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Mental Strength

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913559/physical-activity-as-intervention-for-age-related-loss-of-muscle-mass-and-function-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-lisa-study
#1
Christian Skou Eriksen, Ellen Garde, Nina Linde Reislev, Cathrine Lawaetz Wimmelmann, Theresa Bieler, Andreas Kraag Ziegler, Anne Theil Gylling, Kasper Juel Dideriksen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Michael Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Physical and cognitive function decline with age, accelerating during the 6th decade. Loss of muscle power (force×velocity product) is a dominant physical determinant for loss of functional ability, especially if the lower extremities are affected. Muscle strength training is known to maintain or even improve muscle power as well as physical function in older adults, but the optimal type of training for beneficial long-term training effects over several years is unknown...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910751/recent-advances-in-pharmacotherapeutic-paradigm-of-mild-to-recalcitrant-atopic-dermatitis
#2
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897431/prevalence-and-incidence-of-sarcopenia-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-newcastle-85-study
#3
Richard Matthew Dodds, Antoneta Granic, Karen Davies, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger, Avan Aihie Sayer
INTRODUCTION: Recognition that an older person has sarcopenia is important because this condition is linked to a range of adverse outcomes. Sarcopenia becomes increasingly common with age, and yet there are few data concerning its descriptive epidemiology in the very old (aged 85 years and above). Our aims were to describe risk factors for sarcopenia and estimate its prevalence and incidence in a British sample of the very old. METHODS: We used data from two waves (2006/07 and 2009/10) of the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort born in 1921 and registered with a Newcastle/North Tyneside general practice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894796/cognitive-challenges-aging-and-neuromuscular-fatigue
#4
Ashley E Shortz, Ranjana K Mehta
Cognitive challenges, such as concurrent cognitive demands or prior cognitive fatigue, have shown to adversely impact neuromuscular fatigue, specifically in younger adults. Whether these relationships are similar for the aging population remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different cognitive challenges on handgrip fatigue with aging. Ten younger (24.10 (1.79) years) and ten older (75.90 (7.80) years) females attended three experimental conditions (control, i.e., exercise only, cognitive fatigue prior to exercise, and concurrent mental arithmetic during exercise) on different days...
November 25, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893483/game-times-and-higher-winning-percentages-of-west-coast-teams-of-the-national-football-league-correspond-with-reduced-prevalence-of-regular-season-injury
#5
Allison J Brager, R Justin Mistovich
West coast teams of the National Football League (NFL) are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. The present study aims to determine if rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages. Regular season schedules and rates of turnovers for each of the thirty-two teams were obtained from Pro-Football-Reference...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890828/alterations-of-motor-cortical-microcircuit-in-a-depressive-like-mouse-model-produced-by-light-deprivation
#6
Yun-Feng Zhang, Qi-Qin Li, Jia Qu, Cui-Min Sun, Yun Wang
Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illness. The heavy social burden imposed by this disorder calls for a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Light deficiency is an important factor potentially leading to depression. However, how the light deficiency affects neural microcircuit underlying depression remains largely unknown. This study investigated the properties of morphology, electrophysiology, and synaptology of layer V pyramidal cells (L5PCs) in the motor cortex of a mouse model with depressive behavioral phenotype that was produced by light deprivation (LD)...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888736/activity-engagement-and-physical-function-in-old-age-sample
#7
Krupa N Shah, Feng V Lin, Fang Yu, James M McMahon
OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns of engagement in mental, physical, and social activity (MA, PA, and SA) and to examine the relationship between combined activity engagement and physical function among community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional correlational study. SETTING: Multiple communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 466 individuals aged 55 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Physical function was assessed using grip strength and gait speed...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884479/a-pilot-training-program-for-people-in-recovery-of-mental-illness-as-vocational-peer-support-workers-in-hong-kong-job-buddies-training-program-jbtp-a-preliminary-finding
#8
Kevin Kei Nang Yam, William Tak Lam Lo, Rose Lai Ping Chiu, Bien Shuk Yin Lau, Charles Ka Shing Lau, Jen Kei Yu Wu, Siu Man Wan
OBJECTIVES: The present study reviews the delivery of a pilot curriculum-mentorship-based peer vocational support workers training in a Hong Kong public psychiatric hospital. The present paper reports (1) on the development of a peer vocational support workers training - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP) in Hong Kong; and (2) preliminary findings from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. METHOD: The curriculum consists of 15-session coursework, 8-session storytelling workshop and 50-hour practicum to provide Supported Employment Peer Service (SEPS) under the mentorship of occupational therapists...
October 24, 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884417/nerve-decompression-surgery-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-what-are-the-outcomes
#9
Morad Chughtai, Anton Khlopas, Chukwuwieke U Gwam, Randa K Elmallah, Melbin Thomas, James Nace, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to compare (1) muscle strength; (2) pain; (3) sensation; (4) various outcome measurement scales between post-total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients who had a sciatic nerve injury and did or did not receive decompression surgery for this condition; and (5) to compare these findings with current literature. METHODS: Nineteen patients who had nerve injury after THA were reviewed. Patients were stratified into those who had a nerve decompression (n = 12), and those who had not (n = 7)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884217/from-neurocognition-to-community-participation-in-serious-mental-illness-the-intermediary-role-of-dysfunctional-attitudes-and-motivation
#10
E C Thomas, L Luther, L Zullo, A T Beck, P M Grant
BACKGROUND: Evidence for a relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome in important areas of community living is robust in serious mental illness research. Dysfunctional attitudes (defeatist performance beliefs and asocial beliefs) have been identified as intervening variables in this causal chain. This study seeks to expand upon previous research by longitudinally testing the link between neurocognition and community participation (i.e. time in community-based activity) through dysfunctional attitudes and motivation...
November 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883167/frailty-is-a-geriatric-syndrome-characterized-by-multiple-impairments-a-comprehensive-approach-is-needed
#11
L-K Chen, A-C Hwang, L-K Liu, W-J Lee, L-N Peng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of frailty and the associated multimorbidity and functional impairments among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly people in Taiwan. DESIGN: a cross-sectional study. SETTING: communities in I-Lan County of Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: 1839 community-dwelling people aged 50 years and older. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS: Frailty defined by Fried's criteria, Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Mini-Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Short Form-12 quality of life questionnaire...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880771/differences-in-connection-strength-between-mental-symptoms-might-be-explained-by-differences-in-variance-reanalysis-of-network-data-did-not-confirm-staging
#12
Berend Terluin, Michiel R de Boer, Henrica C W de Vet
BACKGROUND: The network approach to psychopathology conceives mental disorders as sets of symptoms causally impacting on each other. The strengths of the connections between symptoms are key elements in the description of those symptom networks. Typically, the connections are analysed as linear associations (i.e., correlations or regression coefficients). However, there is insufficient awareness of the fact that differences in variance may account for differences in connection strength...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879297/addressing-the-mental-health-needs-of-latino-children-in-immigrant-families
#13
Tania Maria Caballero, Lisa Ross DeCamp, Rheanna E Platt, Harita Shah, Sara B Johnson, Erica M S Sibinga, Sarah Polk
Latino children in the United States, whether immigrants themselves or children in immigrant families, are at high risk for mental health disorders stemming from poverty, exposure to trauma, assimilation stressors, and discrimination. The timely identification and treatment of mental health disorders in Latino children are compromised by limited healthcare access and quality as well as the lack of routine mental health screening in pediatric primary care. Here we review Spanish-language validity and implementation studies of Bright Futures previsit mental health screening tools and models of care...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875833/mental-health-psychosocial-challenges-and-resilience-in-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#14
Perry N Halkitis, Kristen D Krause, Dorice L Vieira
In addition to physical health challenges, older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) experience mental health burdens and challenges to their social well-being that diminish their overall health. These health states are synergistic and are driven by HIV and HIV treatments, the aging process itself, and psychosocial and structural conditions of their lives. However, resilience, which we understand as both a trait and a process, may serve to buffer the effects that HIV/HIV treatments, aging, and social/structural conditions may have on the overall well-being of the individual...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874275/executive-functioning-in-men-and-women-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Michelle Kiep, Annelies A Spek
Executive functioning (EF) is thought to be linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) specific symptoms. The majority of research has focused on children and adolescents with ASD and, therefore, little is known about EF in adults. Furthermore, little is known about gender differences. Ninety-nine men and forty women with ASD were compared with and 35 neurotypical men 25 neurotypical women. Participants were matched on age, total intelligence, and verbal ability. The following instruments were used to measure executive functioning: digit span and letter and number sequencing of the WAIS-III, Tower of Hanoi, WCST, and Verbal fluency...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870434/do-sex-differences-in-rumination-explain-sex-differences-in-depression
#16
REVIEW
Tracey J Shors, Emma M Millon, Han Yan M Chang, Ryan L Olson, Brandon L Alderman
It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870076/disaster-mental-health-and-positive-psychology-an-afterward-to-the-special-issue
#17
Steven M Southwick, Ritvij Satodiya, Robert H Pietrzak
The articles in this Special Issue are devoted to integrating the fields of disaster mental health and positive psychology. Their focus on resilience building, individual and community preparation, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth represents an important new development in disaster mental health. The overarching goal of this effort is to inform strategies to help both individuals-including children, adolescent, adult disaster survivors, and relief workers-and communities prepare for, respond to, recover from, and possibly even grow stronger in the face of adversity...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866219/mental-health-of-children-who-work-on-the-streets-in-brazil-after-enrollment-in-a-psychosocial-program
#18
Elis Viviane Hoffmann, Cristiane S Duarte, Victor Fossaluza, Ana Carolina C Milani, Mariana R Maciel, Marcelo F Mello, Andrea F Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate the mental health status of children working on the streets in Sao Paulo City, Brazil, two years after their participation in a psychosocial program, and to identify factors associated with their mental health status. METHODS: From a total sample of 126 children working on the streets, 107 (85%) were re-evaluated two years after the initiation of a psychosocial program which aimed to cease their work on the streets. The focus was the presence of mental health problems, defined based on a screening instrument (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire)...
November 19, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865227/behavioural-emotional-and-social-development-of-children-who-stutter
#19
Jan McAllister
PURPOSE: Developmental stuttering may be associated with diminished psychological well-being which has been documented from late childhood onwards. It is important to establish the point at which behavioural, emotional and social problems emerge in children who stutter. METHODS: The study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, whose initial cohort comprised 18,818 children. Analysis involved data collected when the cohort members were 3, 5 and 11 years old...
December 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854469/age-varying-associations-between-nonmarital-sexual-behavior-and-depressive-symptoms-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#20
Sara A Vasilenko
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
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