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Plastic Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#2
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
December 2, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#3
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919314/advances-in-the-neuroscience-of-intelligence-from-brain-connectivity-to-brain-perturbation
#4
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi
Our view is that intelligence, as expression of the complexity of the human brain and of its evolutionary path, represents an intriguing example of "system level brain plasticity": tangible proofs of this assertion lie in the strong links intelligence has with vital brain capacities as information processing (i.e., pure, rough capacity to transfer information in an efficient way), resilience (i.e., the ability to cope with loss of efficiency and/or loss of physical elements in a network) and adaptability (i...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919022/hippocampus-and-amygdala-volume-in-relation-to-migraine-frequency-and-prognosis
#5
Hung-Yu Liu, Kun-Hsien Chou, Pei-Lin Lee, Jong-Ling Fuh, David M Niddam, Kuan-Lin Lai, Fu-Jung Hsiao, Yung-Yang Lin, Wei-Ta Chen, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Ching-Po Lin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the structural changes of hippocampus and amygdala and their relationships with migraine frequency and prognosis. METHODS: Hippocampus and amygdala volumes were measured by 3-T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 31 controls and 122 migraine patients who were categorized into eight groups by headache frequency: group 1 (1-2 headache days/month), 2 (3-4), 3 (5-7), 4 (8-10), 5 (11-14), 6 (15-19), 7 (20-24), and 8 (25-30). Headache frequency was reassessed 2 years later and a frequency reduction ≥50% was regarded a good outcome...
November 14, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#6
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916542/the-role-of-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-in-the-memory-process
#8
REVIEW
Philomena Z Y Lip, Marilene Demasi, Diego Bonatto
Quite intuitive is the notion that memory formation and consolidation is orchestrated by protein synthesis because of the synaptic plasticity necessary for those processes. Nevertheless, recent advances have begun accumulating evidences of a high requirement for protein degradation on the molecular mechanisms of the memory process in the mammalian brain. Because degradation determines protein half-life, degradation has been increasingly recognized as an important intracellular regulatory mechanism. The proteasome is the main player in the degradation of intracellular proteins...
December 1, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916427/tea-cocoa-coffee-and-affective-disorders-vicious-or-virtuous-cycle
#9
REVIEW
Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#10
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#11
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913408/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-cortical-plasticity-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-modulation-by-the-nmda-receptor-agonist-d-serine
#12
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Odeta Beggel, Stephanie Rohrig, Jonathan M Lehrfeld, Nadine Revheim, Nayla P Lehrfeld, Jacob Reep, Emily Parker, Gail Silipo, Merav Ahissar, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in cortical plasticity that affect sensory brain regions and lead to impaired cognitive performance. Here we examined underlying neural mechanisms of auditory plasticity deficits using combined behavioural and neurophysiological assessment, along with neuropharmacological manipulation targeted at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Cortical plasticity was assessed in a cohort of 40 schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients relative to 42 healthy control subjects using a fixed reference tone auditory plasticity task...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913207/overexpression-of-stim1-in-neurons-in-mouse-brain-improves-contextual-learning-and-impairs-long-term-depression
#13
Łukasz Majewski, Filip Maciąg, Paweł M Boguszewski, Iga Wasilewska, Grzegorz Wiera, Tomasz Wójtowicz, Jerzy Mozrzymas, Jacek Kuznicki
STIM1 is an endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor that is involved in several processes in neurons, including store-operated calcium entry. STIM1 also inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels, such as Cav1.2 and Cav3.1, and is thus considered a multifunctional protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the ways in which transgenic neuronal overexpression of STIM1 in FVB/NJ mice affects animal behavior and the electrophysiological properties of neurons in acute hippocampal slices. We overexpressed STIM1 from the Thy1...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913110/downregulated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions...
November 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912170/influence-of-attention-alternation-on-movement-related-cortical-potentials-in-healthy-individuals-and-stroke-patients
#15
Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Vladimir Kostic, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Sasa Radovanovic, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Laura Petrini, Kim Dremstrup, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we analyzed the influence of artificially imposed attention variations using the auditory oddball paradigm on the cortical activity associated to motor preparation/execution. METHODS: EEG signals from Cz and its surrounding channels were recorded during three sets of ankle dorsiflexion movements. Each set was interspersed with either a complex or a simple auditory oddball task for healthy participants and a complex auditory oddball task for stroke patients...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911768/selective-lesion-of-the-hippocampus-increases-the-differentiation-of-immature-neurons-in-the-monkey-amygdala
#16
Loïc J Chareyron, David G Amaral, Pierre Lavenex
A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventromedial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocampal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. Compared with unoperated controls (n = 7), the number of mature neurons was about 70% higher in the paralaminar nucleus of neonate- and adult-lesioned monkeys, and 40% higher in the lateral and basal nuclei of neonate-lesioned monkeys...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#17
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#18
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911740/the-puzzle-of-visual-development-behavior-and-neural-limits
#19
Lynne Kiorpes
The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911668/association-of-5-hydroxymethylation-and-5-methylation-of-dna-cytosine-with-tissue-specific-gene-expression
#20
V K Chaithanya Ponnaluri, Kenneth C Ehrlich, Guoqiang Zhang, Michelle Lacey, Douglas Johnston, Sriharsa Pradhan, Melanie Ehrlich
Differentially methylated or hydroxymethylated regions (DMRs) in mammalian DNA are often associated with tissue-specific gene expression but the functional relationships are still being unraveled. To elucidate these relationships, we studied 16 human genes containing myogenic DMRs by analyzing profiles of their epigenetics and transcription and quantitatively assaying 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) at specific sites in these genes in skeletal muscle (SkM), myoblasts, heart, brain, and diverse other samples...
December 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
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