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Plastic Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929006/white-matter-structural-connectivity-predicts-short-term-melody-and-rhythm-learning-in-non-musicians
#1
Lucía Vaquero, Neus Ramos-Escobar, Clément François, Virginia Penhune, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Music learning has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the variety of functions and brain plasticity effects involved during its practice. Most previous reports interpreted the differences between music experts and laymen as the result of training. However, recent investigations suggest that these differences are due to a combination of genetic predispositions with the effect of music training. Here, we tested the relationship of the dorsal auditory-motor pathway with individual behavioural differences in short-term music learning...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928651/cognitive-and-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#2
Sirio Cocozza, Teresa Costabile, Enrico Tedeschi, Filomena Abate, Camilla Russo, Agnese Liguori, Walter Del Vecchio, Francesca Paciello, Mario Quarantelli, Alessandro Filla, Arturo Brunetti, Francesco Saccà
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform the first resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) analysis in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients to assess possible brain functional connectivity (FC) differences in these patients, and test their correlations with neuropsychological performances. Methods: In total, 24 FRDA patients (M/F: 15/9, mean age 31.3 ± 15.0) and 24 healthy controls (HC; M/F: 15/9, mean age 30.7 ± 15.5) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928190/mitochondria-and-mood-mitochondrial-dysfunction-as-a-key-player-in-the-manifestation-of-depression
#3
REVIEW
Josh Allen, Raquel Romay-Tallon, Kyle J Brymer, Hector J Caruncho, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Human and animal studies suggest an intriguing link between mitochondrial diseases and depression. Although depression has historically been linked to alterations in monoaminergic pharmacology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new data increasingly implicate broader forms of dampened plasticity, including plasticity within the cell. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this paper, we make the case that mitochondrial dysfunction could play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926834/small-worldness-of-brain-networks-after-brachial-plexus-injury-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Wei-Wei Wang, Ye-Chen Lu, Wei-Jun Tang, Jun-Hai Zhang, Hua-Ping Sun, Xiao-Yuan Feng, Han-Qiu Liu
Research on brain function after brachial plexus injury focuses on local cortical functional reorganization, and few studies have focused on brain networks after brachial plexus injury. Changes in brain networks may help understanding of brain plasticity at the global level. We hypothesized that topology of the global cerebral resting-state functional network changes after unilateral brachial plexus injury. Thus, in this cross-sectional study, we recruited eight male patients with unilateral brachial plexus injury (right handedness, mean age of 27...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926822/the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-neuronal-plasticity-and-neuroregeneration-new-pharmacological-concepts-for-old-and-new-drugs
#5
Solomon Habtemariam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926348/melatonin-treatment-suppresses-appetite-genes-and-improves-adipose-tissue-plasticity-in-diet-induced-obese-zebrafish
#6
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925890/brain-actuated-functional-electrical-stimulation-elicits-lasting-arm-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
A Biasiucci, R Leeb, I Iturrate, S Perdikis, A Al-Khodairy, T Corbet, A Schnider, T Schmidlin, H Zhang, M Bassolino, D Viceic, P Vuadens, A G Guggisberg, J D R Millán
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are used in stroke rehabilitation to translate brain signals into intended movements of the paralyzed limb. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of BCI-based therapies remain unclear. Here we show that BCI coupled to functional electrical stimulation (FES) elicits significant, clinically relevant, and lasting motor recovery in chronic stroke survivors more effectively than sham FES. Such recovery is associated to quantitative signatures of functional neuroplasticity. BCI patients exhibit a significant functional recovery after the intervention, which remains 6-12 months after the end of therapy...
June 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925821/rho-gtpases-in-intellectual-disability-from-genetics-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Valentina Zamboni, Rebecca Jones, Alessandro Umbach, Alessandra Ammoni, Maria Passafaro, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
Rho-class small GTPases are implicated in basic cellular processes at nearly all brain developmental steps, from neurogenesis and migration to axon guidance and synaptic plasticity. GTPases are key signal transducing enzymes that link extracellular cues to the neuronal responses required for the construction of neuronal networks, as well as for synaptic function and plasticity. Rho GTPases are highly regulated by a complex set of activating (GEFs) and inactivating (GAPs) partners, via protein:protein interactions (PPI)...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924992/trpm7-is-required-for-normal-synapse-density-learning-and-memory-at-different-developmental-stages
#9
Yuqiang Liu, Cui Chen, Yunlong Liu, Wei Li, Zhihong Wang, Qifeng Sun, Hang Zhou, Xiangjun Chen, Yongchun Yu, Yun Wang, Nashat Abumaria
The TRPM7 chanzyme contributes to several biological and pathological processes in different tissues. However, its role in the CNS under physiological conditions remains unclear. Here, we show that TRPM7 knockdown in hippocampal neurons reduces structural synapse density. The synapse density is rescued by the α-kinase domain in the C terminus but not by the ion channel region of TRPM7 or by increasing extracellular concentrations of Mg2+ or Zn2+ . Early postnatal conditional knockout of TRPM7 in mice impairs learning and memory and reduces synapse density and plasticity...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923660/real-time-strategy-video-game-experience-and-structural-connectivity-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#10
Natalia Kowalczyk, Feng Shi, Mikolaj Magnuski, Maciek Skorko, Pawel Dobrowolski, Bartosz Kossowski, Artur Marchewka, Maksymilian Bielecki, Malgorzata Kossut, Aneta Brzezicka
Experienced video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognition when compared to non-players. However, very little is known about the relation between video game experience and structural brain plasticity. To address this issue, a direct comparison of the white matter brain structure in RTS (real time strategy) video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) was performed. We hypothesized that RTS experience can enhance connectivity within and between occipital and parietal regions, as these regions are likely to be involved in the spatial and visual abilities that are trained while playing RTS games...
June 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922135/music-from-the-very-beginning-a-neuroscience-based-framework-for-music-as-therapy-for-preterm-infants-and-their-parents
#11
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Dirk Bassler
Human and animal studies demonstrate that early auditory experiences influence brain development. The findings are particularly crucial following preterm birth as the plasticity of auditory regions, and cortex development are heavily dependent on the quality of auditory stimulation. Brain maturation in preterm infants may be affected among other things by the overwhelming auditory environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Conversely, auditory deprivation, (e.g., the lack of the regular intrauterine rhythms of the maternal heartbeat and the maternal voice) may also have an impact on brain maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921716/acute-complement-inhibition-potentiates-neurorehabilitation-and-enhances-tpa-mediated-neuroprotection
#12
Ali Alawieh, Meredith Andersen, DeAnna L Adkins, Stephen Tomlinson
Since complement activation in the subacute or chronic phase after stroke was recently shown to stimulate neural plasticity, we investigated how complement activation and complement inhibition in the acute phase after murine stroke interacts with subsequent rehabilitation therapy to modulate neuroinflammation and neural remodeling. We additionally investigated how complement and complement inhibition interacts with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the other standard of care therapy for stroke, and an FDA preclinical requirement for translation of an experimental stroke therapy...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921416/cocaine-induced-structural-plasticity-in-input-regions-to-distinct-cell-types-in-nucleus-accumbens
#13
Cindy Barrientos, Daniel Knowland, Mingche M J Wu, Varoth Lilascharoen, Kee Wui Huang, Robert C Malenka, Byung Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region implicated in pathological motivated behaviors such as drug addiction and is composed predominantly of two discrete populations of neurons, dopamine receptor-1- and dopamine receptor-2-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs, respectively). It is unclear whether these populations receive inputs from different brain areas and whether input regions to these cell types undergo distinct structural adaptations in response to the administration of addictive drugs such as cocaine...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920356/clitoria-ternatea-l-rootextract-ameliorated-the-cognitive-and-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-the-rat
#14
Thenmoly Damodaran, Byorn Wei Liang Tan, Ping Liao, Surash Ramanathan, Lim Gin Keat, Zurina Hassan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clitoria ternatea L. (CT), commonly known as Butterfly pea, is used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to promote brain function and treat mental disorders. Root of CT has been proven to enhance memory, but its role in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which has been considered as a major cause of brain disorders, has yet to be explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the motor and cognitive effects of acute oral administration of CT root methanolic extract and hippocampal long-term plasticity in the CA1 region of the CCH rat model...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916144/nmda-receptors-containing-glun2b-2c-2d-subunits-mediate-an-increase-in-glutamate-release-at-hippocampal-ca3-ca1-synapses
#15
J Prius-Mengual, M Pérez-Rodríguez, Y Andrade-Talavera, A Rodríguez-Moreno
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in different brain regions, and they modulate glutamate release at different presynaptic sites. Here, we studied whether non-postsynaptic NMDARs, putatively presynaptic (preNMDARs), are tonically active at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, and if they modulate glutamate release. We found that when postsynaptic NMDARs are blocked by MK801, D-AP5 depresses evoked and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission, indicating that preNMDARs are tonically active at CA3-CA1 synapses, facilitating glutamate release...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915350/publisher-correction-memristive-neural-network-for-on-line-learning-and-tracking-with-brain-inspired-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#16
G Pedretti, V Milo, S Ambrogio, R Carboni, S Bianchi, A Calderoni, N Ramaswamy, A S Spinelli, D Ielmini
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913746/neuroimaging-of-the-human-visceral-pain-system-a-methodological-review
#17
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Søren Schou Olesen, Carina Graversen, Trine Andresen, Dina Lelic, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
During the last decades there has been a tremendous development of non-invasive methods for assessment of brain activity following visceral pain. Improved methods for neurophysiological and brain imaging techniques have vastly increased our understanding of the central processing of gastrointestinal sensation and pain in both healthy volunteers as well as in patients suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. The techniques used are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG)/evoked brain potentials (EPs), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the multimodal combinations of these techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912149/human-depotentiation-following-induction-of-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#18
Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Larissa Heidemeyer, Carlos Trenado, Diane Ruge
Depotentiation (DP) is a crucial mechanism for the tuning of memory traces once LTP (Long Term Potentiation) has been induced via learning, artificial procedures, or other activities. Putative unuseful LTP might be abolished via this process. Its deficiency is thought to play a role in pathologies, such as drug induced dyskinesia. However, since it is thought that it represents a mechanism that is linked to the susceptibility to interference during consolidation of a memory trace, it is an important process to consider when therapeutic interventions, such as psychotherapy, are administered...
June 18, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911915/targeting-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#19
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911174/aging-and-an-immune-challenge-interact-to-produce-prolonged-but-not-permanent-reductions-in-hippocampal-l-ltp-and-mbdnf-in-a-rodent-model-with-features-of-delirium
#20
Naoto Tanaka, Giuseppe P Cortese, Ruth M Barrientos, Steven F Maier, Susan L Patterson
Aging increases the risk of abrupt declines in cognitive function after an event that triggers immune system activation (e.g. surgery, infection, or injury). This phenomenon is poorly understood, but rodent models may provide clues. We have previously shown that aging (24-mo-old) F344xBN rats generally do not show significant physical or cognitive impairments. However, their brains mount an exaggerated inflammatory response to signals triggered by a peripheral immune challenge (an intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli or laparotomy)...
May 2018: ENeuro
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