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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088028/role-of-small-rnas-in-epigenetic-reprogramming-during-plant-sexual-reproduction
#1
REVIEW
German Martinez, Claudia Köhler
Sexual reproduction, the formation of a new individual from specialized reproductive cells after fertilization, involves the precise orchestration of different developmental and genomic processes. These processes are to a large extent governed by small RNAs (sRNAs) that either belong to the class of micro RNAs (miRNAs) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The latter are derived from transposable elements (TEs) and involved in genome defense and transgenerational inheritance of heterochromatin identity, ensuring genome stability...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081535/efficacy-and-safety-of-continuous-subcutaneous-infusion-of-recombinant-human-gonadotropins-for-congenital-micropenis-during-early-infancy%C3%A2
#2
Athanasia Stoupa, Dinane Samara-Boustani, Isabelle Flechtner, Graziella Pinto, Isabelle Jourdon, Laura González-Briceño, Maud Bidet, Kathleen Laborde, Didier Chevenne, Anne-Elodie Millischer, Henri Lottmann, Thomas Blanc, Yves Aigrain, Michel Polak, Jacques Beltrand
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal administration of gonadotropins to infants with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) can mimic minipuberty, thereby increasing penile growth. We assessed the effects of gonadotropin infusion on stretched penile length (SPL) and hormone levels in infants with congenital micropenis. METHODS: Single-center study including 6 males with micropenis in case of isolated CHH (n = 4), panhypopituitarism (n = 1), and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS; n = 1)...
January 12, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079770/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-after-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#3
Jacques Balayla, Odile Sheehy, William D Fraser, Jean R Séguin, Jacquetta Trasler, Patricia Monnier, Andrea A MacLeod, Marie-Noëlle Simard, Gina Muckle, Anick Bérard
OBJECTIVE: To compare children's cognitive, motor, and language development at 2 years of age after assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) relative to natural conception. METHODS: The 3D-Study (2010-2012) is a prospective cohort study, which sought to improve the understanding among perinatal events, obstetric outcomes, and child development. A total of 2,366 pregnant women were recruited, of whom 278 conceived with ART: ovarian stimulation, intrauterine sperm insemination, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or in vitro maturation...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078730/a-fern-aintegumenta-gene-mirrors-baby-boom-in-promoting-apogamy-in-ceratopteris-richardii
#4
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078226/clinical-utility-of-sperm-dna-fragmentation-testing-practice-recommendations-based-on-clinical-scenarios
#5
REVIEW
Ashok Agarwal, Ahmad Majzoub, Sandro C Esteves, Edmund Ko, Ranjith Ramasamy, Armand Zini
Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has been generally acknowledged as a valuable tool for male fertility evaluation. While its detrimental implications on sperm function were extensively investigated, little is known about the actual indications for performing SDF analysis. This review delivers practice based recommendations on commonly encountered scenarios in the clinic. An illustrative description of the different SDF measurement techniques is presented. SDF testing is recommended in patients with clinical varicocele and borderline to normal semen parameters as it can better select varicocelectomy candidates...
December 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076829/comparing-the-effect-of-aromatase-inhibitor-letrozole-cabergoline-dostinex-and-letrozole-alone-on-uterine-myoma-regression-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
M Sayyah-Melli, M Mobasseri, P M Gharabaghi, E Ouladsahebmadarek, V Rahmani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of letrozole in combination with cabergoline and letrozole alone on regression of symptomatic uterine myomas in women of reproductive age. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety-one women of reproductive age were enrolled in the study and 88 women were eligible. Eight participants were excluded from the study. INTERVENTIONS: Eighty women of reproductive age with symptomatic myomas >4cm were evaluated in two groups...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076602/incidence-of-y-chromosome-microdeletions-in-children-whose-fathers-underwent-vasectomy-reversal-or-in-vitro-fertilization-with-epididymal-sperm-aspiration-a-case-control-study
#7
Milton Ghirelli-Filho, Patricia Leme de Marchi, Fernanda Abani Mafra, Viviane Cavalcanti, Denise Maria Christofolini, Caio Parente Barbosa, Bianca Bianco, Sidney Glina
Objective: To evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in individuals born from vasectomized fathers who underwent vasectomy reversal or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by epididymal aspiration (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration). Methods: A case-control study comprising male children of couples in which the man had been previously vasectomized and chose vasectomy reversal (n=31) or in vitro fertilization with sperm retrieval by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (n=30) to conceive new children, and a Control Group of male children of fertile men who had programmed vasectomies (n=60)...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076366/plum-fruit-development-occurs-via-gibberellin-sensitive-and-insensitive-della-repressors
#8
Islam El-Sharkawy, Sherif Sherif, Mahboob Abdulla, Subramanian Jayasankar
Fruit growth depends on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by triggering degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which such proteins contribute to GA-mediated fruit development remains to be clarified. Three new plum genes encoding DELLA proteins, PslGAI, PslRGL and PslRGA were isolated and functionally characterized. Analysis of expression profile during fruit development suggested that PslDELLA are transcriptionally regulated during flower and fruit ontogeny with potential positive regulation by GA and ethylene, depending on organ and developmental stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075480/costs-of-selfing-prevent-the-spread-of-a-self-compatibility-mutation-that-causes-reproductive-assurance
#9
Nathan C Layman, M Thilina R Fernando, Christopher R Herlihy, Jeremiah W Busch
In flowering plants, shifts from outcrossing to partial or complete self-fertilization have occurred independently thousands of times, yet the underlying adaptive processes are difficult to discern. Selfing's ability to provide reproductive assurance when pollination is uncertain is an oft-cited ecological explanation for its evolution, but this benefit may be outweighed by genetic costs diminishing its selective advantage over outcrossing. We directly studied the fitness effects of a self-compatibility (SC) mutation that was backcrossed into a self-incompatible (SI) population of Leavenworthia alabamica, illuminating the direction and magnitude of selection on the mating-system modifier...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#10
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073982/urinary-triclosan-concentrations-and-early-outcomes-of-in-vitro-fertilization-embryo-transfer
#11
Rui Hua, Yao Zhou, Biao Wu, Zhongwei Huang, Yongtong Zhu, Yali Song, Yanhong Yu, Hong Li, Song Quan
Triclosan (TCS) exists ubiquitously in the environment. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that TCS exerts endocrine disruptive effects on reproduction, but data from human populations are limited and conflicting. The objective of our study was to investigate whether high urinary TCS concentration is adversely associated with early reproductive outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2015 to June 2016, including 156 infertile women undergoing their first IVF-ET cycle...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073821/learning-from-cross-border-reproduction
#12
Emily Jackson, Jenni Millbank, Isabel Karpin, Anita Stuhmcke
Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR...
January 10, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072828/ggpp-mediated-protein-geranylgeranylation-in-oocyte-is-essential-for-the-establishment-of-oocyte-granulosa-cell-communication-and-primary-secondary-follicle-transition-in-mouse-ovary
#13
Chen Jiang, Fan Diao, Yong-Juan Sang, Na Xu, Rui-Lou Zhu, Xiu-Xing Wang, Zhong Chen, Wei-Wei Tao, Bing Yao, Hai-Xiang Sun, Xing-Xu Huang, Bin Xue, Chao-Jun Li
Folliculogenesis is a progressive and highly regulated process, which is essential to provide ova for later reproductive life, requires the bidirectional communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells. This physical connection-mediated communication conveys not only the signals from the oocyte to granulosa cells that regulate their proliferation but also metabolites from the granulosa cells to the oocyte for biosynthesis. However, the underlying mechanism of establishing this communication is largely unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072454/non-neuronal-acetylcholine-involved-in-reproduction-in-mammals-and-honeybees
#14
REVIEW
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070854/agency-in-fertility-decisions-in-western-europe-during-the-demographic-transition-a-comparative-perspective
#15
David Sven Reher, Glenn Sandström, Alberto Sanz-Gimeno, Frans W A van Poppel
We use a set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands, and Spain for the period 1871-1960 to address key issues regarding how reproductive change was linked specifically to mortality and survivorship and more generally to individual agency. Using event-history analysis, this study investigates how the propensity to have additional children was influenced by the number of surviving offspring when reproductive decisions were made. The results suggest that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals...
January 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070708/delayed-treatment-of-undescended-testes-may-promote-hypogonadism-and-infertility
#16
Julia Rohayem, Alessandra Luberto, Eberhard Nieschlag, Michael Zitzmann, Sabine Kliesch
CONTEXT: Undescended testes at birth may be caused by testosterone deficiency during fetal development. It is unclear whether the process of failed descent contributes to permanent endocrine impairment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of age at treatment of undescended testes on endocrine and spermatogenic testicular function in middle-aged men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Reproductive hormone and semen data of 357 men with previously undescended testes were evaluated with respect to age at correction of testicular position and compared to those of 709 controls with eutopic testes at birth and normozoospermia...
January 9, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069465/effect-of-rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-nltor-gene-on-fertility-of-male-nilaparvata-lugens
#17
Ji-Chong Zhuo, Jian Xue, Jia-Bao Lu, Hai-Jian Huang, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The target gene of rapamycin (TOR) is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and plays critical roles in cell growth, nutrient sensing, lifespan and reproduction. In this paper, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of TOR in male brown planthoppers (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Here we discovered that no offspring was produced when wildtype females BPH mated with NlTOR RNAi males. To understand the influence of NlTOR on male BPH infertility, we dissected the reproductive system of a NlTOR RNAi male, and found that the testes were normal and the seminal vesicles were full of sperm, while the accessory gland was poorly developed after knocking down NlTOR expression...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069181/recommendations-for-practices-utilizing-gestational-carriers-a-committee-opinion
#18
(no author information available yet)
This document provides the latest recommendations for evaluation of gestational carriers and intended parents. It incorporates recent information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the American Association of Tissue Banks, with which all programs offering gestational carrier services must be thoroughly familiar. This document replaces the previous document of the same name, last published in 2015 (Fertil Steril 2015; 103:e1-8).
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069177/increased-expression-of-integrin-linked-kinase-during-decidualization-regulates-the-morphological-transformation-of-endometrial-stromal-cells
#19
Chih-Feng Yen, Sung Hoon Kim, Shuen-Kuei Liao, Cem Atabekoglu, Serpil Uckac, Aydin Arici, Sefa Arlier, Chyi-Long Lee, Hsin-Shih Wang, Umit A Kayisli
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) during decidualization. DESIGN: Laboratory study with the use of human endometrium. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Fertile reproductive-age women who had not received hormonal treatment for 3 months before tissue collection. INTERVENTION(S): Endometrium tissue collection, in vitro decidualization of isolated ESCs, and small interfering (si) RNA transfection...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068418/paternity-outcomes-in-the-freshwater-gastropod-chilina-dombeiana-in-the-biob%C3%A3-o-river-chile
#20
Jéssica Bórquez, Antonio Brante
Studying the mating system of obligate aquatic organisms that inhabit river ecosystems is important for understanding its evolution as well as the role of biological and environmental factors in modulating population dynamics and species distributional patterns. Here, we studied the reproductive strategy of the Chilean endemic freshwater snail, Chilina dombeiana, in the Biobío River, one of the largest rivers in Chile. This species has a low potential for dispersal given the absence of a free-swimming larval stage (benthic larval development) and given that adults have a low capacity for mobility...
2017: PloS One
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