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John R Miklos, Orawee Chinthakanan, Robert D Moore, Deborah R Karp, Gladys M Nogueiras, G Willy Davila
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Synthetic mesh utilized to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) can often result in postoperative complications. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the most common indications for mesh removal; 2) the incidences of the removal of specific mesh procedures (such as suburethral sling [SUS], transvaginal mesh [TVM], or sacrocolpopexy); and 3) the idences and types of surgical complications associated with mesh removal. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study...
October 26, 2016: Surgical Technology International
K E Hargan, N Michelutti, K Coleman, C Grooms, J M Blais, L E Kimpe, G Gilchrist, M Mallory, J P Smol
Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
V L Shirokova, A M L Enright, C B Kennedy, F G Ferris
This investigation evaluates spatial relationships between summer (July) groundwater temperatures and Fe(II)/Fe(III) biogeochemical cycling over a five year period in a shallow pristine sand aquifer at Meilleurs Bay near Deep River, Ontario, Canada. A warm subsurface thermal island of 12.5-16.1 °C, compared to background conditions of 10-11 °C, was manifest in contour maps of average groundwater temperature over the study period. The warm zone coincided with an area of convergent groundwater flow, implicating horizontal heat transfer by advective convection as the reason for elevated temperatures...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
Sharon E Card, Heather D Clark, Michelle Elizov, Narmin Kassam
General internal medicine (GIM), like other generalist specialties, has struggled to maintain its identity in the face of mounting sub-specialization over the past few decades. In Canada, the path to licensure for general internists has been through the completion of an extra year of training after three core years of internal medicine. Until very recently, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) did not recognize GIM as a distinct entity. In response to a societal need to train generalist practitioners who could care for complex patients in an increasingly complex health care setting, the majority of universities across Canada voluntarily developed structured GIM training programs independent of RCPSC recognition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Colin Hamlin, Kanwar Bhangu, Alexander Villafranca, Manpreet Bhangu, Robert Brown, Marshall Tenenbein, Eric Jacobsohn
PURPOSE: Historically, anesthesiology departments have played a small role in teaching the pre-clerkship component of undergraduate medical education (UGME). The purpose of this study was to measure the current participation of Canadian anesthesiologists in UGME with a focus on pre-clerkship. METHODS: Three surveys were developed in collaboration with the Association of Canadian Departments of Anesthesia. After an initial series of validation procedures, the surveys were distributed to anesthesia department heads, UGME directors, and associate deans at the 17 Canadian medical schools...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Chimoné S Dalton, Karen van de Rakt, Åsa Fahlman, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Peter Neuhaus, Richard Popko, Susan Kutz, Frank van der Meer
Herpesviruses (HVs) have a wide range of hosts in the animal kingdom. The result of infection with HVs can vary from asymptomatic to fatal diseases depending on subtype, strain, and host. To date, little is known about HVs naturally circulating in wildlife species and the impact of these viruses on other species. In our study, we used genetic and comparative approaches to increase our understanding of circulating HVs in Canadian wildlife. Using nested polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved region of the HV DNA polymerase gene, we analyzed material derived from wildlife of western and northern Canada collected between February 2009 and Sept 2014...
October 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
Rob Whitley, JiaWei Wang
OBJECTIVES: The overarching aim of this article is to assess media portrayals of mental illness in Canada. We hypothesise that portrayals have improved over time, related to the various antistigma activities of organisations such as the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). Specific objectives are to assess 1) overall tone and content of newspaper articles, 2) change over time, and 3) variables associated with positive or negative content. METHODS: We collected newspaper articles from print and online editions of over 20 best-selling Canadian newspapers from 2005 to 2015 (N = 24,570) that mentioned key search terms such as mental illness or schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Gurusankar Saravanabhavan, Kate Werry, Mike Walker, Douglas Haines, Morie Malowany, Cheryl Khoury
Human biomonitoring reference values are statistical estimates that indicate the upper margin of background exposure to a given chemical at a given time. Nationally representative human biomonitoring data on 176 chemicals, including several metals and trace elements, are available in Canada from 2007 to 2013 through the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). In this work, we used a systematic approach based on the reference interval concept proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry to derive reference values (RV95s) for metals and trace elements...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Calvin Ke, Steve Morgan, Kate Smolina, Danijela Gasevic, Hong Qian, Nadia Khan
OBJECTIVES: Sulfonylureas have been inconsistently associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there are no existing studies of long-term risk in South Asian and Chinese populations. Our objective was to determine whether sulfonylureas are associated with increased mortality or cardiovascular disease in a population cohort of South Asian, Chinese and other Canadian patients with incident diabetes. METHODS: We studied a population-based cohort of adults 35 years of age or older who had diabetes and had been diagnosed between April 2004 and March 2014 by using administrative databases from British Columbia...
October 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Matthew Ward
: Aim To understand the frequency, urgency, and rationale of emergency department and urgent care (ED/UC) use by diabetic patients of a Family Medicine Health Team (FHT). METHODS: A retrospective, observational study with comparison control groups was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. A total of 693 diabetic patients were compared with two, age-standardized non-diabetic groups: one with a higher disease burden based on International Classification of Diseases 9 diagnoses and the other from a randomized patient pool...
October 25, 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Jennie Johnstone, Robin Parsons, Fernando Botelho, Jamie Millar, Shelly McNeil, Tamas Fulop, Janet E McElhaney, Melissa K Andrew, Stephen D Walter, P J Devereaux, Mehrnoush Malek, Ryan R Brinkman, Jonathan Bramson, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether immune phenotypes associated with immunosenescence are predictive of frailty and mortality within 1-year in elderly nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of frailty; prospective cohort study of mortality. SETTING: Thirty-two nursing homes in four Canadian cities between September 2009 and October 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged 65 and older (N = 1,072, median age 86, 72% female)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Joseph Y Ting, Anne Synnes, Ashley Roberts, Akhil Deshpandey, Kimberly Dow, Eugene W Yoon, Kyong-Soon Lee, Simon Dobson, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
Importance: Excessive antibiotic use has been associated with altered bacterial colonization and may result in antibiotic resistance, fungemia, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and mortality. Exploring the association between antibiotic exposure and neonatal outcomes other than infection-related morbidities may provide insight on the importance of rational antibiotic use, especially in the setting of culture-negative neonatal sepsis. Objective: To evaluate the trend of antibiotic use among all hospitalized very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants across Canada and the association between antibiotic use rates (AURs) and mortality and morbidity among neonates without culture-proven sepsis or NEC...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Nancy M Heddle, Richard J Cook, Donald M Arnold, Yang Liu, Rebecca Barty, Mark A Crowther, P J Devereaux, Jack Hirsh, Theodore E Warkentin, Kathryn E Webert, David Roxby, Magdalena Sobieraj-Teague, Andrea Kurz, Daniel I Sessler, Priscilla Figueroa, Martin Ellis, John W Eikelboom
Background Randomized, controlled trials have suggested that the transfusion of blood after prolonged storage does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients, although most of these trials were restricted to high-risk populations and were not powered to detect small but clinically important differences in mortality. We sought to find out whether the duration of blood storage would have an effect on mortality after transfusion in a general population of hospitalized patients. Methods In this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six hospitals in four countries, we randomly assigned patients who required a red-cell transfusion to receive blood that had been stored for the shortest duration (short-term storage group) or the longest duration (long-term storage group) in a 1:2 ratio...
October 24, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Stephanie Truelove, Leigh M Vanderloo, Patricia Tucker
BACKGROUND: Many young children are not meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines. In an effort to change this, the term "active play" has been used to promote increased physical activity levels. Within this young cohort, physical activity is typically achieved in the form of active play behaviour. The current study aimed to review and synthesize the literature to identify key concepts used to define and describe active play among young children. A secondary objective was to explore the various methods adopted for measuring active play...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Yuqing Chen, Lixiang Liu, Yuanna Luo, Minghui Chen, Yang Huan, Ruili Fang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of chronic endometritis (CE) in patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study between May 2015 and December 2015. DESIGN: Classification:Canadian Task Force classification II-2 SETTING: University-affiliated Hospital. PATIENT(S): Eighty-two women with moderate to severe IUA.
 INTERVENTION(S): Transcervical resection of adhesions (TCRA) and endometrial biopsy were performed in all patients...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Elizabeth J Geller, Emma Babb, Andrea G Nackley, Denniz Zolnoun
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess incidence and risk factors for pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implantation. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of women with no baseline pelvic pain who underwent surgery with mesh implant for the treatment of prolapse and/or incontinence at least one year prior to study period. DESIGN: Classification: Canadian Task Force Level II-2 SETTING: Single university hospital PATIENTS: Women who have undergone surgery with pelvic mesh implant for treatment of pelvic floor disorders including prolapse and incontinence INTERVENTIONS: Telephone interviews to assess pain, sexual function and general health...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
André Lamy, P J Devereaux, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, David P Taggart, Shengshou Hu, Zbynek Straka, Leopoldo S Piegas, Alvaro Avezum, Ahmet R Akar, Fernando Lanas Zanetti, Anil R Jain, Nicolas Noiseux, Chandrasekar Padmanabhan, Juan-Carlos Bahamondes, Richard J Novick, Liang Tao, Pablo A Olavegogeascoechea, Balram Airan, Toomas-Andres Sulling, Richard P Whitlock, Yongning Ou, Peggy Gao, Shirley Pettit, Salim Yusuf
Background We previously reported that there was no significant difference at 30 days or at 1 year in the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure between patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed with a beating-heart technique (off-pump) and those who underwent CABG performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump). We now report the results at 5 years (the end of the trial). Methods A total of 4752 patients (from 19 countries) who had coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo off-pump or on-pump CABG...
October 23, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Ivan J Oresnik, Lisette Mascarenhas, Christopher K Yost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Eric Y Tenkorang
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects nearly over three million Canadians, including immigrants. The timing of the first onset of diabetes has been linked to several other severe diseases. Yet, there is a dearth of empirical studies that examine the timing of the first onset of diabetes among Canadians, in general, and among immigrants and ethnic minority populations within Canada, in particular. DESIGN: Applying event history techniques to the 2013 Canadian Community and Health Survey, we address this research void by examining factors that contribute to the first onset of diabetes among immigrant and visible minority populations in Canada (N = 8905)...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
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