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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165847/breast-lesion-characterization-using-whole-lesion-histogram-analysis-with-stretched-exponential-diffusion-model
#1
Chunling Liu, Kun Wang, Xiaodan Li, Jine Zhang, Jie Ding, Karl Spuhler, Timothy Duong, Changhong Liang, Chuan Huang
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied in breast imaging and can provide more information about diffusion, perfusion and other physiological interests than standard pulse sequences. The stretched-exponential model has previously been shown to be more reliable than conventional DWI techniques, but different diagnostic sensitivities were found from study to study. PURPOSE: This work investigated the characteristics of whole-lesion histogram parameters derived from the stretched-exponential diffusion model for benign and malignant breast lesions, compared them with conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and further determined which histogram metrics can be best used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165663/oral-contraceptives-and-cigarette-smoking-a-review-of-the-literature-and-future-directions
#2
Alicia M Allen, Andrea H Weinberger, Reagan R Wetherill, Carol L Howe, Sherry A McKee
Introduction: Evidence continues to mount indicating that endogenous sex hormones (e.g., progesterone and estradiol) play a significant role in smoking-related outcomes. Although approximately 1 out of 4 premenopausal smokers use oral contraceptives (OCs), which significantly alter progesterone and estradiol levels, relatively little is known about how OCs may influence smoking-related outcomes. Thus, the goal of this review paper is to describe the state of the literature and offer recommendations for future directions...
November 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165041/akt-mediated-phosphorylation-of-atg4b-impairs-mitochondrial-activity-and-enhances-the-warburg-effect-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#3
Zhenhong Ni, Jintao He, Yaran Wu, Changjiang Hu, Xufang Dai, Xiaojing Yan, Bo Li, Xinzhe Li, Haojun Xiong, Yuming Li, Song Li, Liang Xu, Yongsheng Li, Jiqin Lian, Fengtian He
Phosphorylation is a major type of post-translational modification, which can influence the cellular physiological function. ATG4B, a key macroautophagy/autophagy-related protein, has a potential effect on the survival of tumor cells. However, it is still unknown as to the role of ATG4B phosphorylation in cancers. In this study, we identified a novel phosphorylation site at Ser34 of ATG4B induced by AKT in HCC cells. The phosphorylation of ATG4B at Ser34 had little effect on autophagic flux, but promoted the Warburg effect including the increase of L-lactate production and glucose consumption, and the decrease of oxygen consumption in HCC cells...
November 22, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164747/a-role-for-fruit-structure-in-seed-survival-and-germination-of-swartzia-langsdorffii-raddi-beyond-dispersal
#4
T A A Vaz, A G Rodrigues-Junior, A C Davide, A T Nakamura, P E Toorop
Diaspore structure has been hypothesized to play a role in seed viability and/or germination of recalcitrant seeds, especially for Swartzia langsdorffii. Thus, this work aims to (1) investigate in situ contribution of pericarp and aril on seed viability and germination, and (2) identify morphoanatomical traits of Swartzia langsdorffii diaspores that aid its desiccation-sensitive seed to remain viable. The role of the pericarp and aril in seed survival and germination was investigated by placing the whole fruit, whole seeds (arillate seed) and bare seeds (without aril) on the soil in the forest understory, assessing germination, emergence, dead, firm and predated seeds; and water content (WC) of pericarps, arils and seeds...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164079/cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#5
REVIEW
Martha Milade Torres Nupan, Alberto Velez Van Meerbeke, Claudia Alejandra López Cabra, Paula Marcela Herrera Gomez
Aim: The last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163881/displacement-and-hybridization-reactions-in-aptamer-functionalized-hydrogels-for-biomimetic-protein-release-and-signal-transduction
#6
Jinping Lai, Shihui Li, Xuechen Shi, James Coyne, Nan Zhao, Fengping Dong, Yingwei Mao, Yong Wang
A variety of hydrogels have been synthesized for controlling the release of signaling molecules in applications such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. However, it remains challenging to synthesize hydrogels with the ability to control the release of signaling molecules sequentially or periodically under physiological conditions as living cells do in response to the variation of metabolism. The purpose of this work was to study a novel biomimetic hydrogel system with the ability of recapitulating the procedure of cellular signal transduction and controlling the sequential release of signaling molecules under physiological conditions...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163588/genome-wide-analysis-of-japonica-rice-performance-under-limited-water-and-permanent-flooding-conditions
#7
Andrea Volante, Francesca Desiderio, Alessandro Tondelli, Rosaria Perrini, Gabriele Orasen, Chiara Biselli, Paolo Riccardi, Alessandra Vattari, Daniela Cavalluzzo, Simona Urso, Manel Ben Hassen, Agostino Fricano, Pietro Piffanelli, Paolo Cozzi, Filippo Biscarini, Gian Attilio Sacchi, Luigi Cattivelli, Giampiero Valè
A rice GWAS panel of 281 accessions of japonica rice was phenotypically characterized for 26 traits related to phenology, plant and seed morphology, physiology and yield for 2 years in field conditions under permanent flooding (PF) and limited water (LW). A genome-wide analysis uncovered a total of 160 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs), of which 32 were LW-specific, 59 were PF-specific, and 69 were in common between the two water management systems. LW-specific associations were identified for several agronomic traits including days to maturation, days from flowering to maturation, leaf traits, plant height, panicle and seed traits, hundred grain weight, yield and tillering...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163530/sense-and-immunity-context-dependent-neuro-immune-interplay
#8
REVIEW
Simmie L Foster, Corey R Seehus, Clifford J Woolf, Sébastien Talbot
The sensory nervous and immune systems, historically considered autonomous, actually work in concert to promote host defense and tissue homeostasis. These systems interact with each other through a common language of cell surface G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases as well as cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides. While this bidirectional communication is adaptive in many settings, helping protect from danger, it can also become maladaptive and contribute to disease pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163419/reconstruction-of-diverse-verrucomicrobial-genomes-from-metagenome-datasets-of-freshwater-reservoirs
#9
Pedro J Cabello-Yeves, Rohit Ghai, Maliheh Mehrshad, Antonio Picazo, Antonio Camacho, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
The phylum Verrucomicrobia contains freshwater representatives which remain poorly studied at the genomic, taxonomic, and ecological levels. In this work we present eighteen new reconstructed verrucomicrobial genomes from two freshwater reservoirs located close to each other (Tous and Amadorio, Spain). These metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) display a remarkable taxonomic diversity inside the phylum and comprise wide ranges of estimated genome sizes (from 1.8 to 6 Mb). Among all Verrucomicrobia studied we found some of the smallest genomes of the Spartobacteria and Opitutae classes described so far...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163385/synergistic-response-of-rifampicin-with-hydroperoxides-on-mycobacterium-a-mechanistic-study
#10
Yesha S Patel, Sarika Mehra
Prolonged chemotherapy as well as rapid development of antimicrobial resistance are two of the major concerns for treatment of mycobacterial infections. To enhance the effectiveness of current drug regimens, search for compounds having synergistic interaction with anti-mycobacterial drugs has become indispensable. Here, we have investigated the intervention by oxidative stress, a major factor in mycobacterial pathogenesis, in combination with rifampicin (RIF), a first-line drug used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163230/physiological-levels-of-nitric-oxide-diminish-mitochondrial-superoxide-potential-role-of-mitochondrial-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-and-nitrosothiols
#11
Sergey I Dikalov, Vladimir I Mayorov, Alexander V Panov
Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of "antioxidant" effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162708/lactobacillus-acidophilus-metabolizes-dietary-plant-glucosides-and-externalizes-their-bioactive-phytochemicals
#12
Mia C Theilmann, Yong Jun Goh, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Todd R Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou, Maher Abou Hachem
Therapeutically active glycosylated phytochemicals are ubiquitous in the human diet. The human gut microbiota (HGM) modulates the bioactivities of these compounds, which consequently affect host physiology and microbiota composition. Despite a significant impact on human health, the key players and the underpinning mechanisms of this interplay remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus on mono- and diglucosyl dietary plant glycosides (PGs) possessing small aromatic aglycones...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161859/theoretical-investigation-on-models-of-circadian-rhythms-based-on-dimerization-and-proteolysis-of-per-and-tim
#13
Jifa Jiang, Qiang Liu, Lei Niu
Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are widespread\break mechanisms in many organisms. The internal biological rhythms are driven by molecular clocks, which oscillate with a period nearly but not exactly 24 hours. Many classic models of circadian rhythms are based on a time-delayed negative feedback, suggested by the protein products inhibiting transcription of their own genes. In 1999, based on stabilization of PER upon dimerization, Tyson et al. [J. J. Tyson, C. I. Hong, C. D. Thron, B. Novak, Biophys...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161351/echoes-of-affective-stimulation-in-brain-connectivity-networks
#14
Viola Borchardt, Yan Fan, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucia Herrera Melendez, Malek Bajbouj, Matti Gärtner, Meng Li, Martin Walter, Simone Grimm
Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e., can be distinguished from cognitive task execution. Our study included fMRI scans during and after affective stimulation with sad and neutral movies and a working memory task complemented with measures of cardiovascular activity and mood...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#15
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161021/recent-advances-in-solid-nano-pores-channel-analysis
#16
Zi Long, Shenshan Zhan, Pengcheng Gao, Yongqian Wang, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia
Inspired by the natural phenomenon that various types of transmembrane pores and ion channels in the range of 1-100 nm are found in each biological cell, playing crucial roles in various significant physiological activities such as maintaining cell osmotic balance and stabilizing cell volume, different biomimetic nanodevices (nano-pore/channel) with various characteristics have emerged as an attractive and powerful platform, and have been used for a wide range of applications. As the key components of any nano-pore/channel-based applications, the nano-pore/channel can be broadly sorted into two types, biological and solid state...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159888/salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-as-a-marker-of-stress-reduction-in-individuals-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-in-response-to-occupational-and-music-therapy
#17
J Poquérusse, A Azhari, P Setoh, S Cainelli, C Ripoli, P Venuti, G Esposito
BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of a range of disability-centric therapies have been well studied, little remains known about how they work, let alone how to monitor these benefits in a precise and reliable way. METHODS: Here, in two independent studies, we examine how sessions consisting of occupational or music therapy, both widely recognised for their effectiveness, modulate levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a now time- and cost-efficient marker of stress, in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157229/computer-model-for-the-cardiovascular-system-development-of-an-e-learning-tool-for-teaching-of-medical-students
#18
David Roy Warriner, Martin Bayley, Yubing Shi, Patricia Victoria Lawford, Andrew Narracott, John Fenner
BACKGROUND: This study combined themes in cardiovascular modelling, clinical cardiology and e-learning to create an on-line environment that would assist undergraduate medical students in understanding key physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system. METHODS: An interactive on-line environment was developed incorporating a lumped-parameter mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model outputs were used to characterise the progression of key disease processes and allowed students to classify disease severity with the aim of improving their understanding of abnormal physiology in a clinical context...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157198/independent-impacts-of-aging-on-mitochondrial-dna-quantity-and-quality-in-humans
#19
Ruoyu Zhang, Yiqin Wang, Kaixiong Ye, Martin Picard, Zhenglong Gu
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, and the reduction of mtDNA copy number, both disrupt mitochondrial energetics, and may contribute to aging and age-associated phenotypes. However, there are few genetic and epidemiological studies on the spectra of blood mtDNA heteroplasmies, and the distribution of mtDNA copy numbers in different age groups and their impact on age-related phenotypes. In this work, we used whole-genome sequencing data of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the UK10K project to investigate in parallel mtDNA heteroplasmy and copy number in 1511 women, between 17 and 85 years old, recruited in the TwinsUK cohorts...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156607/calcium-dependent-protein-kinases-in-phytohormone-signaling-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Wuwu Xu, Wenchao Huang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs) are Ca(2+)-sensors that decode Ca(2+) signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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