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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244485/critical-role-of-trp-588-of-presynaptic-munc13-1-for-ligand-binding-and-membrane-translocation
#1
Joydip Das, Noemi Kedei, Jessica S Kelsey, Youngki You, Satyabrata Pany, Gary A Mitchell, Nancy E Lewin, Peter M Blumberg
Munc13-1 is a presynaptic active-zone protein essential for neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity in the brain. This multi-domain scaffold protein contains a C1 domain that binds to the activator diacylglycerol/phorbol ester. Although the C1 domain bears close structural homology with the C1 domains of protein kinase C (PKC), the tryptophan residue at position 22 (588 in the full-length Munc13-1) occludes the activator binding pocket, which is not the case for PKC. To elucidate the role of this tryptophan, we generated W22A, W22K, W22D, W22Y and W22F substitutions in the full-length Munc13-1, expressed the GFP- tagged constructs in Neuro-2a cells, and measured their membrane translocation in response to phorbol ester treatment by imaging of the live cells using confocal microscopy...
December 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243202/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-a-promising-approach-for-stroke-recovery
#2
REVIEW
Maximilian J Wessel, Friedhelm C Hummel
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) combined with behavioral training is a promising strategy to augment recovery after stroke. Current research efforts have been mainly focusing on primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation. However, the translation from proof-of-principle to clinical applications is not yet satisfactory. Possible reasons are the heterogeneous properties of stroke, generalization of the stimulation protocols, and hence the lack of patient stratification. One strategy to overcome these limitations could be the evaluation of alternative stimulation targets, like the cerebellum...
December 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242276/oral-sodium-butyrate-impacts-brain-metabolism-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-with-limited-effects-on-gut-anatomy-and-function-in-pigs
#3
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242199/organ-specific-lymphatic-vasculature-from-development-to-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Tatiana V Petrova, Gou Young Koh
Recent discoveries of novel functions and diverse origins of lymphatic vessels have drastically changed our view of lymphatic vasculature. Traditionally regarded as passive conduits for fluid and immune cells, lymphatic vessels now emerge as active, tissue-specific players in major physiological and pathophysiological processes. Lymphatic vessels show remarkable plasticity and heterogeneity, reflecting their functional specialization to control the tissue microenvironment. Moreover, alternative developmental origins of lymphatic endothelial cells in some organs may contribute to the diversity of their functions in adult tissues...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241384/effects-of-ciprofloxacin-and-quercetin-on-fetal-brain-development-a-biochemical-and-histopathological-study
#5
Zumrut Dogan, Aymelek Cetin, Ebru Elibol, Nigar Vardi, Yusuf Turkoz
Teratogens cause birth defects and malformations while human development is being completed. In pregnancy, urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem caused by bacteria. The fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin can treat various types of bacterial infections successfully. The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of ciprofloxacin during pregnancy causes oxidative stress on brain tissues of the fetus, and whether quercetin contributes to prevent this damage if stress has already occurred...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240813/feature-reliability-determines-specificity-and-transfer-of-perceptual-learning-in-orientation-search
#6
Amit Yashar, Rachel N Denison
Training can modify the visual system to produce a substantial improvement on perceptual tasks and therefore has applications for treating visual deficits. Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is often specific to the trained feature, which gives insight into processes underlying brain plasticity, but limits VPL's effectiveness in rehabilitation. Under what circumstances VPL transfers to untrained stimuli is poorly understood. Here we report a qualitatively new phenomenon: intrinsic variation in the representation of features determines the transfer of VPL...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239328/leap-motion-based-virtual-reality-training-for-improving-motor-functional-recovery-of-upper-limbs-and-neural-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-patients
#7
Zun-Rong Wang, Ping Wang, Liang Xing, Li-Ping Mei, Jun Zhao, Tong Zhang
Virtual reality is nowadays used to facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. Most virtual reality studies have involved chronic stroke patients; however, brain plasticity remains good in acute and subacute patients. Most virtual reality systems are only applicable to the proximal upper limbs (arms) because of the limitations of their capture systems. Nevertheless, the functional recovery of an affected hand is most difficult in the case of hemiparesis rehabilitation after a stroke. The recently developed Leap Motion controller can track the fine movements of both hands and fingers...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239063/stimulating-neural-plasticity-with-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-huntington-s-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Marina Papoutsi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Douglas Langbehn, Ralf Reilmann, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
Novel methods that stimulate neuroplasticity are increasingly being studied to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions. We sought to determine whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback training is feasible in Huntington's disease (HD), and assess any factors that contribute to its effectiveness. In this proof-of-concept study, we used this technique to train 10 patients with HD to volitionally regulate the activity of their supplementary motor area (SMA). We collected detailed behavioral and neuroimaging data before and after training to examine changes of brain function and structure, and cognitive and motor performance...
December 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238390/modulatory-effect-of-association-of-brain-stimulation-by-light-and-binaural-beats-in-specific-brain-waves
#9
Mauricio Rocha Calomeni, Vernon Furtado da Silva, Bruna Brandão Velasques, Olavo Guimarães Feijó, Juliana Marques Bittencourt, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E Silva
Introduction: One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. Subjects: The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238350/differentiation-and-transmigration-of-cd4-t-cells-in-neuroinflammation-and-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Sandip Ashok Sonar, Girdhari Lal
CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity and autoimmunity. The activation and differentiation of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells into effector (Th1 and Th17) and regulatory (Tregs) subsets at the peripheral tissues, and their subsequent transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma are decisive events in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. How the Th1, Th17, and regulatory Tregs transmigrate across the BBB into the CNS and cause CNS inflammation is not clearly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236966/neuronal-inhibition-and-synaptic-plasticity-of-basal-ganglia-neurons-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Luka Milosevic, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Alfonso Fasano, Milos R Popovic, William D Hutchison
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease symptoms. The therapeutic benefits of deep brain stimulation are frequency-dependent, but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. To advance deep brain stimulation therapy an understanding of fundamental mechanisms is critical. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the frequency-dependent effects on cell firing in subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata; (ii) quantify frequency-dependent effects on short-term plasticity in substantia nigra pars reticulata; and (iii) investigate effects of continuous long-train high frequency stimulation (comparable to conventional deep brain stimulation) on synaptic plasticity...
December 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236813/psychoanalysis-and-neurosciences-fuzzy-outlines-notes-on-the-notion-of-cerebral-plasticity
#12
Maria Jimena Mantilla
"Psychoanalysis versus psychiatry" and "unconscious versus brain" are classic oppositions between different perspectives on the human being and mental suffering. This article draws on certain elements of this discussion and reflects on how new ideas about the brain and biology favor closer interaction between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences. These questions are redefined through the notion of cerebral plasticity, by which the brain is open to interaction with the social environment and the influence of psychoanalytical therapy...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236724/the-role-of-cortical-oscillations-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#13
Zafeirios Fountas, Murray Shanahan
Although brain oscillations involving the basal ganglia (BG) have been the target of extensive research, the main focus lies disproportionally on oscillations generated within the BG circuit rather than other sources, such as cortical areas. We remedy this here by investigating the influence of various cortical frequency bands on the intrinsic effective connectivity of the BG, as well as the role of the latter in regulating cortical behaviour. To do this, we construct a detailed neural model of the complete BG circuit based on fine-tuned spiking neurons, with both electrical and chemical synapses as well as short-term plasticity between structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#14
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235396/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-serum-level-in-women-with-first-episode-depression-correlation-with-clinical-and-metabolic-parameters
#15
Maria Skibinska, Pawel Kapelski, Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Joanna Pawlak, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Beata Narozna, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences neuron differentiation during development, as well as the synaptic plasticity and neuron survival in adulthood. BDNF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and its serum level is a potential biomarker for depression. The aim of this study was to examine serum levels of BDNF in first-episode depression and its correlation with clinical and metabolic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on a group of 60 women: 30 diagnosed with a first-episode of depression and 30 healthy controls...
December 13, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#16
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#17
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#18
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233183/restoring-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-pkr-inhibition
#19
Kyoung-Doo Hwang, Myeong Seong Bak, Sang Jeong Kim, Sangmyung Rhee, Yong-Seok Lee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity. While accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hyper-phosphorylation of tau are parts of the etiology, AD can be caused by a large number of different genetic mutations and other unknown factors. Considering such a heterogeneous nature of AD, it would be desirable to develop treatment strategies that can improve memory irrespective of the individual causes. Reducing the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) was shown to enhance long-term memory and synaptic plasticity in naïve mice...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233091/a-gradient-of-frequency-dependent-synaptic-properties-along-the-longitudinal-hippocampal-axis
#20
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, George Trompoukis, Andriana Koutsoumpa, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous brain structure and specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network may crucially support the functional segregation along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. Short-term synaptic plasticity plays fundamental roles in information processing and may be importantly involved in diversifying the properties of local neuronal network along the hippocampus long axis. Therefore, we aimed to examine the properties of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) synapses along the entire dorsoventral axis of the rat hippocampus using field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from transverse rat hippocampal slices and a frequency stimulation paradigm...
December 12, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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