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Brain Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091782/adaptation-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity-of-brain-functions
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan C Horton, Manfred Fahle, Theo Mulder, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#3
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#4
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089653/priming-theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-young-but-not-old-adults
#5
George M Opie, Eleni Vosnakis, Michael C Ridding, Ulf Ziemann, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Primary motor cortex neuroplasticity is reduced in old adults, which may contribute to the motor deficits commonly observed in the elderly. Previous research in young subjects suggests that the neuroplastic response can be enhanced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), with a larger plastic response observed following priming with both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like protocols. However, it is not known if priming stimulation can also modulate plasticity in older adults...
January 4, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#6
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088629/induction-of-hypothyroidism-during-early-postnatal-stages-triggers-a-decrease-in-cognitive-performance-by-decreasing-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#7
Paulina Salazar, Pedro Cisternas, Juan Francisco Codocedo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Thyroid hormones are vital in the control of multiple body functions, including the correct performance of the brain. Multiple diseases are associated with thyroid gland functioning, including hypothyroidism. To date, little is known regarding the effects of the establishment of this condition at a young age on brain function. Here, we evaluated the effect of hypothyroidism in an early postnatal stage in cognitive abilities with focus on the hippocampus. In our model, hypothyroidism was induced in young rats at 21days of age using 0...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#8
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#10
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081197/morphine-withdrawal-modifies-prion-protein-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079521/isoform-specific-subcellular-localization-and-function-of-protein-kinase-a-identified-by-mosaic-imaging-of-mouse-brain
#12
Ronit Ilouz, Varda Lev-Ram, Eric A Bushong, Travis L Stiles, Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski, Christopher Douglas, Geoffrey Goldberg, Mark H Ellisman, Susan S Taylor
Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in neuronal function that are mediated by different regulatory (R) subunits. Deficiency in either RIβ or RIIβ subunits results in distinct neuronal phenotypes. Although RIβ contributes to synaptic plasticity, it is the least studied isoform. Using isoform-specific antibodies we generated high-resolution large-scale immunohistochemical mosaic images of mouse brain that provide global views of several brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebellum...
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#13
Pedrinolla Anna, Schena Federico, Venturelli Massimo
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
January 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077329/body-schema-plasticity-after-stroke-subjective-and-neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#14
Roberto Llorens, Adrián Borrego, Priscila Palomo, Ausiàs Cebolla, Enrique Noé, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia, Rosa Baños
Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073789/dynamics-of-convulsive-seizure-termination-and-postictal-generalized-eeg-suppression
#15
Prisca R Bauer, Roland D Thijs, Robert J Lamberts, Demetrios N Velis, Gerhard H Visser, Else A Tolner, Josemir W Sander, Fernando H Lopes da Silva, Stiliyan N Kalitzin
It is not fully understood how seizures terminate and why some seizures are followed by a period of complete brain activity suppression, postictal generalized EEG suppression. This is clinically relevant as there is a potential association between postictal generalized EEG suppression, cardiorespiratory arrest and sudden death following a seizure. We combined human encephalographic seizure data with data of a computational model of seizures to elucidate the neuronal network dynamics underlying seizure termination and the postictal generalized EEG suppression state...
January 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072803/neural-correlates-of-maladaptive-pain-behavior-in-chronic-neck-pain-a-single-case-control-fmri-study
#16
Konstantin Beinert, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070120/the-protocadherin-17-gene-affects-cognition-personality-amygdala-structure-and-function-synapse-development-and-risk-of-major-mood-disorders
#17
H Chang, N Hoshina, C Zhang, Y Ma, H Cao, Y Wang, D-D Wu, S E Bergen, M Landén, C M Hultman, M Preisig, Z Kutalik, E Castelao, M Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, A J Forstner, J Strohmaier, J Hecker, T G Schulze, B Müller-Myhsok, A Reif, P B Mitchell, N G Martin, P R Schofield, S Cichon, M M Nöthen, H Walter, S Erk, A Heinz, N Amin, C M van Duijn, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Tost, X Xiao, T Yamamoto, M Rietschel, M Li
Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069964/task-specific-reorganization-of-the-auditory-cortex-in-deaf-humans
#18
Łukasz Bola, Maria Zimmermann, Piotr Mostowski, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka, Paweł Rutkowski, Marcin Szwed
The principles that guide large-scale cortical reorganization remain unclear. In the blind, several visual regions preserve their task specificity; ventral visual areas, for example, become engaged in auditory and tactile object-recognition tasks. It remains open whether task-specific reorganization is unique to the visual cortex or, alternatively, whether this kind of plasticity is a general principle applying to other cortical areas. Auditory areas can become recruited for visual and tactile input in the deaf...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#19
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#20
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
: It is well-established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared to skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons process sensory input from muscle vs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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