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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737294/a-call-to-action-towards-an-evidence-based-approach-to-using-verbal-encouragement-during-maximal-exercise-testing
#1
REVIEW
Adrian W Midgley, David C Marchant, Andrew R Levy
By definition, maximal exercise testing inherently requires participants to give a maximal effort. This is an important practical issue as submaximal efforts can produce invalid test results. Verbal encouragement is commonly used to motivate participants to maintain or increase effort investment during maximal exercise testing. Accordingly, studies have reported significant increases in time to exhaustion of between 8% and 18% during VO2max and multistage shuttle run tests, and a significant 30·5 m mean increase in 6-min walk test distance...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689678/exercise-intensity-dependent-alterations-in-plasma-redox-status-do-not-reflect-skeletal-muscle-redox-sensitive-protein-signaling
#2
Lewan Parker, Adam Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Christopher S Shaw, Nigel K Stepto
OBJECTIVES: Redox homeostasis and redox-sensitive protein signaling play a role in exercise-induced adaptation. The effects of sprint-interval exercise (SIE), high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE), on post-exercise plasma redox status are unclear. Furthermore, whether post-exercise plasma redox status reflects skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling is unknown. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, eight healthy adults performed a cycling session of HIIE (5×4min at 75% Wmax), SIE (4×30s Wingate's), and CMIE work-matched to HIIE (30min at 50% of Wmax)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674596/effects-of-nasal-or-oral-breathing-on-anaerobic-power-output-and-metabolic-responses
#3
Christine Recinto, Theodore Efthemeou, P Tony Boffelli, James W Navalta
Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671853/physiological-and-anthropometric-characteristics-of-top-level-youth-cross-country-cyclists
#4
Alessandro Fornasiero, Aldo Savoldelli, Roberto Modena, Gennaro Boccia, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena
In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO2max, PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654051/experimental-protocol-of-a-three-minute-all-out-arm-crank-exercise-test-in-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-individuals
#5
Joelle L Flueck
Reliable exercise protocols are required to test changes in exercise performance in elite athletes. Performance improvements in these athletes may be small; therefore, sensitive tools are fundamental to exercise physiology. There are currently many exercise tests that allow for the examination of exercise capacity in able-bodied athletes, with protocols mainly for lower-body or whole-body exercise. There is a trend to test athletes in a sport-specific setting that closely resembles the actions that the participants are used to performing...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633001/impact-of-4-weeks-of-interval-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-fitness-and-health-related-outcomes
#6
Matthew M Schubert, Holly E Clarke, Rebekah F Seay, Katie K Spain
PURPOSE: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation (RER) are important indicators of health. The effects of interval training on RMR have not been thoroughly investigated, which was the purpose of the present study. METHODS: Thirty men and women (mean ± SD age and VO2max: 28.8 ± 7.6 yrs and 33.0 ± 8.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed 4 weeks of Wingate-based sprint interval training (SIT), repeated 1-minute high-intensity intervals (HIIT), or served as controls (CON)...
June 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625539/investigating-the-effects-of-maximal-anaerobic-fatigue-on-dynamic-postural-control-using-the-y-balance-test
#7
William Johnston, Kara Dolan, Niamh Reid, Garrett F Coughlan, Brian Caulfield
OBJECTIVES: The Y Balance Test is one of the most commonly used dynamic balance assessments, providing an insight into the integration of the sensorimotor subsystems. In recent times, there has been an increase in interest surrounding it's use in various clinical populations demonstrating alterations in motor function. Therefore, it is important to examine the effect physiological influences such as fatigue play in dynamic postural control, and establish a timeframe for its recovery. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589135/effect-of-lower-and-upper-body-high-intensity-training-on-genes-associated-with-cellular-stress-response
#8
Małgorzata Żychowska, Andrzej Kochanowicz, Kazimierz Kochanowicz, Jan Mieszkowski, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Stanisław Sawczyn
This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE) on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9 ± 2.6 years; weight 68.6 ± 7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6 ± 6.7 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.04 m) performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs) before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp.) lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574230/nicotine-effects-on-exercise-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Robert Johnston, Kenji Doma, Melissa Crowe
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smokeless forms of nicotine on physiological responses and exercise performance. Methodology and reporting were based on the PRISMA statement. The intervention was defined as any product containing nicotine that did not require smoking. Searches were conducted across two electronic databases with supplementary approaches utilized. Studies were selected following set inclusion and exclusion criteria and checked by two independent authors. A modified PEDro scale was utilized to rate study quality with studies averaging 9·3/13...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574148/how-do-leaf-and-ecosystem-measures-of-water-use-efficiency-compare
#10
Belinda E Medlyn, Martin G De Kauwe, Yan-Shih Lin, Jürgen Knauer, Remko A Duursma, Christopher A Williams, Almut Arneth, Rob Clement, Peter Isaac, Jean-Marc Limousin, Maj-Lena Linderson, Patrick Meir, Nicolas Martin-StPaul, Lisa Wingate
The terrestrial carbon and water cycles are intimately linked: the carbon cycle is driven by photosynthesis, while the water balance is dominated by transpiration, and both fluxes are controlled by plant stomatal conductance. The ratio between these fluxes, the plant water-use efficiency (WUE), is a useful indicator of vegetation function. WUE can be estimated using several techniques, including leaf gas exchange, stable isotope discrimination, and eddy covariance. Here we compare global compilations of data for each of these three techniques...
June 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566811/the-effect-of-combined-supplementation-of-carbohydrates-and-creatine-on-anaerobic-performance
#11
A S Theodorou, G Paradisis, E Smpokos, A Chatzinikolaou, I Fatouros, Rfgj King, C B Cooke
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on anaerobic performance when ingesting creatine and carbohydrates (CHO) together. Twenty male physical education students comprised the two experimental (CR and CRCHO) and one control (CON) groups of the study. All groups performed three 30 s anaerobic Wingate tests (AWTs) interspersed with 6 minutes of recovery. The CR group (n = 7) ingested 5 g of Cr 5 times per day for 4 days. Subjects in the CRCHO group (n = 6) ingested the same quantity but additionally after each 5 g dose of Cr consumed 500 ml of a commercially available energy drink containing 100 g of simple sugars...
June 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544643/adaptations-to-endurance-training-depend-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-exploiting-redox-inter-individual-variability
#12
Nikos V Margaritelis, Anastasios A Theodorou, Vassilis Paschalis, Aristidis S Veskoukis, Konstantina Dipla, Andreas Zafeiridis, George Panayiotou, Ioannis S Vrabas, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis
AIM: The aim of the present study was to reveal the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in exercise adaptations under physiological in vivo conditions and without the interference from other exogenous redox agents (e.g., a pro-oxidant or antioxidant). METHODS: We invented a novel methodological set-up that exploited the large redox inter-individual variability in exercise responses. More specifically, we used exercise-induced oxidative stress as the "classifier" measure (i...
May 24, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527012/effect-of-voluntary-hypocapnic-hyperventilation-or-moderate-hypoxia-on-metabolic-and-heart-rate-responses-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise
#13
Kohei Dobashi, Naoto Fujii, Kazuhito Watanabe, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Tomomi Fujimoto, Satoru Tanigawa, Takeshi Nishiyasu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation or moderate hypoxia on metabolic and heart rate responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten males performed three 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling [Ex1 and Ex2: constant-workload at 80% of the power output in the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), Ex3: WAnT] interspaced with 4-min recovery periods under normoxic (Control), hypocapnic or hypoxic (2500 m) conditions...
August 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498084/developing-through-bereavement-dealing-with-loss-during-adolescencedealing-with-dying-death-and-grief-during-adolescence-by-david-e-balk-contributors-corinne-cavuoti-and-anne-m-smith-new-york-ny-routledge-2014-265-pp-isbn-978-0-415-53450-50-39-95-paperback
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482363/acute-hematological-and-inflammatory-responses-to-high-intensity-exercise-tests-impact-of-duration-and-mode-of-exercise
#15
Luciele G Minuzzi, Humberto M Carvalho, Diego T Brunelli, Fatima Rosado, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Carlos E Gonçalves, Joana M Gaspar, Luís M Rama, Ana M Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hematological and inflammatory responses to 4 maximal high-intensity protocols, considering energy expenditure in each test. 9 healthy volunteers performed 4 high-intensity exercise tests of short [Wingate (WANT); Repeated-sprints (RSA)] and long durations [Continuous VO2 test (VCONT); intermittent VO2 test (VINT)] in a cycle-ergometer, until exhaustion. Hematological parameters and IL-6, IL-10 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before (PRE), POST, 30 min, 1, 2, 12 and 24 h after the end of the protocols...
July 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479947/the-acute-effects-of-static-stretching-compared-to-dynamic-stretching-with-and-without-an-active-warm-up-on-anaerobic-performance
#16
Bradley J Kendall
The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) has been used in many studies to determine anaerobic performance. However, there has been poor reporting of warm-up protocols and limited consistency between warm-up methods that have been used. With the WAnT being such a commonly-used test, consistency in warm-up methods is essential in order to compare results across studies. Therefore, this study was designed to compare how static stretching, dynamic stretching, and an active warm-up affect WAnT performance. Ten recreationally active participants (5 males, 5 females) with a mean (SD) age of 23...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474866/the-effects-of-gymnastics-training-on-selected-parameters-of-anaerobic-capacity-in-12-year-old-boys
#17
Piotr Sawicki, Marcin Dornowski, Tomasz Grzywacz, Jan J Kaczor
BACKGROUND: One of the aims of the study was to describe the physiological factors of young boys participating in artistic gymnastic training and evaluate differences between the levels of aerobic and anaerobic efficiency in this group as compared to the control group. METHODS: The young male gymnasts selected to participate in the present study have been (G) participating in the training process since they were six years old (n=12, age 11-12 y). In the control group (n=12, age 11-12 y), boys were participating in physical education classes (C)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472366/androgen-receptor-gene-status-in-plasma-dna-associates-with-worse-outcome-on-enzalutamide-or-abiraterone-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-multi-institution-correlative-biomarker-study
#18
V Conteduca, D Wetterskog, M T A Sharabiani, E Grande, M P Fernandez-Perez, A Jayaram, S Salvi, D Castellano, A Romanel, C Lolli, V Casadio, G Gurioli, D Amadori, A Font, S Vazquez-Estevez, A González Del Alba, B Mellado, O Fernandez-Calvo, M J Méndez-Vidal, M A Climent, I Duran, E Gallardo, A Rodriguez, C Santander, M I Sáez, J Puente, D Gasi Tandefelt, A Wingate, D Dearnaley, F Demichelis, U De Giorgi, E Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, G Attard
Background: There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to guide personalized therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We aimed to clinically qualify androgen receptor (AR) gene status measurement in plasma DNA using multiplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in pre- and post-chemotherapy CRPC. Methods: We optimized ddPCR assays for AR copy number and mutations and retrospectively analyzed plasma DNA from patients recruited to one of the three biomarker protocols with prospectively collected clinical data...
May 3, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469750/the-effect-of-previous-wingate-performance-using-one-body-region-on-subsequent-wingate-performance-using-a-different-body-region
#19
Leonie Harvey, Matthew Bousson, Chris McLellan, Dale Lovell
The 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is the gold standard measure of anaerobic performance. The present investigation aimed to determine if a previous WAnT using one body region significantly affected a subsequent WAnT using a different body region. Twelve male university students (n = 12, 23 ± 2 years, 84 ± 16.1 kg, 178.5 ± 7.4 cm) volunteered to complete two repeated WAnT protocols (either lower body WAnT followed by an upper body WAnT or vice versa) on two separate testing occasions. The upper body WAnT was conducted on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer using a flywheel braking force corresponding to 5% bodyweight...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467665/bryophyte-gas-exchange-dynamics-along-varying-hydration-status-reveal-a-significant-carbonyl-sulphide-cos-sink-in-the-dark-and-cos-source-in-the-light
#20
Teresa E Gimeno, Jérôme Ogée, Jessica Royles, Yves Gibon, Jason B West, Régis Burlett, Sam P Jones, Joana Sauze, Steven Wohl, Camille Benard, Bernard Genty, Lisa Wingate
Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a potential tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP), assuming a unidirectional COS flux into the vegetation that scales with GPP. However, carbonic anhydrase (CA), the enzyme that hydrolyses COS, is expected to be light independent, and thus plants without stomata should continue to take up COS in the dark. We measured net CO2 (A(C) ) and COS (A(S) ) uptake rates from two astomatous bryophytes at different relative water contents (RWCs), COS concentrations, temperatures and light intensities...
May 3, 2017: New Phytologist
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