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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919521/unsolved-forgotten-and-ignored-features-of-the-placebo-response-in-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Paul Enck, Sibylle Klosterhalfen, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify topics of research that have been neglected, undervalued, or overseen in the past 2 decades of placebo/nocebo research. METHODS: A highly specialized literature database containing >3200 articles on the placebo or nocebo effects or response was screened for articles covering placebo effects in nutrition, sports medicine, physical therapy, and psychotherapy; for article covering gender, age, and culture as influencing factors; for articles dealing with long-term outcome, multimodality; and for articles related to technical (eHealth, mHealth) aspects of placebo effects...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882605/placebo-in-sports-nutrition-a-proof-of-principle-study-involving-caffeine-supplementation
#3
B Saunders, L F de Oliveira, R P da Silva, V de Salles Painelli, L S Gonçalves, G Yamaguchi, T Mutti, E Maciel, H Roschel, G G Artioli, B Gualano
We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872757/sports-nutrition-knowledge-among-mid-major-division-i-university-student-athletes
#4
Ashley Andrews, Janet R Wojcik, Joni M Boyd, Charles J Bowers
Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes' sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men's soccer, track and field, and tennis...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872151/non-occupational-physical-activity-levels-of-shift-workers-compared-with-non-shift-workers
#5
Bette Loef, Gerben Hulsegge, G C Wanda Wendel-Vos, W M Monique Verschuren, Roel C H Vermeulen, Marije F Bakker, Allard J van der Beek, Karin I Proper
OBJECTIVES: Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. METHODS: Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses...
November 21, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858306/menthol-a-fresh-ergogenic-aid-for-athletic-performance
#6
Christopher J Stevens, Russ Best
The application of menthol has recently been researched as a performance-enhancing aid for various aspects of athletic performance including endurance, speed, strength and joint range of motion. A range of application methods has been used including a mouth rinse, ingestion of a beverage containing menthol or external application to the skin or clothing via a gel or spray. The majority of research has focussed on the use of menthol to impart a cooling sensation on athletes performing endurance exercise in the heat...
November 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855498/mitochondria-targeted-nutraceuticals-in-sports-medicine-a-new-perspective
#7
Sergej M Ostojic
Since mitochondria have been recognized as the cells' key organelles involved in the energy utilization during exercise, targeting the organelle with specifically designed compounds (mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals, MTNs) may have a great promise in the prevention and treatment of heavy exercise-related mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro studies suggested that MTNs have antioxidant effects at the molecular level, and might boost mitochondrial biogenesis and organelle bioenergetics, with both processes are known to positively affect exercise performance and recovery...
November 18, 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852613/vitamin-c-enriched-gelatin-supplementation-before-intermittent-activity-augments-collagen-synthesis
#8
Gregory Shaw, Ann Lee-Barthel, Megan Lr Ross, Bing Wang, Keith Baar
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common complaint in active populations. More than 50% of all injuries in sports can be classified as sprains, strains, ruptures, or breaks of musculoskeletal tissues. Nutritional and/or exercise interventions that increase collagen synthesis and strengthen these tissues could have an important effect on injury rates. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether gelatin supplementation could increase collagen synthesis...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848725/results-from-south-africa-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#9
Monika Uys, Susan Bassett, Catherine E Draper, Lisa Micklesfield, Andries Monyeki, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V Lambert
BACKGROUND: We present results of the 2016 Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) Report Card on the current status of physical activity (PA) and nutrition in South African youth. The context in which we interpret the findings is that participation in PA is a fundamental human right, along with the right to "attainment of the highest standard of health." METHODS: The HAKSA 2016 Writing Group was comprised of 33 authorities in physical education, exercise science, nutrition, public health, and journalism...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835960/parent-child-associations-for-changes-in-diet-screen-time-and-physical-activity-across-two-decades-in-modernizing-china-china-health-and-nutrition-survey-1991-2009
#10
Fei Dong, Annie Green Howard, Amy H Herring, Amanda L Thompson, Linda S Adair, Barry M Popkin, Allison E Aiello, Bing Zhang, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: While the household context is important for lifestyle behavior interventions, few studies have examined parent-child associations for diet and physical activity (PA) changes over time in a rapidly urbanizing country. We aimed to investigate changes in diet, screen time, and PA behaviors over time in children and their parents living in the same household, and examine the parent-child association for these behaviors. METHODS: We studied dietary, screen time, and PA behaviors in 5,201 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17y) using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009)...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834565/weight-re-gain-is-not-linked-to-success-in-a-real-life-multi-day-boxing-tournament
#11
Reid Reale, Gregory R Cox, Gary Slater, Louise M Burke
PURPOSE: Combat sport athletes acutely reduce body mass (BM) prior to weigh-in in an attempt to gain a size/strength advantage over smaller opponents. Few studies have investigated these practices among boxers and none have explored the impact of this practice on competitive success. METHODS: One hundred (30♀/70♂) elite boxers participating in the Australian National Championships were weighed at the official weigh-in and an hour before each competition bout...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824059/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-individuals-with-a-spinal-cord-injury-a-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
J L Flueck, C Perret
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review of studies investigating vitamin D status in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency seems to be high in the general population. Little is known regarding such a deficiency in individuals with a SCI. This review aimed to examine the literature that investigated vitamin D status in this population. SETTING: Switzerland. METHODS: A literature review was performed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in individuals with a SCI and to determine the factors leading to deficiency...
November 8, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806009/tapering-practices-of-croatian-open-class-powerlifting-champions
#13
Jozo Grgic, Pavle Mikulic
The aim of this study was to explore tapering practices among 10 Croatian open-class powerlifting champions (mean ± SD: age 29.2 ± 3.2 years; Wilks coefficient 355.1 ± 54.8). The athletes were interviewed about their tapering practices using a semi-structured interview, after which the audio content was transcribed. The athletes reported decreasing training volume during the taper by 50.5 ± 11.7% using a step type or an exponential type of taper with a fast decay. Training intensity was maintained or increased during the taper, and it reached its highest values 8 ± 3 days before the competition...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789774/post-exercise-muscle-glycogen-resynthesis-in-humans
#14
Louise M Burke, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley
Since the pioneering studies conducted in the 1960s in which glycogen status was investigated utilizing the muscle biopsy technique, sports scientists have developed a sophisticated appreciation of the role of glycogen in cellular adaptation and exercise performance, as well as sites of storage of this important metabolic fuel. While sports nutrition guidelines have evolved during the past decade to incorporate sport-specific and periodized manipulation of carbohydrate (CHO) availability, athletes attempt to maximise muscle glycogen synthesis between important workouts or competitive events so that fuel stores closely match to the demands of the prescribed exercise...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777542/gender-differences-and-access-to-a-sports-dietitian-influence-dietary-habits-of-collegiate-athletes
#15
Michael V Hull, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver, Mike Greenwood, Deanna R Busteed, Margaret T Jones
BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751748/-intensive-training-and-menstrual-disorders-in-young-female-impact-on-bone-mass
#16
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740599/composition-and-nutrient-information-of-non-alcoholic-beverages-in-the-spanish-market-an-update
#17
María Serrano Iglesias, María de Lourdes Samaniego Vaesken, Gregorio Varela Moreiras
: The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732767/a-review-of-designer-anabolic-steroids-in-equine-sports
#18
Christopher C Waller, Malcolm D McLeod
In recent years the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of "designer steroids". These compounds are readily accessible online in "dietary" or "nutritional" supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715475/learning-to-eat-again-intuitive-eating-practices-among-retired-female-collegiate-athletes
#19
Carolyn R Plateau, Trent A Petrie, Anthony Papathomas
The present study used an open-ended survey to collect information about current eating practices and coping strategies among 218 retired female athletes. An inductive and deductive thematic analysis revealed three themes relevant to the intuitive eating framework-permission to eat; recognizing internal hunger and satiety cues; and eating to meet physical and nutritional needs. Athletes described feeling liberated with regards to their eating following retirement from sport, and for some this included an alleviation of disordered eating practices...
August 12, 2016: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710165/dietary-intake-body-composition-and-nutrition-knowledge-of-australian-football-and-soccer-players-implications-for-sports-nutrition-professionals-in-practice
#20
Brooke L Devlin, Michael D Leveritt, Michael Kingsley, Regina Belski
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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