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Mental Strength

Natchaya Kunanitthaworn, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Salilthip Paiboonsithiwong, Natchaphon Songtrijuck, Pimolpun Kuntawong, Danny Wedding
BACKGROUND: This study identified and investigated the relationship between demographics, mental health problems, positive personality traits and perceived social support and motivation in medical education (MME) among first year medical students. METHODS: One hundred-thirty eight first year medical students completed the Academic Motivation Scale, Outcome Inventory, Strength Based Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Path analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the variables of interest and each type of motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation...
June 18, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Mark Wilberforce, Eric Batten, David Challis, Linda Davies, Michael P Kelly, Chris Roberts
BACKGROUND: The patient experience is a crucial part of the measurement of service quality. However, instruments to evaluate experiential quality in the community mental health care of older adults are lacking. Before designing a new instrument, clarity is needed about what is to be measured, and how care experiences are articulated by patients. The study aimed to construct a framework to describe older patients' experience of community mental health and social care. METHODS: Concept mapping blends structured qualitative data collection with quantitative analysis in a mixed method approach...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mary Kennedy
The strength of each excitatory synapse in the central nervous system is regulated by its prior activity in a process called synaptic plasticity. The initiation of synaptic plasticity occurs when calcium ions enter the postsynaptic compartment and encounter a subcellular structure called the postsynaptic density (PSD). The PSD is attached to the postsynaptic membrane just underneath the concentrated plague of neurotransmitter receptors. It is comprised of a core set of 30 to 60 proteins, approximately 20 of which are scaffold proteins...
June 18, 2018: Biochemistry
Lisa M Gargano, Sean Locke, Jiehui Li, Mark R Farfel
BACKGROUND: The present study examined the association between 9/11-related adolescent behavioral problems on mental health outcomes in early adulthood. METHODS: Data from enrollees of the World Trade Center Health Registry, who completed at least one adolescent (2006-2007 or 2011-2012) and adult survey (2011-2012 or 2015-2016), were analyzed. Adolescent behavioral difficulties were assessed using the adolescent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Research
Lingguo Bu, Congcong Huo, Gongcheng Xu, Ying Liu, Zengyong Li, Yubo Fan, Jianfeng Li
To reveal the physiological mechanism of the cognitive decline in subjects with hypertension, the functional connectivity (FC) was assessed by using the wavelet phase coherence (WPCO), and effective connectivity (EC) was assessed by using the coupling strength (CS) of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals. NIRS signals were continuously recorded from the prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex, and occipital lobes of 13 hypertensive patients (hypertension group, 70 ± 6.5 years old) and 16 elderly healthy subjects (control group, 71 ± 5...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kazuki Uemura, Hyuma Makizako, Sangyoon Lee, Takehiko Doi, Sungchul Lee, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Hiroyuki Shimada
OBJECTIVES: Whether sarcopenia predicts incident homebound status remains unclear. This prospective cohort study aimed to determine the impact of sarcopenia on the incidence of homebound status in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The study included 3958 community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥65 years who were not homebound at baseline. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of both poor muscle function (low physical performance or low muscle strength) and low muscle mass...
July 2018: Maturitas
Huy P Phan, Bing H Ngu, Hui-Wen Wang, Jen-Hwa Shih, Sheng-Ying Shi, Ruey-Yih Lin
Recent research has explored the nature of the theoretical concept of optimal best practice, which emphasizes the importance of personal resolve, inner strength, and the maximization of a person's development, whether it is mental, cognitive, social, or physical. In the context of academia, the study of optimal functioning places emphasis on a student's effort expenditure, positive outlook, and determination to strive for educational success and enriched subjective well-being. One major inquiry closely associated with optimal functioning is the process of optimization...
2018: PloS One
Tammas Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Many studies indicate that bipolar disorders are underdiagnosed. Yet from 2007 to 2008, a series of publications asserted that bipolar disorders were being overdiagnosed. This review examines the methods used in the studies that reported bipolar disorders were being overdiagnosed. METHODS: A literature search for studies with original data related to overdiagnosis of bipolar disorders was performed. RESULTS: Four studies were found indicating bipolar disorders were being overdiagnosed...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Leejin Kim, Sungmin Myoung
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the comorbidity of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for the Korean national health insurance data (NHID) by using association rule mining (ARM). Methods: We used data categorized mental disorder according to the international classification of disease, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnosis system from NHID from 2011 to 2013 in youths aged 18 yr or younger. Overall, 211420 subjects, comorbid cases with ADHD were present in 105784...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
J Bueno-Antequera, M Á Oviedo-Caro, D Munguía-Izquierdo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) was defined as meeting ideal levels of 4 health behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and 3 biological factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose) and is inversely related to cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, the prevalence of ideal CVH in patients with severe mental illness and the possible independent associations of sedentary behaviour and fitness with CVH score are unexplored...
June 10, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Helena Grönstedt, Sofia Vikström, Tommy Cederholm, Erika Franzén, Åke Seiger, Anders Wimo, Gerd Faxén-Irving, Anne-Marie Boström
BACKGROUND: Poor nutrition and age per see add to the development of sarcopenia, i.e. loss of muscle mass and strength, which contributes to increased risk of impaired activities of daily living (ADL) and reduced independence. Protein deficiency plays an important role in the development of sarcopenia. In order to increase the muscle mass protein intake should be combined with physical exercise. A daily physical activity, the sit-to-stand exercise, has been proven to decrease older persons' dependence in ADL...
June 7, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
C Harvey, J Lewis, J Farhall
AIMS: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend evidence-based psychosocial interventions (EBPIs) to improve consumer recovery; however, availability appears limited. We describe receipt of six EBPIs, reported by people with psychoses, and associations with service and consumer characteristics, including indicators of need (eligibility) and benefit (suitability). METHODS: Participants in the 2010 Australian national survey of psychosis (n = 1825) were interviewed to assess demographic, functional, mental and physical health characteristics and service use in the previous year...
June 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Kathryn A Jewett, Kwan Young Lee, Daphne E Eagleman, Stephanie Soriano, Nien-Pei Tsai
Chronic activity perturbations in neurons induce homeostatic plasticity through modulation of synaptic strength or other intrinsic properties to maintain the correct physiological range of excitability. Although similar plasticity can also occur at the population level, what molecular mechanisms are involved remain unclear. In the current study, we utilized a multielectrode array (MEA) recording system to evaluate homeostatic neural network activity of primary mouse cortical neuron cultures. We demonstrated that chronic elevation of neuronal activity through the inhibition of GABA(A) receptors elicits synchronization of neural network activity and homeostatic reduction of the amplitude of spontaneous neural network spikes...
June 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
N M van Rijssen, A G M Rojer, M C Trappenburg, E M Reijnierse, C G M Meskers, A B Maier, M A E de van der Schueren
Background and aim: A body of evidence is supporting the association between (the risk of) malnutrition in relation to physical performance, muscle strength, risk for depression and cognitive status in geriatric outpatients. Associations between being malnourished according to the newly proposed ESPEN definition for malnutrition and clinically relevant outcome measures of the aforementioned variables have not been confirmed yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between being malnourished according to the ESPEN definition and clinically relevant outcome measures in geriatric outpatients...
2018: European Geriatric Medicine
Satomi Doi, Takeo Fujiwara, Aya Isumi, Manami Ochi, Tsuguhiko Kato
Leaving children at home alone is considered a form of "neglect" in most developed countries. In Japan, this practice is not prohibited, probably because this country is considered to have relatively safe communities for children. The impact of leaving children at home alone on their mental health is a controversial issue, and few studies have examined it to date. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of leaving children aged 6 or 7 years at home alone on their mental health, focusing on both the positive and negative aspects; that is, resilience, difficult behavior, and prosocial behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Steven Hope, Anna Pearce, Catherine Chittleborough, Jessica Deighton, Amelia Maika, Nadia Micali, Murthy Mittinty, Catherine Law, John Lynch
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is common among women of childbearing age, and limited longitudinal research suggests prolonged exposure to maternal distress is linked to child mental health problems. Estimating effects of maternal distress over time is difficult due to potential influences of child mental health problems on maternal distress and time-varying confounding by family circumstances. METHODS: We analysed the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample with data collected throughout childhood...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Emily W Flanagan, Arlette C Perry
Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and low physical self-concept and exercise efficacy have been linked to poor physical fitness levels and adverse health outcomes in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between BD, physical fitness, exercise self-efficacy, and self-Perception of Physical Fitness (PFP) in Latina and Black female children. Twenty-eight Latina and Black children enrolled in an elementary afterschool program, aged 8⁻12, completed surveys evaluating body dissatisfaction, exercise efficacy, PFP, and measures of physical fitness...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rosemary R C McEachan, Tiffany C Yang, Hannah Roberts, Kate E Pickett, Diana Arseneau-Powell, Christopher J Gidlow, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the quantity or quality of green space is more important for mental wellbeing. We aimed to explore associations between availability of, satisfaction with, and use of green space and mental wellbeing among children aged 4 years in a multi-ethnic sample. METHODS: We did a 4-year follow-up assessment of participants in the Born in Bradford longitudinal cohort study, which recruited children and mothers at the city's main maternity unit from 2007 to 2011...
June 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
David Perez-Cruzado, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Elisa Vera-Garcia, Fermín Mayoral-Cleries
Anti-psychotic medication has emerged as the primary medical treatment for people with severe mental illness, despite the great risks involved in the use of this medication. In addition, this population suffers from problems of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor physical fitness, which is aggravated by the use of this type of medication. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the most commonly used antipsychotics in this population (Olanzapine and Risperidone) on physical activity and the physical fitness of people with severe mental illness...
May 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Andrea Osswald, Timo Deutschbein, Christina Maria Berr, Eva Plomer, Anne Mickisch, Katrin Ritzel, Jochen Schopohl, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Fassnacht, Stefanie Hahner, Martin Reincke
OBJECTIVE Aim of our study was to analyze long-term outcome of patients with the ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS) compared to patients with Cushing's disease (CD) regarding cardiovascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal and psychiatric co-morbidities. DESIGN Cross-sectional study in patients with ECS and CD in two German academic tertiary-care centers. METHODS Standardized clinical follow-up examination was performed including health-related quality of life (QoL) in 21 ECS patients in long-term remission (≥ 18 months since successful surgery)...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
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