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Plastic Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103576/a-new-model-of-multi-visceral-and-bone-metastatic-prostate-cancer-with-perivascular-niche-targeting-by-a-novel-endothelial-specific-adenoviral-vector
#1
Zhi Hong Lu, Sergey Kaliberov, Rebecca E Sohn, Lyudmila Kaliberova, Yingqiu Du, Julie L Prior, Daniel J Leib, Anne Chauchereau, Jennifer K Sehn, David T Curiel, Jeffrey M Arbeit
While modern therapies for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) have improved survival they are associated with an increasingly prevalent entity, aggressive variant PCa (AVPCa), lacking androgen receptor (AR) expression, enriched for cancer stem cells (CSCs), and evidencing epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity with a varying extent of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation. Parallel work revealed that endothelial cells (ECs) create a perivascular CSC niche mediated by juxtacrine and membrane tethered signaling. There is increasing interest in pharmacological metastatic niche targeting, however, targeted access has been impossible...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103480/adrenergic-gate-release-for-spike-timing-dependent-synaptic-potentiation
#2
Yanling Liu, Lei Cui, Martin K Schwarz, Yan Dong, Oliver M Schlüter
Spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) serves as a key cellular correlate of associative learning, which is facilitated by elevated attentional and emotional states involving activation of adrenergic signaling. At cellular levels, adrenergic signaling increases dendrite excitability, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that activation of β2-adrenoceptors promoted STD long-term synaptic potentiation at mouse hippocampal excitatory synapses by inactivating dendritic Kv1.1-containing potassium channels, which increased dendrite excitability and facilitated dendritic propagation of postsynaptic depolarization, potentially improving coincidental activation of pre- and postsynaptic terminals...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#3
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099630/the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-gene-val66met-polymorphism-affects-memory-performance-in-older-adults
#4
Lucas A de Azeredo, Tatiana De Nardi, Mateus L Levandowski, Saulo G Tractenberg, Julia Kommers-Molina, Andrea Wieck, Tatiana Q Irigaray, Irênio G da Silva, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Objective: Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear...
January 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097054/hydrogel-scaffolds-promote-neural-gene-expression-and-structural-reorganization-in-human-astrocyte-cultures
#5
V Bleu Knight, Elba E Serrano
Biomaterial scaffolds have the potential to enhance neuronal development and regeneration. Understanding the genetic responses of astrocytes and neurons to biomaterials could facilitate the development of synthetic environments that enable the specification of neural tissue organization with engineered scaffolds. In this study, we used high throughput transcriptomic and imaging methods to determine the impact of a hydrogel, PuraMatrix™, on human glial cells in vitro. Parallel studies were undertaken with cells grown in a monolayer environment on tissue culture polystyrene...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096498/differential-changes-in-hippocampal-camkii-and-glua1-activity-after-memory-training-involving-different-levels-of-adaptive-forgetting
#6
Nicolas Fraize, Al Mahdy Hamieh, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Monique Touret, Régis Parmentier, Paul Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret
Phosphorylation of CaMKII and AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit has been shown to play a major role in hippocampal-dependent long-term/reference memory (RM) and in the expression of long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP). In contrast, it has been proposed that dephosphorylation of these proteins could be involved in the opposite phenomenon of hippocampal long-term synaptic depression (LTD) and in adaptive forgetting. Adaptive forgetting allows interfering old memories to be forgotten to give new ones the opportunity to be stored in memory, and in particular in short-term/working memory (WM) that was shown to be very sensitive to proactive interference...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096497/bdnf-regains-function-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-caused-by-diencephalic-damage
#7
Lindsey C Vedder, Lisa M Savage
Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage induced by TD in rats. Thus, despite a lack of extensive hippocampal cell loss, diencephalic brain damage down-regulates plastic processes within the hippocampus, likely contributing to impaired hippocampal-dependent behaviors...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096470/dampened-amphetamine-stimulated-behavior-and-altered-dopamine-transporter-function-in-the-absence-of-brain-gdnf
#8
Jaakko Kopra, Anne Panhelainen, Sara Af Bjerkén, Lauriina Porokuokka, Kärt Varendi, Soophie Olfat, Heidi Montonen, T Petteri Piepponen, Mart Saarma, Jaan-Olle Andressoo
: Midbrain dopamine neuron dysfunction contributes to various psychiatric and neurological diseases including drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. Because of its well-established dopaminotrophic effects, the therapeutic potential of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been extensively studied in various disorders with disturbed dopamine homeostasis. The outcomes from pre-clinical and clinical studies vary, however, highlighting a need for a better understanding of the physiological role of GDNF on striatal dopaminergic function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095201/multisensory-bayesian-inference-depends-on-synapse-maturation-during-training-theoretical-analysis-and-neural-modeling-implementation
#9
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso
Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095200/stdp-as-presynaptic-activity-times-rate-of-change-of-postsynaptic-activity-approximates-backpropagation
#10
Yoshua Bengio, Thomas Mesnard, Asja Fischer, Saizheng Zhang, Yuhuai Wu
We show that Langevin Monte Carlo Markov chain inference in an energy-based model with latent variables has the property that the early steps of inference, starting from a stationary point, correspond to propagating error gradients into internal layers, similar to backpropagation. The backpropagated error is with respect to output units that have received an outside driving force pushing them away from the stationary point. Backpropagated error gradients correspond to temporal derivatives with respect to the activation of hidden units...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093561/homeostatic-plasticity-mechanisms-in-mouse-v1
#11
REVIEW
Megumi Kaneko, Michael P Stryker
Mechanisms thought of as homeostatic must exist to maintain neuronal activity in the brain within the dynamic range in which neurons can signal. Several distinct mechanisms have been demonstrated experimentally. Three mechanisms that act to restore levels of activity in the primary visual cortex of mice after occlusion and restoration of vision in one eye, which give rise to the phenomenon of ocular dominance plasticity, are discussed. The existence of different mechanisms raises the issue of how these mechanisms operate together to converge on the same set points of activity...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093560/integrating-hebbian-and-homeostatic-plasticity-introduction
#12
Kevin Fox, Michael Stryker
Hebbian plasticity is widely considered to be the mechanism by which information can be coded and retained in neurons in the brain. Homeostatic plasticity moves the neuron back towards its original state following a perturbation, including perturbations produced by Hebbian plasticity. How then does homeostatic plasticity avoid erasing the Hebbian coded information? To understand how plasticity works in the brain, and therefore to understand learning, memory, sensory adaptation, development and recovery from injury, requires development of a theory of plasticity that integrates both forms of plasticity into a whole...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093555/variance-and-invariance-of-neuronal-long-term-representations
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Clopath, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark Hübener, Tobias Rose
The brain extracts behaviourally relevant sensory input to produce appropriate motor output. On the one hand, our constantly changing environment requires this transformation to be plastic. On the other hand, plasticity is thought to be balanced by mechanisms ensuring constancy of neuronal representations in order to achieve stable behavioural performance. Yet, prominent changes in synaptic strength and connectivity also occur during normal sensory experience, indicating a certain degree of constitutive plasticity...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093552/integrating-hebbian-and-homeostatic-plasticity-the-current-state-of-the-field-and-future-research-directions
#14
REVIEW
Tara Keck, Taro Toyoizumi, Lu Chen, Brent Doiron, Daniel E Feldman, Kevin Fox, Wulfram Gerstner, Philip G Haydon, Mark Hübener, Hey-Kyoung Lee, John E Lisman, Tobias Rose, Frank Sengpiel, David Stellwagen, Michael P Stryker, Gina G Turrigiano, Mark C van Rossum
We summarize here the results presented and subsequent discussion from the meeting on Integrating Hebbian and Homeostatic Plasticity at the Royal Society in April 2016. We first outline the major themes and results presented at the meeting. We next provide a synopsis of the outstanding questions that emerged from the discussion at the end of the meeting and finally suggest potential directions of research that we believe are most promising to develop an understanding of how these two forms of plasticity interact to facilitate functional changes in the brain...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093548/astrocytic-control-of-synaptic-function
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Papouin, Jaclyn Dunphy, Michaela Tolman, Jeannine C Foley, Philip G Haydon
Astrocytes intimately interact with synapses, both morphologically and, as evidenced in the past 20 years, at the functional level. Ultrathin astrocytic processes contact and sometimes enwrap the synaptic elements, sense synaptic transmission and shape or alter the synaptic signal by releasing signalling molecules. Yet, the consequences of such interactions in terms of information processing in the brain remain very elusive. This is largely due to two major constraints: (i) the exquisitely complex, dynamic and ultrathin nature of distal astrocytic processes that renders their investigation highly challenging and (ii) our lack of understanding of how information is encoded by local and global fluctuations of intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091782/adaptation-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity-of-brain-functions
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan C Horton, Manfred Fahle, Theo Mulder, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#18
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#19
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089653/priming-theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-young-but-not-old-adults
#20
George M Opie, Eleni Vosnakis, Michael C Ridding, Ulf Ziemann, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Primary motor cortex neuroplasticity is reduced in old adults, which may contribute to the motor deficits commonly observed in the elderly. Previous research in young subjects suggests that the neuroplastic response can be enhanced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), with a larger plastic response observed following priming with both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like protocols. However, it is not known if priming stimulation can also modulate plasticity in older adults...
January 4, 2017: Brain Stimulation
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