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Brain Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329757/neural-ensemble-dynamics-underlying-a-long-term-associative-memory
#1
Benjamin F Grewe, Jan Gründemann, Lacey J Kitch, Jerome A Lecoq, Jones G Parker, Jesse D Marshall, Margaret C Larkin, Pablo E Jercog, Francois Grenier, Jin Zhong Li, Andreas Lüthi, Mark J Schnitzer
The brain's ability to associate different stimuli is vital for long-term memory, but how neural ensembles encode associative memories is unknown. Here we studied how cell ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS and US, respectively). Using a miniature fluorescence microscope, we tracked the Ca(2+) dynamics of ensembles of amygdalar neurons during fear learning and extinction over 6 days in behaving mice. Fear conditioning induced both up- and down-regulation of individual cells' CS-evoked responses...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329674/%C3%AE-arrestin2-couples-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-to-neuronal-protein-synthesis-and-is-a-potential-target-to-treat-fragile-x
#2
Laura J Stoppel, Benjamin D Auerbach, Rebecca K Senter, Anthony R Preza, Robert J Lefkowitz, Mark F Bear
Synaptic protein synthesis is essential for modification of the brain by experience and is aberrant in several genetically defined disorders, notably fragile X (FX), a heritable cause of autism and intellectual disability. Neural activity directs local protein synthesis via activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), yet how mGlu5 couples to the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate mRNA translation is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that β-arrestin2 mediates mGlu5-stimulated protein synthesis in the hippocampus and show that genetic reduction of β-arrestin2 corrects aberrant synaptic plasticity and cognition in the Fmr1(-/y) mouse model of FX...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324222/bdnf-mrna-splice-variants-differentially-impact-ca1-and-ca3-dendrite-complexity-and-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Mahima Sukumar, Alisha S Kardian, Dennisse V Jimenez, Robert J Schloesser, Keri Martinowich
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an activity-dependent neurotrophin critical for neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with alternative 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRS) that display activity-induced targeting to distinct subcellular compartments. While individual Bdnf 5'UTR transcripts influence dendrite morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons, it is unknown whether Bdnf splice variants impact dendrite arborization in functional classes of neurons in the intact hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323038/monocular-denervation-of-visual-nuclei-modulates-app-processing-and-sapp%C3%AE-production-a-possible-role-on-neural-plasticity
#5
Juliana Ferreira Vasques, Pedro Vinícius Bastos Heringer, Renata Guedes de Jesus Gonçalves, Paula Campello-Costa, Claudio Alberto Serfaty, Adriana da Cunha Faria-Melibeu
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is essential to physiological processes such as synapse formation and neural plasticity. Sequential proteolysis of APP by beta- and gamma-secretases generates amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer Disease. Alternative APP cleavage by alpha-secretase occurs within Aβ domain, releasing soluble α-APP (sAPPα), a neurotrophic fragment. Among other functions, sAPPα is important to synaptogenesis, neural survival and axonal growth. APP and sAPPα levels are increased in models of neuroplasticity, which suggests an important role for APP and its metabolites, especially sAPPα, in the rearranging brain...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323012/extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-the-ketamine-model-of-schizophrenia
#6
Gabriela Matuszko, Sebastiano Curreli, Rahul Kaushik, Axel Becker, Alexander Dityatev
The neural extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in regulation of perisomatic GABAergic inhibition and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex. Decreased labeling of perineuronal nets, a form of ECM predominantly associated with parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the brain, has been observed in post-mortem studies of schizophrenia patients, specifically, in brain areas such as prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. Moreover, glial ECM in the form of dandelion clock-like structures was reported to be altered in schizophrenia patients...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322981/imaging-genetics-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-linking-genetics-and-brain-imaging-in-the-pursuit-of-the-underlying-neurobiological-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a wide range of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions that affect an individual in several aspects of social communication and behavior. Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have dramatically increased our understanding of ASD etiology through the identification of several autism risk genes, most of which serve important functions in synaptic plasticity and protein synthesis. However, despite significant progress in this field of research, the characterization of the neurobiological mechanisms by which common genetic risk variants might operate to give rise to ASD symptomatology has proven to be far more difficult than expected...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322980/role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-anterior-dorsal-lateral-hypothalamic-area-in-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-self-administration
#8
Jordan M Blacktop, Ryan P Todd, Barbara A Sorg
Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV(+)), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior...
March 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322921/linking-deregulation-of-non-coding-rna-to-the-core-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-integrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Mark J Millan
The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons...
March 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321979/effect-of-the-early-social-environment-on-behavioural-and-genomic-responses-to-a-social-challenge-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-vertebrate
#10
Cecilia Nyman, Stefan Fischer, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Barbara Taborsky
The early social environment can have substantial, lifelong effects on vertebrate social behaviour, which can be mediated by developmental plasticity of brain gene expression. Early life effects can influence immediate behavioural responses towards later-life social challenges and can activate different gene expression responses. However, while genomic responses to social challenges have been reported frequently, how developmental experience influences the shape of these genomic reaction norms remains largely unexplored...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321948/gene-networks-show-associations-with-seed-region-connectivity
#11
Marie Forest, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Jennifer S Goldman, Claudia L Kleinman, Amanda Lovato, Kathleen Oros Klein, Alan Evans, Antonio Ciampi, Aurélie Labbe, Celia M T Greenwood
Primary patterns in adult brain connectivity are established during development by coordinated networks of transiently expressed genes; however, neural networks remain malleable throughout life. The present study hypothesizes that structural connectivity from key seed regions may induce effects on their connected targets, which are reflected in gene expression at those targeted regions. To test this hypothesis, analyses were performed on data from two brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, for which both gene expression and DW-MRI were available...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321184/the-role-of-early-growth-response-1-egr1-in-brain-plasticity-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Florian Duclot, Mohamed Kabbaj
It is now clearly established that complex interactions between genes and environment are involved in multiple aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, from determining an individual's vulnerability to onset, to influencing its response to therapeutic intervention. In this perspective, it appears crucial to better understand how the organism reacts to environmental stimuli and provide a coordinated and adapted response. In the central nervous system, neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission are among the major processes integrating such complex interactions between genes and environmental stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320841/prefrontal-cortex-kca2-channels-regulate-mglu5-dependent-plasticity-and-extinction-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#13
Reginald Cannady, Justin T McGonigal, Ryan J Newsom, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass
Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu5 receptor activation can reduce KCa2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined KCa2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320737/mir-31-mutants-reveal-continuous-glial-homeostasis-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#14
Lynette Caizhen Foo, Shilin Song, Stephen Michael Cohen
The study of adult neural cell production has concentrated on neurogenesis. The mechanisms controlling adult gliogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a homeostatic process that maintains the population of glial cells in the Drosophila adult brain. Flies lacking microRNA miR-31a start adult life with a normal complement of glia, but transiently lose glia due to apoptosis. miR-31a expression identifies a subset of predominantly gliogenic adult neural progenitor cells. Failure to limit expression of the predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rchy1, in these cells results in glial loss...
March 20, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320281/cerebral-mechanisms-of-hypoxic-ischemic-postconditioning
#15
REVIEW
O V Vetrovoy, E A Rybnikova, M O Samoilov
This review analyzes recent data on mechanisms of cerebral hypoxia and the protective methods of hypoxic and ischemic postconditioning, as well as their interrelationship with the key mechanisms responsible for neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Upregulation of expression of antiapoptotic factors and neurotrophins and modulation of activity of several protein kinases and transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are considered as the most important aspects in the neuroprotective potential of postconditioning...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320280/molecular-mechanisms-mediating-involvement-of-glial-cells-in-brain-plastic-remodeling-in-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
L G Khaspekov, L E Frumkina
In this review we summarize published data on the involvement of glial cells in molecular mechanisms underlying brain plastic reorganization in epilepsy. The role of astrocytes as glial elements in pathological plasticity in epilepsy is discussed. Data on the involvement of aquaporin-4 in epileptogenic plastic changes and on participation of microglia and extracellular matrix in dysregulation of synaptic transmission and plastic remodeling in epileptic brain tissue are reviewed.
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320279/plasticity-of-central-and-peripheral-sources-of-noradrenaline-in-rats-during-ontogenesis
#17
N S Bondarenko, L K Dilmukhametova, A Yu Kurina, A R Murtazina, A Ya Sapronova, A P Sysoeva, M V Ugrumov
The morphogenesis of individual organs and the whole organism occurs under the control of intercellular chemical signals mainly during the perinatal period of ontogenesis in rodents. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that the biologically active concentration of noradrenaline (NA) in blood in perinatal ontogenesis of rats is maintained due to humoral interaction between its central and peripheral sources based on their plasticity. As one of the mechanisms of plasticity, we examined changes in the secretory activity (spontaneous and stimulated release of NA) of NA-producing organs under deficiency of its synthesis in the brain...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320277/mechanisms-of-brain-glucocorticoid-resistance-in-stress-induced-psychopathologies
#18
REVIEW
V M Merkulov, T I Merkulova, N P Bondar
Exposure to stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and leads to increased levels of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones. Prolonged elevation of GC levels causes neuronal dysfunction, decreases the density of synapses, and impairs neuronal plasticity. Decreased sensitivity to glucocorticoids (glucocorticoid resistance) that develops as a result of chronic stress is one of the characteristic features of stress-induced psychopathologies. In this article, we reviewed the published data on proposed molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of glucocorticoid resistance in brain, including changes in the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, biosynthesis of GR isoforms, and GR posttranslational modifications...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320275/optogenetic-stimulation-increases-level-of-antiapoptotic-protein-bcl-xl-in-neurons
#19
D A Lanshakov, U S Drozd, N N Dygalo
The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL is associated with several neuroplastic processes such as formation of synapses, regulation of spontaneous and evoked synaptic responses, and release of neurotransmitters. Dependence of expression on activity of neurons is characteristic for many proteins participating in regulation of neuroplasticity. Whether such property is exhibited by the Bcl-xL protein was analyzed using in vivo optogenetic stimulation of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons expressing channelrhodopsin ChR2H134 under CAMKIIa promoter in the adeno-associated viral vector, followed by immunohistochemical determination of the level of Bcl-xL protein in these neurons and surrounding cells...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320273/impact-of-changes-in-neurotrophic-supplementation-on-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-oxys-rats
#20
E A Rudnitskaya, N G Kolosova, N A Stefanova
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. The development of neurodegeneration in AD is closely related to alterations in neurotrophic supplementation of the brain, which may be caused either by disorder of neurotrophin metabolism or by modification of its availability due to changes in the microenvironment of neurons. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this work, we used senescence-accelerated OXYS rats as a unique model of the sporadic form of AD to examine the relationship of development of AD signs and changes in neurotrophic supplementation of the cortex...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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