keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Plastic Brain

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458199/alpha-synuclein-oligomers-impair-memory-through-glial-cell-activation-and-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#1
Pietro La Vitola, Claudia Balducci, Milica Cerovic, Giulia Santamaria, Edoardo Brandi, Federica Grandi, Laura Caldinelli, Laura Colombo, Maria Grazia Morgese, Luigia Trabace, Loredano Pollegioni, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni
Alpha-synuclein oligomers (α-synOs) are emerging as crucial factors in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. Although the connection between neuroinflammation and α-syn still remains elusive, increasing evidence suggests that extracellular moieties activate glial cells leading to neuronal damage. Using an acute mouse model, we explored whether α-synOs induce memory impairment in association to neuroinflammation, addressing Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) involvement. We found that α-synOs abolished mouse memory establishment in association to hippocampal glial activation...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457054/towards-a-whole-brain-model-of-perceptual-learning
#2
Marcello Maniglia, Aaron R Seitz
A hallmark of modern Perceptual Learning (PL) is the extent to which learning is specific to the trained stimuli. Such specificity to orientation, spatial location and even eye of training has been used as psychophysical evidence of the neural basis of learning. This argument that specificity of PL implies regionalization of brain plasticity implicitly assumes that examination of a singular locus of PL is an appropriate approach to understand learning. However, recent research shows that learning effects once thought to be specific depend on subtleties of the training paradigm and that within even a simple training procedure there are multiple aspects of the task and stimuli that are learned simultaneously...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456495/structural-variation-of-chondroitin-sulfate-chains-contributes-to-the-molecular-heterogeneity-of-perineuronal-nets
#3
Shinji Miyata, Satomi Nadanaka, Michihiro Igarashi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells) late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454655/neurogenetic-approaches-to-stress-and-fear-in-humans-as-pathophysiological-mechanisms-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Frauke Nees, Stephanie H Witt, Herta Flor
In this review article, genetic variation associated with brain responses related to acute and chronic stress reactivity and fear learning in humans is presented as an important mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder. We report that genes related to the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as genes that modulate serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptidergic functions or plasticity, play a role in this context. The strong overlap of the genetic targets involved in stress and fear learning suggests that a dimensional and mechanistic model of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder based on these constructs is promising...
January 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452227/age-and-experience-dependent-changes-in-egr-1-expression-during-the-ontogeny-of-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect-cpfe
#5
P A Robinson-Drummer, T Chakraborty, N A Heroux, J B Rosen, M E Stanton
The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which acquisition of the contextual representation and association of the retrieved contextual memory with an immediate foots-hock are separated by 24hrs. During the CPFE, learning- related expression patterns of the early growth response -1 gene (Egr-1) vary based on training phase and brain sub-region in adult and adolescent rats (Asok, Schreiber, Jablonski, Rosen, & Stanton, 2013; Shreiber et al., 2014; Chakraborty, Asok, Stanton, & Rosen, 2016)...
February 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451742/real-time-monitoring-prefrontal-activities-during-online-video-game-playing-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#6
Yue Li, Lei Zhang, Kehong Long, Hui Gong, Hao Lei
A growing body of literature has suggested that video game playing can induce functional and structural plasticity of the brain. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record prefrontal activities in 24 experienced game players when they played a massively multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) video game, League of Legends (LOL), under naturalistic conditions. It was observed that game onset was associated with significant activations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and concomitant deactivations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole area (FPA)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451210/intravenous-morphine-self-administration-alters-accumbal-microrna-profiles-in-the-mouse-brain
#7
Juhwan Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
A significant amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical part of the brain's reward circuit and is involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. However, few studies have examined the expression of miRNAs and their functional roles in the NAc under conditions of morphine addiction. In this study, mice were intravenously infused with morphine (0.01, 0.03, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/infusion) and showed inverted U-shaped response...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450725/bdnf-effects-on-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-hippocampal-function
#8
REVIEW
Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Viola von Bohlen Und Halbach
Neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are expressed in the hippocampus, as well as their precursors, the pro-neurotrophins. The neurotrophins signal through specific tyrosine kinase receptors and the low affinity receptor p75NTR. Moreover, the pro-neurotrophins are considered to be biologically active by signaling through specific receptors. The neurotrophins, especially BDNF, are involved in processes related to learning and memory. Furthermore, it is thought that BDNF also plays a crucial role in major depression...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449804/an-early-sensitive-period-induces-long-lasting-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-nervous-system
#9
Juan P Grosso, Jesica A Barneto, Rodrigo A Velarde, Eduardo A Pagano, Jorge A Zavala, Walter M Farina
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera , the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447794/plasticity-after-pediatric-cochlear-implantation-implication-from-changes-in-peripheral-plasma-level-of-bdnf-and-auditory-nerve-responses
#10
Razieh Alemi, Masoud Motassadi Zarandy, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Ali Eftekharian, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast, Nasim Vousooghi
INTRODUCTION: Sensory neural hearing loss could lead to some structural and physiological changes in the auditory pathways, such as alteration in the expression of neurotrophins. These factors, especially Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), play an important role in synaptic functions and experience-related plasticity. Restoring cochlear function after hearing loss is possible through cochlear implantation (CI). Evaluation of the blood concentration changes of neurotrophins as prerequisites of plasticity could help scientists to determine the prognosis of CI as in the candidacy procedure or enhancing prosthesis function by adding the exact needed amount of BDNF to the electrode array...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444518/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-nicotine-sensitization-in-rats-neonatally-treated-with-quinpirole-analyses-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-implications-towards-schizophrenia
#11
Russell W Brown, Marjorie A Schlitt, Alex S Owens, Caitlynn C DePreter, Elizabeth D Cummins, Seth L Kirby, W Drew Gill, Katherine C Burgess
The current study analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment versus isolation housing on the behavioral sensitization to nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole (NQ; dopamine D2-like agonist) model of dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity, a rodent model of schizophrenia. NQ treatment in rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity throughout the animal's lifetime, consistent with schizophrenia. Animals were administered NQ (1 mg/kg) or saline (NS) from postnatal day (P)1 to P21, weaned, and immediately placed into enriched housing or isolated in wire cages throughout the experiment...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#12
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441005/atypical-within-session-motor-procedural-learning-after-traumatic-brain-injury-but-well-preserved-between-session-procedural-memory-consolidation
#13
Maria Korman, Sharon Shaklai, Keren Cisamariu, Carmit Gal, Rinatia Maaravi-Hesseg, Ishay Levy, Ofer Keren, Avi Karni, Yaron Sacher
Using the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS) learning task, we characterized motor skill learning in sub-acute patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten patients (Trained TBI) and 11 healthy participants (Trained Healthy) were trained using a multi-session protocol: a single session was afforded in the first week of the study, and four daily sessions were afforded during the second week. Intensity of practice was adapted to patients. Performance speed and accuracy were tested before and after each session...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438781/neurobiological-links-between-depression-and-ad-the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-as-a-new-pharmacological-target
#14
REVIEW
Filippo Caraci, Simona Federica Spampinato, Maria Grazia Morgese, Fabio Tascedda, Maria Grazia Salluzzo, Maria Concetta Giambirtone, Giuseppe Caruso, Antonio Munafò, Sebastiano Alfio Torrisi, Gian Marco Leggio, Luigia Trabace, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Filippo Drago, Maria Angela Sortino, Agata Copani
In the last several years a large number of studies have demonstrated the neurobiological and clinical continuum between depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Depression is a risk factor for the development of AD, and the presence of depressive symptoms significantly increases the conversion of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) into AD. Common pathophysiological events have been identified in depression and AD, including neuroinflammation with an aberrant Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) signaling, and an impairment of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Transforming-Growth-Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling...
February 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438737/neurogenesis-and-sexual-behavior
#15
REVIEW
M Bedos, W Portillo, R G Paredes
Different conditions induce proliferation, migration and integration of new neurons in the adult brain. This process of neurogenesis is a clear example of long lasting plastic changes in the brain of different species. Sexual behavior is a motivated behavior that is crucial for the survival of the species, but an individual can spend all his life without displaying sexual behavior. In the present review, we briefly describe some of the effects of pheromones on neurogenesis. We review in detail studies describing the effects of sexual behavior in both males and females on proliferation, migration and integration of new cells and neurons...
February 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438595/effects-of-early-alcohol-exposure-on-functional-organization-and-microstructure-of-a-visual-tactile-integrative-circuit
#16
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437246/early-movement-restriction-leads-to-enduring-disorders-in-muscle-and-locomotion
#17
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435016/cranial-irradiation-inhibits-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-dnmt1-and-dnmt3a
#18
Shengjun Ji, Xin Ding, Jiang Ji, Haohao Wu, Rui Sun, Xiaoyang Li, Liyuan Zhang, Ye Tian
Impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampus following whole-brain irradiation is the most important mechanism of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure, meaning an ideal therapeutic target has not been identified. Evidence indicates that DNA methylation in neurons regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal network activity. In the present study, the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the hippocampus was analyzed to investigate their potential function in radiation-induced neurogenesis impairment...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434535/altered-expression-profile-of-iglon-family-of-neural-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-schizophrenic-patients
#19
Karina Karis, Kattri-Liis Eskla, Maria Kaare, Karin Täht, Jana Tuusov, Tanel Visnapuu, Jürgen Innos, Mohan Jayaram, Tõnis Timmusk, Cynthia S Weickert, Marika Väli, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ). IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434375/bidirectional-and-long-lasting-control-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-by-corticostriatal-ltp-and-ltd
#20
Tengfei Ma, Yifeng Cheng, Emily Roltsch Hellard, Xuehua Wang, Jiayi Lu, Xinsheng Gao, Cathy C Y Huang, Xiao-Yan Wei, Jun-Yuan Ji, Jun Wang
Addiction is proposed to arise from alterations in synaptic strength via mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). However, the causality between these synaptic processes and addictive behaviors is difficult to demonstrate. Here we report that LTP and LTD induction altered operant alcohol self-administration, a motivated drug-seeking behavior. We first induced LTP by pairing presynaptic glutamatergic stimulation with optogenetic postsynaptic depolarization in the dorsomedial striatum, a brain region known to control goal-directed behavior...
February 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
34977
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"