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Brain Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142062/the-serine-protease-inhibitor-neuroserpin-is-required-for-normal-synaptic-plasticity-and-regulates-learning-and-social-behavior
#1
Rebecca Reumann, Ricardo Vierk, Lepu Zhou, Frederice Gries, Vanessa Kraus, Julia Mienert, Eva Romswinkel, Fabio Morellini, Isidre Ferrer, Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock, Gabriele Rune, Markus Glatzel, Giovanna Galliciotti
The serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin regulates the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the nervous system. Neuroserpin expression is particularly prominent at late stages of neuronal development in most regions of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas it is restricted to regions related to learning and memory in the adult brain. The physiological expression pattern of neuroserpin, its high degree of colocalization with tPA within the CNS, together with its dysregulation in neuropsychiatric disorders, suggest a role in formation and refinement of synapses...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142057/morphofunctional-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-brain
#2
Mara Andrione, Benjamin F Timberlake, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), is not changed by repeated presentations, its relative representation with respect to unfamiliar stimuli is modified. In particular, the representation of a stimulus composed of a 50:50 mixture of a familiar and a novel odorant becomes more similar to that of the novel stimulus after repeated stimulus preexposure...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#3
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138675/benign-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-on-brain-plasticity-assessed-by-nitric-oxide-metabolism-during-poststroke-rehabilitation
#4
Natalia Cichoń, Piotr Czarny, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Tomasz Śliwiński, Janusz Szemraj, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signal molecules, involved in both physiological and pathological processes. As a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, NO regulates cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on generation and metabolism of NO, as a neurotransmitter, in the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138442/uv-irradiation-to-mouse-skin-decreases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-protein-expression-via-hpa-axis-activation
#5
Mira Han, Jae-Jun Ban, Jung-Soo Bae, Chang-Yup Shin, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137271/environmental-conditions-differentially-affect-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#6
Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Tang, Dan Luo, Li-Li Qiu, Min Jia, Hong-Mei Yuan, Shan-Wu Feng, Jian-Jun Yang
Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136184/female-mimicry-by-sneaker-males-has-a-transcriptomic-signature-in-both-the-brain-and-gonad-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#7
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Melissa S Lamm, Jodi T Thomas, Kim Rutherford, Kelly C Thompson, John R Godwin, Neil J Gemmell
Phenotypic plasticity represents an elegant adaptive response of individuals to a change in their environment. Bluehead wrasses (Thalassoma bifasciatum) exhibit astonishing sexual plasticity, including female-to-male sex change and discrete male morphs that differ strikingly in behaviour, morphology and gonadal investment. Using RNA-seq transcriptome profiling, we examined the genes and physiological pathways underlying flexible behavioural and gonadal differences among female, dominant (bourgeois) male, and female-mimic (sneaker) male blueheads...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136125/effective-connectivity-measured-using-optogenetically-evoked-hemodynamic-signals-exhibits-topography-distinct-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#8
Adam Q Bauer, Andrew W Kraft, Grant A Baxter, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Jasmine J Park, Michael R Bruchas, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
Brain connectomics has expanded from histological assessment of axonal projection connectivity (APC) to encompass resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC). RS-FC analyses are efficient for whole-brain mapping, but attempts to explain aspects of RS-FC (e.g., interhemispheric RS-FC) based on APC have been only partially successful. Neuroimaging with hemoglobin alone lacks specificity for determining how activity in a population of cells contributes to RS-FC. Wide-field mapping of optogenetically defined connectivity could provide insights into the brain's structure-function relationship...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136107/contextual-fear-extinction-induces-hippocampal-metaplasticity-mediated-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5
#9
Branden J Stansley, Nicole M Fisher, Rocco G Gogliotti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Dysregulated fear memory can lead to a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders. The brain systems underlying fear memory are manifold, with the hippocampus being prominently involved by housing fear-related spatial memories as engrams, which are created and stored through neural changes such as synaptic plasticity. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors contribute significantly to both fear behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the relationship between these two phenomena has not been fully elucidated...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135714/ritanserin-a-serotonin-2-receptor-antagonist-inhibits-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-infarction
#10
Kenmei Mizutani, Shigeru Sonoda, Hideaki Wakita
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be implicated in functional recovery after stroke; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the role of 5-HT was verified using ritanserin, a potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, and protein expression and modification were analyzed to further understand the association between paralysis recovery and molecular mechanisms in the brain. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were induced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery...
November 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134703/origin-and-dynamics-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-perinatal-white-matter-injury
#11
REVIEW
Erik van Tilborg, Caroline G M de Theije, Maurik van Hal, Nienke Wagenaar, Linda S de Vries, Manon J Benders, David H Rowitch, Cora H Nijboer
Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology underlying perinatal WMI, it is essential to fully understand the cellular mechanisms contributing to healthy/normal white matter development. OLs are responsible for myelination of axons. During brain development, OLs are generally derived from neuroepithelial zones, where neural stem cells committed to the OL lineage differentiate into OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133510/single-cell-immuno-laser-microdissection-coupled-to-label-free-proteomics-to-reveal-the-proteotypes-of-human-brain-cells-after-ischemia
#12
Teresa García-Berrocoso, Víctor Llombart, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Alexandre Hainard, Virginie Licker, Anna Penalba, Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Alejandro Bustamante, Elena Martínez-Saez, Francesc Canals, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Joan Montaner
Cerebral ischemia entails rapid tissue damage in the affected brain area causing devastating neurological dysfunction. How each component of the neurovascular unit contributes or responds to the ischemic insult in the context of the human brain has not been solved yet. Thus, the analysis of the proteome is a straightforward approach to unraveling these cell proteotypes.In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas...
November 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133435/coordinated-plasticity-of-synapses-and-astrocytes-underlies-practice-driven-functional-vicariation-in-peri-infarct-motor-cortex
#13
Soo Young Kim, J Edward Hsu, Lincoln C Husbands, Jeffrey A Kleim, Theresa A Jones
Motor rehabilitative training after stroke can improve motor function and promote topographical reorganization of remaining motor cortical movement representations, but this reorganization follows behavioral improvements. A more detailed understanding of the neural bases of rehabilitation efficacy is needed to inform therapeutic efforts to improve it. Using a rat model of upper extremity impairments after ischemic stroke, we examined effects of motor rehabilitative training at the ultrastructural level in peri-infarct motor cortex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133434/pkd1-promotes-functional-synapse-formation-coordinated-with-n-cadherin-in-hippocampus
#14
Cheng Cen, Li-Da Luo, Wen-Qi Li, Gang Li, Na-Xi Tian, Ge Zheng, Dong-Min Yin, Yimin Zou, Yun Wang
Functional synapse formation is critical for the wiring of neural circuits in the developing brain. The cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin plays important roles in target recognition and synaptogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the localization of N-cadherin and the subsequent effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) directly binds to N-cadherin at amino acid residues 836-871 and phosphorylates it at Ser 869, 871, 872, thereby increasing the surface localization of N-cadherin and promoting functional synapse formation in primary cultured hippocampal neurons obtained from embryonic day 18 rat embryos of either sex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132997/thyroid-hormone-improves-insulin-signaling-and-reduces-the-activation-of-neurodegenerative-pathway-in-the-hippocampus-of-diabetic-adult-male-rats
#15
Fernanda Prieto-Almeida, Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa, Fernanda Crunfli, Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Maria Tereza Nunes, Andréa da Silva Torrão
AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and impairments of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in the brain have been suggested as a likely etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies have shown that thyroid hormones (THs) improve insulin sensitivity in DM rats and act as mediators of the plasticity of the nervous system altering behavior and cognitive function. Based on these findings, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of diabetes and triiodothyronine (T3) treatment upon proteins associated with DM and AD in the central nervous system...
November 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132949/redefining-neuroendocrinology-epigenetics-of-brain-body-communication-over-the-life-course
#16
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress that perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, and it does so somewhat differently in males and females. The expression of steroid hormone receptors throughout the brain has broadened the definition of 'neuroendocrinology' to include the reciprocal communication between the entire brain and body via hormonal and neural pathways. Mediated in part via systemic hormonal influences, the adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover...
November 10, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#17
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130020/what-do-we-know-from-clinical-trials-on-exercise-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yong Shen, Rena Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serious enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks...
December 2016: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128578/electrical-brain-stimulation-tes-improves-learning-more-than-performance-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Bianca A Simonsmeier, Roland H Grabner, Julia Hein, Ugne Krenz, Michael Schneider
Researchers have recently started evaluating whether stimulating the brain noninvasively with a weak and painless electrical current (transcranial Electrical Stimulation, tES) enhances physiological and cognitive processes. Some studies found that tES has weak but positive effects on brain physiology, cognition, or assessment performance, which have attracted massive public interest. We present the first meta-analytic test of the hypothesis that tES in a learning phase is more effective than tES in an assessment phase...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128107/a-systematic-look-at-environmental-modulation-and-its-impact-in-brain-development
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Sale
Several experimental procedures are currently used to investigate the impact of the environment on brain plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. The available methodologies are aimed at obtaining global or specific reductions or intensifications of the stimuli, with initial standardization in animal models being paralleled by translational applications to humans. More procedures can be combined together or applied in series to obtain powerful experimental paradigms, and the choice of a given setting should take into account the specific genetic background, age, and phenotypic vulnerabilities of the target subjects...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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