toxoplasma-gondii-entry-association-and-physiological-influence-on-the-central-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Oscar A Mendez, Anita A Koshy
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the world's most successful parasites, in part because of its ability to infect and persist in most warm-blooded animals. A unique characteristic of T. gondii is its ability to persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of a variety of hosts, including humans and rodents. How, what, and why T. gondii encysts in the CNS has been the topic of study for decades. In this review, we will discuss recent work on how T. gondii is able to traverse the unique barrier surrounding the CNS, what cells of the CNS play host to T...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727140/respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-in-the-fourth-decade-of-life-depends-on-birth-weight-and-the-drd4-gene-implications-for-understanding-the-development-of-emotion-regulation
#11
Calan Savoy, Karen J Mathewson, Louis A Schmidt, Katherine M Morrison, John E Krzeczkowski, Ryan J Van Lieshout
INTRODUCTION: The long allele of the DRD4 gene can confer different behavioral and emotional phenotypes depending upon environmental exposure, although the physiological changes underlying these phenotypes are not fully known. We sought to extend this work by assessing the interaction of the DRD4 gene and exposure to perinatal adversity (indexed by extremely low birth weight [ELBW]) on resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a neurophysiological measure of emotion regulation, in adulthood...
July 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#12
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726715/overexpression-of-the-osimp-gene-increases-the-accumulation-of-inositol-and-confers-enhanced-cold-tolerance-in-tobacco-through-modulation-of-the-antioxidant-enzymes-activities
#13
Rong-Xiang Zhang, Li-Jun Qin, De-Gang Zhao
Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l-myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP...
July 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#14
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725998/membrane-phase-transition-during-heating-and-cooling-molecular-insight-into-reversible-melting
#15
Liping Sun, Rainer A Böckmann
With increasing temperature, lipid bilayers undergo a gel-fluid phase transition, which plays an essential role in many physiological phenomena. In the present work, this first-order phase transition was investigated for variable heating and cooling rates for a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Alternative methods to track the melting temperature [Formula: see text] are compared. The resulting [Formula: see text] is shown to be independent of the scan rate for small heating rates (0...
July 19, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#16
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725364/interspecific-variation-in-persistence-of-buried-weed-seeds-follows-trade-offs-among-physiological-chemical-and-physical-seed-defenses
#17
Adam S Davis, Xianhui Fu, Brian J Schutte, Mark A Berhow, James W Dalling
Soil seedbanks drive infestations of annual weeds, yet weed management focuses largely on seedling mortality. As weed seedbanks increasingly become reservoirs of herbicide resistance, species-specific seedbank management approaches will be essential to weed control. However, the development of seedbank management strategies can only develop from an understanding of how seed traits affect persistence.We quantified interspecific trade-offs among physiological, chemical, and physical traits of weed seeds and their persistence in the soil seedbank in a common garden study...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724925/a-comparative-study-of-five-physiological-key-parameters-between-four-different-human-trophoblast-derived-cell-lines
#18
Mario Rothbauer, Nilaykumar Patel, Hajnalka Gondola, Monika Siwetz, Berthold Huppertz, Peter Ertl
The human placenta plays a crucial role as the interface between mother and fetus. It represents a unique tissue that undergoes morphological as well as functional changes on the cellular and tissue level throughout pregnancy. To better understand how the placenta works, a variety of techniques has been developed to re-create this complex physiological barrier in vitro. However, due to the low availability of freshly isolated primary cells, choriocarcinoma cell lines remain the usual suspects as in vitro models for placental research...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724701/integrative-physiology-of-transcellular-and-paracellular-intestinal-absorption
#19
REVIEW
William H Karasov
Glucose absorption by the small intestine has been studied for nearly a century. Despite extensive knowledge about the identity, functioning and regulation of the relevant transporters, there has been and there remains controversy about how these transporters work in concert to determine the overall epithelial absorption of key nutrients (e.g. sugars, amino acids) over a wide range of dietary and/or luminal concentrations. Our broader, integrative understanding of intestinal absorption requires more than the reductionist dissection of all the components and their elaboration at molecular and genetic levels...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724694/role-of-long-chain-acyl-coas-in-the-regulation-of-mycolic-acid-biosynthesis-in-mycobacteria
#20
Yi Ting Tsai, Valentina Salzman, Matías Cabruja, Gabriela Gago, Hugo Gramajo
One of the dominant features of the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and other mycobacteria, is the mycobacterial cell envelope with its exceptional complex composition. Mycolic acids are major and very specific components of the cell envelope and play a key role in its architecture and impermeability. Biosynthesis of mycolic acid (MA) precursors requires two types of fatty acid synthases, FAS I and FAS II, which should work in concert in order to keep lipid homeostasis tightly regulated. Both FAS systems are regulated at their transcriptional level by specific regulatory proteins...
July 2017: Open Biology
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