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Pei Li, Su-Ling Zeng, Li Duan, Xiao-Dong Ma, Li-Li Dou, Lan-Jin Wang, Ping Li, Zhi-Ming Bi, E-Hu Liu
To get a better understanding of the bioactive constituents in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus (AFI) and Aurantii Fructus (AF), in the present study, a comprehensive strategy integrating multiple chromatographic analysis and chemometrics methods was firstly proposed. Based on segmental monitoring, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-variable wavelength detection method was established for simultaneous quantification of ten major flavonoids, and the quantitative data were further analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nicholas A Ratamess, Jill A Bush, Jie Kang, William J Kraemer, Sidney J Stohs, Vincenzo G Nocera, Megan D Leise, Keith B Diamond, Sara C Campbell, Howard B Miller, Avery D Faigenbaum
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic, lipolytic, and cardiovascular responses to supplementation with p-synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine during resistance exercise (RE). METHODS: Twelve healthy men performed a control RE protocol (6 × 10 repetitions of squats) and were randomly assigned (using a double-blind crossover design with random protocol sequencing) to a supplement sequence: p-synephrine (S; 100 mg), p-synephrine + caffeine (SCF; 100 mg of p-synephrine plus 100 mg of caffeine), or a placebo (P)...
November 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Muhammad Zahid Khan, Waqas Nawaz
Human trace amines (TAs) are endogenous compounds, previously almost ignored in human pathology for many reasons (difficulty of their measurement in biological fluids, unknown receptors for elusive amines), are now considered to play a significant role in synaptic transmission within the central nervous system (CNS) acting as neuromodulators. The recent discovery of a novel family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that includes individual members that are highly specific for TAs indicates a potential role for TAs as vertebrate neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, although the majority of these GPCRs so far have not been demonstrated to be activated by TAs...
July 14, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Clizia Guccione, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Vieri Piazzini, Anna Rita Bilia
A chromatographic method for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of peels and preparations based on different species of Citrus was developed in order to obtain a complete profile of the constituents, including flavonoids and protoalkaloids. Commercial peels of sweet orange, lemon, mandarin, and grapefruit were analyzed. Seventeen constituents including flavanones, flavones, polymethoxyflavones, and protoalkaloids were identified by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and HPLC-MS/MS using a comparison of retention times and UV-Vis and MS spectra with reference standards and literature data...
July 2016: Planta Medica
Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín, Juan Del Coso
AIMS: p-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used in dietary supplements for weight management because of its purported thermogenic effects. However, there is a lack of scientific information about its effectiveness to increase fat metabolism during exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of an acute ingestion of p-synephrine on fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized and counterbalanced experimental design, 18 healthy subjects performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg kg(-1) ) or after the ingestion of a placebo (cellulose)...
August 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Giovanni D'Andrea, Massimo Leone, Gennaro Bussone, Paola Di Fiore, Andrea Bolner, Marco Aguggia, Maria Gabriella Saracco, Francesco Perini, Giuseppe Giordano, Antonina Gucciardi, Alberta Leon
OBJECTIVE: Episodic cluster headache is characterized by abnormalities in tyrosine metabolism (i.e. elevated levels of dopamine, tyramine, octopamine and synephrine and low levels of noradrenalin in plasma and platelets.) It is unknown, however, if such biochemical anomalies are present and/or constitute a predisposing factor in chronic cluster headache. To test this hypothesis, we measured the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline together with those of elusive amines, such as tyramine, octopamine and synephrine, in plasma of chronic cluster patients and control individuals...
March 22, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Mohd Shara, Sidney J Stohs, Tareq L Mukattash
Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in combination with multiple herbal ingredients for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in juices and foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Questions exist regarding the safety of p-synephrine because of structural similarities with other biogenic amines. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulatory) effects of bitter orange extract (49-mg p-synephrine) given to 18 healthy subjects (nine men and nine women) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study...
May 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Juliany Fontoura da Silva-Pereira, Gisele Adriana Bubna, Geferson de Almeida Gonçalves, Fabrício Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extracts have been used in products for weight management and sports performance. These extracts contain large amounts of p-synephrine and much smaller amounts of p-octopamine. Both protoalkaloids exert lipolytic and glycogenolytic activities at similar concentrations. The biotransformation of p-synephrine and p-octopamine is not as well-known as those of other adrenergic amines. For this reason transformation of these amines was investigated in the isolated perfused liver. Special attention was devoted to the single pass extraction of each compound as well as to the kinetics of uptake...
March 2016: Food & Function
Sidney J Stohs, Vladimir Badmaev
Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non-stimulatory or a combination thereof...
May 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Selasi Attipoe, Pieter A Cohen, Amy Eichner, Patricia A Deuster
Many studies have found that some dietary supplement product labels do not accurately reflect the actual ingredients. However, studies have not been performed to determine if ingredients in the same dietary supplement product vary over time. The objective of this study was to assess the consistency of stimulant ingredients in popular sports supplements sold in the United States over a nine-month period. Three samples of nine popular sports supplements were purchased over the nine-month period. The 27 samples were analyzed for caffeine and several other stimulants (including adulterants)...
February 3, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín, Juan José Salinero, Javier Abían-Vicen, Francisco Areces, Beatriz Lara, Cesar Gallo, Carlos Puente, Juan Del Coso
P-Synephrine is a protoalkaloid widely used as an ergogenic aid in sports. This substance has been included in the World Anti-Doping Agency monitoring program, although scientific information about its effects on performance and athletes' well-being is scarce. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of p-synephrine to increase performance in sprint athletes. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 13 experienced sprinters performed 2 acute experimental trials after the ingestion of p-synephrine (3 mg·kg(-1)) or after the ingestion of a placebo (control trial)...
January 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Carine Viana, Gabriela M Zemolin, Larissa S Müller, Thaís R Dal Molin, Helena Seiffert, Leandro M de Carvalho
Methyl-xanthines and adrenergic stimulants, such as caffeine and synephrine, are commonly added to food supplements due to their stimulating and thermogenic effects. In addition, the abusive consumption of food supplements with ergogenic and aesthetic purposes has been observed worldwide. This work describes the study of caffeine, p-synephrine, hordenine, octopamine, tyramine, ephedrine and salicin as stimulants in dietary supplements marketed in Brazil for weight loss and physical fitness claims. A total of 94 different products were acquired from 30 Brazilian websites...
2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Nicholas A Ratamess, Jill A Bush, Jie Kang, William J Kraemer, Sidney J Stohs, Vincenzo G Nocera, Megan D Leise, Keith B Diamond, Avery D Faigenbaum
BACKGROUND: Little is known concerning the potential ergogenic effects of p-synephrine supplementation. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of supplementation with p-synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine on free-weight resistance exercise performance. METHODS: Twelve healthy, college-aged men performed a control (CT) resistance exercise protocol consisting of 6 sets of squats for up to 10 repetitions per set using 80% of their one repetition-maximum (1RM) with 2 min of rest in between sets...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
G D'Andrea, S Cevoli, D Colavito, A Leon
The pathogenesis of migraine as well as cluster headache (CH) is yet a debated question. In this review, we discuss the possible role of the of tyrosine and tryptophan metabolism in the pathogenesis of these primary headaches. These include the abnormalities in the synthesis of neurotransmitters: high level of DA, low level of NE and very elevated levels of octopamine and synephrine (neuromodulators) in plasma of episodic migraine without aura and CH patients. We hypothesize that the imbalance between the levels of neurotransmitters and elusive amines synthesis is due to a metabolic shift directing tyrosine toward an increased decarboxylase and reduced hydroxylase enzyme activities...
May 2015: Neurological Sciences
Zhigang Cui, Youngil Lee, Youngki Lee, Deokbae Park
p-Synephrine, the primary protoalkaloid in the extract of bitter orange and other citrus species, has gained interest due to its lipolytic activity in adipose tissues. We previously found that p-synephrine stimulates glucose consumption via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This study investigated the effect of p-synephrine on glucose production and lipid accumulation in H4IIE rat liver cells. Glucose production was increased in H4llE cells that were incubated in glucose-free medium but decreased dose dependently (1-100 μM) with p-synephrine treatment...
January 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
Piotr Luliński, Monika Sobiech, Teresa Zołek, Dorota Maciejewska
A 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer (MIP) was successfully applied for the selective separation of tyramine. A computational analysis was used to predict the affinity of the polymer matrix towards tyramine and a preliminary experimental evaluation was made for the target analyte. Then the experimental analysis of polymer towards tyramine was continued. The binding sites were characterized with employment of the Langmuir and Freudlich models. After the optimization of solid phase extraction towards tyramine, the most appropriate systems for the extraction steps were chosen: methanol-water 85:15 v/v for the loading and the washing as well as 0...
November 2014: Talanta
Kyung-Baeg Roh, Il-Hyun Kim, Young-Soo Kim, Myungjae Lee, Jung-A Lee, Eunsun Jung, Deokhoon Park
Citrus contain various flavonoids and alkaloids that have multiple biological activities. It is known that the immature Citrus contains larger amounts of bioactive components, than do the mature plants. Although Citrus flavonoids are well known for their biological activities, Citrus alkaloids have not previously been assessed. In this study, we identified synephrine alkaloids as an active compound from immature Citrus unshiu, and investigated the effect of synephrine on eotaxin-1 expression. Eotaxin-1 is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils, and a critical mediator, during the development of eosinophilic inflammation...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Margarita V Lebedeva, Aleksandra F Prokhorova, Elena N Shapovalova, Oleg A Shpigun
The first use of macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin (CLM) in nonaqueous media for enantioseparation (partial or baseline) of the following compounds: alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, clenbuterol, methoxyphenamine, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, synephrine, labetalol, and fenoterol is reported. Each analysis took less than 15 min. To find optimal separation conditions, some properties of CLM (adsorption, solubility), as well as the effect of experimental parameters on the enantioseparation of analytes (background electrolyte composition, chiral selector concentration, temperature, and applied voltage) were studied...
October 2014: Electrophoresis
A M Anuchin, G G Iuvs
Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0...
2014: Voprosy Pitaniia
Elizabeth L Chin, Darya O Mishchuk, Andrew P Breksa, Carolyn M Slupsky
Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as Citrus Greening Disease, is caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) and is a serious threat to the citrus industry. To understand the effect of CLas infection on the citrus metabolome, juice from healthy (n = 18), HLB-asymptomatic (n = 18), and HLB-symptomatic Hamlin (n = 18), as well as from healthy (n = 18) and HLB-symptomatic (n = 18) Valencia sweet oranges (from southern and eastern Florida) were evaluated using (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Differences in the concentration of several metabolites including phenylalanine, histidine, limonin, and synephrine between control or asymptomatic fruit and symptomatic fruit were observed regardless of the citrus variety or location...
July 16, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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