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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214380/application-of-the-mechpeff-model-to-predict-passive-effective-intestinal-permeability-in-the-different-regions-of-the-rodent-small-intestine-and-colon
#1
D Pade, M Jamei, A Rostami-Hodjegan, D B Turner
A major component of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is prediction of the rate and extent of absorption of orally dosed drugs for which knowledge of effective passive intestinal permeability (Peff ) is essential. Single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies are used to establish effective permeability in vivo but are difficult to perform in rodents while mechanistic models to predict drug Peff in rat and mouse have not been published. This work evaluates the predictive performance of the 'MechPeff' model to predict Peff in the rodent intestine based upon knowledge of regional gut physiology and drug-specific physicochemical parameters...
February 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213540/characterization-of-the-physical-and-functional-interplay-between-mazf1-bif-and-its-noncognate-antitoxins-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#2
Yanxia Wei, Yang Li, Fan Yang, Qiong Wu, Dianbin Liu, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Xiaomei Liu, Yugang Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Renxian Tang
Bifidobacterium longum strain JDM301, a widely used commercial strain in China, encodes at least two MazEF-like modules and one RelBE-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its chromosome, designated as MazE1F1(Bif), MazE2F2(Bif) and RelBE(Bif), respectively. Bacterial TA systems play an important role in several stress responses, but the relationship between these TA systems is largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between MazF1(Bif) and MazE2(Bif) or RelB(Bif) was assessed in B. longum strain JDM301...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213158/pink1-parkin-mitophagy-and-neurodegeneration-what-do-we-really-know-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Alexander J Whitworth, Leo J Pallanck
Mitochondria are essential organelles that provide cellular energy and buffer cytoplasmic calcium. At the same time they produce damaging reactive oxygen species and sequester pro-apoptotic factors. Hence, eukaryotes have evolved exquisite homeostatic processes that maintain mitochondrial integrity, or ultimately remove damaged organelles. This subject has garnered intense interest recently following the discovery that two Parkinson's disease genes, PINK1 and parkin, regulate mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy)...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212626/a-global-characterization-of-the-translational-and-transcriptional-programs-induced-by-methionine-restriction-through-ribosome-profiling-and-rna-seq
#4
Ke Zou, Qi Ouyang, Hao Li, Jiashun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Among twenty amino acids, methionine has a special role as it is coded by the translation initiation codon and methionyl-tRNAi (Met-tRNAi) is required for the assembly of the translation initiation complex. Thus methionine may play a special role in global gene regulation. Methionine has also been known to play important roles in cell growth, development, cancer, and aging. In this work, we characterize the translational and transcriptional programs induced by methionine restriction (MetR) and investigate the potential mechanisms through which methionine regulates gene expression, using the budding yeast S...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212487/interactions-between-membranes-and-metaphilic-polypeptide-architectures-with-diverse-sidechain-populations
#5
Michelle W Lee, Ming Han, Guilherme Volpe Bossa, Carly Snell, Ziyuan Song, Haoyu Tang, Lichen Yin, Jianjun Cheng, Sylvio May, Erik Luijten, Gerard C L Wong
At physiological conditions, most proteins or peptides can fold into relatively stable structures that present on their molecular surfaces specific chemical patterns partially smeared out by thermal fluctuations. These nanoscopically defined patterns of charge, hydrogen bonding, and/or hydrophobicity, along with their elasticity and shape stability (folded proteins have Young's moduli of ~1 × 10(8) Pa), largely determine and limit the interactions of these molecules, such as molecular recognition and allosteric regulation...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211811/acidity-and-acid-sensing-ion-channels-in-the-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#6
Eric B Gonzales, Nathalie Sumien
Alzheimer's disease prevalence has reached epidemic proportion with very few treatment options, which are associated with a multitude of side effects. A potential avenue of research for new therapies are protons, and their associated receptor: acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Protons are often overlooked neurotransmitters, and proton-gated currents have been identified in the brain. Furthermore, ASICs have been determined to be crucial for proper brain function. While there is more work to be done, this review is intended to highlight protons as neurotransmitters and their role along with the role of ASICs within physiological functioning of the brain...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210895/combining-physiological-environmental-and-locational-sensors-for-citizen-oriented-health-applications
#7
J J Huck, J D Whyatt, P Coulton, B Davison, A Gradinar
This work investigates the potential of combining the outputs of multiple low-cost sensor technologies for the direct measurement of spatio-temporal variations in phenomena that exist at the interface between our bodies and the environment. The example used herein is the measurement of personal exposure to traffic pollution, which may be considered as a function of the concentration of pollutants in the air and the frequency and volume of that air which enters our lungs. The sensor-based approach described in this paper removes the 'traditional' requirements either to model or interpolate pollution levels or to make assumptions about the physiology of an individual...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210319/physiology-of-respiratory-disturbances-in-muscular-dystrophies
#8
Antonella Lo Mauro, Andrea Aliverti
: Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited myopathies characterised by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, including of the respiratory muscles. Respiratory failure, i.e. when the respiratory system fails in its gas exchange functions, is a common feature in muscular dystrophy, being the main cause of death, and it is a consequence of lung failure, pump failure or a combination of the two. The former is due to recurrent aspiration, the latter to progressive weakness of respiratory muscles and an increase in the load against which they must contract...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210270/face-to-face-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-effects-on-gastrointestinal-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#9
Hanna Edebol-Carlman, Brjánn Ljótsson, Steven J Linton, Katja Boersma, Martien Schrooten, Dirk Repsilber, Robert J Brummer
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the gut-brain axis. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain are hallmarks of IBS and linked to the physiological and psychological burden and to the nonadaptive coping with stress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for IBS has proven effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in IBS by means of coping with stress. The present pilot study evaluated for the first time whether CBT for IBS affected visceral sensitivity and pain...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209527/exploring-deformable-particles-in-vascular-targeted-drug-delivery-softer-is-only-sometimes-better
#10
Margaret B Fish, Catherine A Fromen, Genesis Lopez-Cazares, Alexander W Golinski, Timothy F Scott, Reheman Adili, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
The ability of vascular-targeted drug carriers (VTCs) to localize and bind to a targeted, diseased endothelium determines their overall clinical utility. Here, we investigate how particle modulus and size determine adhesion of VTCs to the vascular wall under physiological blood flow conditions. In general, deformable microparticles (MPs) outperformed nanoparticles (NPs) in all experimental conditions tested. Our results indicate that MP modulus enhances particle adhesion in a shear-dependent manner. In low shear human blood flow profiles in vitro, low modulus particles showed favorable adhesion, while at high shear, rigid particles showed superior adhesion...
February 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209406/endocrine-and-physiological-effects-of-linuron-and-s-metolachlor-in-zebrafish-developing-embryos
#11
C Quintaneiro, D Patrício, S C Novais, A M V M Soares, M S Monteiro
Evaluation of the effects of linuron and S-metolachlor on apical, biochemical and transcriptional endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages was the main purpose of this work. Embryos were exposed for 96h to a range of concentrations of each herbicide to determine lethal and sub-lethal effects on apical (e.g. malformations, hatching) and biochemical parameters (cholinesterase, ChE; catalase, CAT; glutathione S-transferase, GST; lipid peroxidation, LPO and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). To evaluate endocrine disruption effects, embryos were exposed during 96h to 0...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208688/the-impact-of-heat-exposure-and-sleep-restriction-on-firefighters-work-performance-and-physiology-during-simulated-wildfire-suppression
#12
Grace E Vincent, Brad Aisbett, Brianna Larsen, Nicola D Ridgers, Rod Snow, Sally A Ferguson
This study was designed to examine the effects of ambient heat on firefighters' physical task performance, and physiological and perceptual responses when sleep restricted during simulated wildfire conditions. Thirty firefighters were randomly allocated to the sleep restricted (n = 17, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Firefighters performed two days of simulated, intermittent, self-paced work circuits comprising six firefighting tasks...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#13
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208300/near-infrared-probe-based-on-rhodamine-derivative-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-lysosomal-ph-tracking
#14
Guangle Niu, Panpan Zhang, Weimin Liu, Mengqi Wang, Hongyan Zhang, Jiasheng Wu, Liping Zhang, Pengfei Wang
The development of near-infrared fluorescent probes with low pKa, high selectivity, high photostability, and high sensitivity for lysosomal pH detection is of great importance. In the present work, we developed a novel near-infrared lysosomal pH probe (Lyso-hNR) based on a rhodamine derivative. Lyso-hNR showed fast, highly sensitive, and highly selective fluorescence response to acidic pH caused by the H(+)-induced structure changes from the nonfluorescent spirolactam form to the highly emissive open-ring form...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208253/engineering-carbon-nanotube-fiber-for-real-time-quantification-of-ascorbic-acid-levels-in-a-live-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Limin Zhang, Fangling Liu, Xuemei Sun, Guang-Feng Wei, Yang Tian, Zhi-Pan Liu, Rong Huang, Yanyan Yu, Huisheng Peng
Ascorbic acid (AA) levels are closely correlated with physiological and pathological events in brain diseases, but the mechanism remains unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of accurately analyzing AA levels in live brain. In this study, by engineering tunable defects and oxygen-containing species in carbon nanotubes, a novel aligned carbon nanotube fiber was developed as an accurate microsensor for the ratiometric detection of AA levels in live rat brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AA oxidation is greatly facilitated on the fiber surface at a low potential, leading to high sensitivity as well as high selectivity against potential sources of interference in the brain...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207419/both-genome-and-cytosol-dynamics-change-in-e-coli-challenged-with-sublethal-rifampicin
#16
Michal Wlodarski, Bianca Raciti, Jurij Kotar, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Gillian M Fraser, Pietro Cicuta
While the action of many antimicrobial drugs is well understood at the molecular level, a systems-level physiological response to antibiotics remains largely unexplored. This work considers fluctuation dynamics of both the chromosome and cytosol in Escherichia coli, and their response to sublethal treatments of a clinically important antibiotic, rifampicin. We precisely quantify the changes in dynamics of chromosomal loci and cytosolic aggregates (a rheovirus nonstructural protein known as μNS-GFP), measuring short time-scale displacements across several hours of drug exposure...
February 16, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203686/ocular-involvement-of-multicentric-malignant-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-ewe-a-case-report
#17
James O Rushton, Denise Thaller, Reinhild Krametter-Froetscher
An 8.5-year-old, 98 kg female mountain sheep presented with bilateral exophthalmos with reduced retropulsion of the globes, impairing physiologic eyelid closure, sanguineous ocular discharge, as well as swelling of the eyelids and periocular skin. Bilateral vitreal hemorrhage hindering examination of the fundus was further noticed. Systemic signs included reduced general demeanour, presence of a firm mass in the left half of the mammary gland, multiple masses in the area of the vulva and a mass between the shoulder blades...
February 16, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203606/dna-methylation-in-oligodendroglial-cells-during-developmental-myelination-and-in-disease
#18
Sarah Moyon, Patrizia Casaccia
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). During development, they differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes (OL) and ensheath axons, providing trophic and functional support to the neurons. This process is regulated by the dynamic expression of specific transcription factors, which, in turn, is controlled by epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation. Here we discuss recent findings showing that DNA methylation levels are differentially regulated in the oligodendrocyte lineage during developmental myelination, affecting both genes expression and alternative splicing events...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203058/quality-of-life-assessment-in-patients-with-alopecia-areata-and-androgenetic-alopecia-in-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#19
Min Zhang, Nan Zhang
INTRODUCTION: In medical terms, alopecia is considered a relatively mild dermatological condition that nevertheless is a serious condition, but it causes major depression in many sufferers. Alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) are the main types of hair loss. This study assessed the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese patients with AA and AGA using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. METHODS: A total of 178 AA and AGA patients were enrolled in this study, and DLQI was used to evaluate the QoL of the patients...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201986/the-origin-of-chow-chows-in-the-light-of-the-east-asian-breeds
#20
Hechuan Yang, Guodong Wang, Meng Wang, Yaping Ma, Tingting Yin, Ruoxi Fan, Hong Wu, Li Zhong, David M Irwin, Weiwei Zhai, Yaping Zhang
BACKGROUND: East Asian dog breeds are one of the most ancient groups of dogs that radiated after the domestication of the dog and represent the most basal lineages of dog evolution. Among these, the Chow Chow is an ancient breed that embodies very distinct morphological and physiological features, such as sturdy build, dense coat, and blue/purple tongue. RESULTS: Using a Restricted site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approach, we sequenced the genomes of nine Chow Chows from China...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
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