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Mental Toughness

Loretta J Stalans, Mary A Finn
Prior research has found that pimps use both non-coercive and coercive management styles across and within market segments of the illicit sex trade. The current study is the first to examine the socialization processes underlying variation in the self-reported coerciveness of pimps. This study begins to fill a void in the almost non-existent research on pimps who are actively managing Internet-solicited sex workers, and adds to the sparse research on pimps' coerciveness. We extend Anderson's concepts of "street code" families, where respect is acquired through displaying physical violence and toughness, and "decent" families, where middle class values of avoiding unnecessary aggression and complying with the law prevail, to understand variation in the degree of coerciveness that pimps utilize toward sex workers...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Maamer Slimani, Bianca Miarka, Walid Briki, Foued Cheour
BACKGROUND: Kickboxing is a high-intensity intermittent striking combat sport, which is characterized by complex skills and tactical key actions with short duration. OBJECTIVES: The present study compared and verified the relationship between mental toughness (MT), countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball throw (MBT) power tests by outcomes of high-level kickboxers during National Championship. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty two high-level male kickboxers (winner = 16 and loser = 16: 21...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Martin Hatzinger, Markus Gerber, Sakari Lemola, Peter J Clough, Sonja Perren, Kay von Klitzing, Agnes von Wyl, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sheila McDonald, Heather Kehler, Hamideh Bayrampour, Nonie Fraser-Lee, Suzanne Tough
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors that protect against early developmental delay among children who are experiencing adversity can inform prevention and early intervention strategies. AIMS: To identify risk factors for development delay at one year and protective factors for developmental delay in 'at risk' environments (poor maternal mental health and socio-demographic risk). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Data was analyzed from 3360 mother-child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort...
November 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Daniel F Gucciardi, Sheldon Hanton, Scott Fleming
OBJECTIVE: Athlete development and management encompass a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. Within elite sport, multidisciplinary sport science and medicine teams play an important role in achieving an optimal balance between preventing athlete ill-health and optimizing health and performance. The psychological aspects of athlete health and performance have gained increased attention over the past two decades, with much of this research concerned with the mental health of athletes and the concept of mental toughness...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Richard G Cowden
The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships between mental toughness (MT) and two constructs also linked to athletic performance, emotional intelligence (EI) and coping effectiveness. A sample of 151 male adolescent athletes (M age = 15.4 years, SD = 1.3) completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, and an adapted version of the Coping Effectiveness Scale. The regression and mediation analysis results supported both hypotheses in that (a) EI was a significant predictor of MT and (b) the relationship between EI and coping effectiveness was fully mediated by MT...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Richard G Cowden
This study investigated relationships between mental toughness and measures of competitive performance in tennis. Forty-three male (N = 25) and female (N = 18) players (M age = 13.6 years, SD = 2.4) completed the mental toughness inventory, and the point-by-point outcomes recorded during a competitive tennis match (singles) were used to generate performance indices for each athlete. The results indicated that mental toughness was associated with several, but not all, macro, micro, and critical moment performance indices...
August 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Ingunn Benediktsson, Sheila McDonald, Suzanne Tough
Significance Although standardized tools such as the Speilberger State Anxiety scale (1970) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Index (1983) have often been used in pregnant and postpartum populations to evaluate psychosocial risk, there exists very little literature on the reliability of these scales in this population. Given the potentially grave consequences of undiagnosed pre and postpartum mental distress, it is of paramount importance that the tools that are commonly used are evaluated for their psychometric properties within the pregnant and parenting population...
July 30, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Markus Gerber, Nadeem Kalak, Sakari Lemola, Peter J Clough, Pasquale Calabrese, Vahid Shaygannejad, Uwe Pühse, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Daniel F Gucciardi, Chun-Qing Zhang, Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Gangyan Si, Andreas Stenling
The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, Mage = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness...
April 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Gavin Morris, Donna O'Connor
Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kathleen H Chaput, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Richard Musto, Carol E Adair, Suzanne C Tough
BACKGROUND: A link exists between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression, and evidence shows that some breastfeeding promotion initiatives may increase maternal stress and contribute to risk of the condition. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine whether breastfeeding difficulties affect the risk of postpartum depression and whether breastfeeding support modifies the relationship between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression. METHODS: Between June and October 2010, we recruited 442 women who intended to breastfeed from all maternity hospitals in Calgary within 72 hours of giving birth to full-term, singleton infants...
January 2016: CMAJ Open
Fulya Mercan, Bilge Kara, Bedile Irem Tiftikcioglu, Emrah Mercan, Filiz Meryem Sertpoyraz
BACKGROUND: Dual tasking is frequently impaired in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), substantially impairing quality of life (QoL). We aimed to examine the effects of motor-motor and motor-cognitive tasks on balance in highly mobile patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), with mild disability. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients and 34 controls were included. Steady Stance Test (SST), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) were used to evaluate the balance...
May 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jeremy J Taylor, Kathryn E Grant, Courtney A Zulauf, Patrick J Fowler, David A Meyerson, Sireen Irsheid
This study examined trajectories of psychopathology in a sample of low-income urban youth and tested exposure to community violence as a predictor of these trajectories. Self-report and parent-report survey measures of psychological problems and exposure to community violence were collected annually over 3 years from a sample of 364 fifth- to ninth-grade low-income urban youth (64% female; 95% youth of color). Linear growth models showed that youth experienced declines in both internalizing and externalizing symptoms across adolescence...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Summer Allen
It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone...
May 2016: IEEE Pulse
Amy J Hobbs, Cynthia A Mannion, Sheila W McDonald, Meredith Brockway, Suzanne C Tough
BACKGROUND: The caesarean section (c-section) rate in Canada is 27.1%, well above the 5-15% of deliveries suggested by the World Health Organization in 2009. Emergency and planned c-sections may adversely affect breastfeeding initiation, milk supply and infant breastfeeding receptivity compared to vaginal deliveries. Our study examined mode of delivery and breastfeeding initiation, duration, and difficulties reported by mothers at 4 months postpartum. METHODS: The All Our Babies study is a prospective pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta, that began in 2008...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Serge Brand, Nadeem Kalak, Markus Gerber, Peter J Clough, Sakari Lemola, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Uwe Pühse, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler
Numerous studies showed that regular physical activity (PA) is associated with both favourable and restorative sleep and improved psychological functioning (PF). However, there is little research on the topic covering the early to mid-adolescence period. Moreover, curiosity and exploratory behaviour (CEB) and mental toughness (MT) as a result of PA remains thus far uninvestigated, as do possible gender differences. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between PA, subjective sleep (sS), PF, CEB, and MT during early to mid-adolescence...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Richard G Cowden, Anna Meyer-Weitz, Kwaku Oppong Asante
The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Tommy Haugen, Michael Reinboth, Ken J Hetlelid, Derek M Peters, Rune Høigaard
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if mental toughness moderated the occurrence of social loafing in cycle time-trial performance. METHOD: Twenty-seven men (Mage = 17.7 years, SD = 0.6) completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire prior to completing a 1-min cycling trial under 2 conditions: once with individual performance identified, and once in a group with individual performance not identified. Using a median split of the mental toughness index, participants were divided into high and low mental toughness groups...
September 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Daniel D Hutto
Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology (FP) view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver's seat - on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (1). Opposing this, the scientific image (SI) view (2, 3) holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows; hence, we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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