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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161600/monitoring-wastewater-for-assessing-community-health-sewage-chemical-information-mining-scim
#1
Christian G Daughton
Timely assessment of the aggregate health of small-area human populations is essential for guiding the optimal investment of resources needed for preventing, avoiding, controlling, or mitigating human exposure risks, as well as for maintaining or promoting health. Seeking those interventions yielding the greatest benefit with respect to the allocation of resources is critical for making progress toward community sustainability, reducing health disparities, promoting social justice, and maintaining or improving collective health and well-being...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161579/correlation-between-lung-perfusion-blood-volume-and-spect-images-in-patients-with-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-by-balloon-pulmonary-angioplasty
#2
Hirofumi Koike, Eijun Sueyoshi, Ichiro Sakamoto, Masataka Uetani, Tomoo Nakata, Kouji Maemura
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the reperfusion by balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in lung PBV and SPECT images. METHODS: In total, 17 patients and 57 sessions were evaluated. Pre-BPA and post-BPA lung PBV and SPECT/CT images, based on both anatomical segments and physiologic regions (upper/middle/lower) were compared. RESULTS: BPA had a positive effect on most hypoperfused/unperfused segments/regions. There was generally a high rate of agreement between PBV measurements and SPECT/CT...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161576/unraveling-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-olive-olea-europaea-l-cv-ch%C3%A3-toui-tolerance-to-drought-and-salt-stresses
#3
Mariem Ben Abdallah, Dalila Trupiano, Antonella Polzella, Elena De Zio, Mauro Sassi, Andrea Scaloni, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Nabil Ben Youssef, Gabriella Stefania Scippa
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an economically important crop for the Mediterranean basin, where prolonged drought and soil salinization may occur. This plant has developed a series of mechanisms to tolerate and grow under these adverse conditions. By using an integrated approach, we described in Chétoui olive cultivar the changes in plant growth, oxidative damage and osmolyte accumulation in leaves, in combination with corresponding changes in physiological parameters and proteome. Our results showed, under both stress conditions, a greater growth reduction of the aboveground plant organs than of the underground counterparts...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161470/resequencing-of-a-mutant-bearing-an-iron-starvation-recovery-phenotype-defines-slr1658-as-a-new-player-in-the-regulatory-network-of-a-model-cyanobacterium
#4
Hagit Zer, Ketty Margulis, Jens Georg, Yoram Shotland, Gergana Kostova, Laure Sultan, Wolfgang R Hess, Nir Keren
Photosynthetic microorganisms encounter an erratic nutrient environment characterized by periods of iron limitation and sufficiency. Surviving in such an environment requires mechanisms for handling these transitions. Our study identified a regulatory system involved in the process of recovery from iron limitation in cyanobacteria. We set out to study the role of bacterioferritin co-migratory proteins during transitions in iron bioavailability in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using knockout strains coupled with physiological and biochemical measurements...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161429/crosstalk-between-the-microbiome-and-epigenome-messages-from-bugs
#5
Yufeng Qin, Paul A Wade
Mammals exist in a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to have broad impacts on host health and disease. As omics-based technologies have matured, the potential mechanisms by which the microbiome affects host physiology are being addressed. The gut microbiome, which provides environmental cues, can modify host cell responses to stimuli through alterations in the host epigenome and, ultimately, gene expression. Increasing evidence highlights microbial generation of bioactive compounds that impact the transcriptional machinery in host cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161402/fit-for-surgery-perspectives-on-preoperative-exercise-testing-and-training
#6
K Richardson, D Z H Levett, S Jack, M P W Grocott
There is a consistent relationship between physical activity, physical fitness, and health across almost all clinical contexts, including the perioperative setting. Physiological measurements obtained during physical exercise may be used to infer the risk of adverse outcome after major surgery. In particular, data obtained from perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing have an expanding role in perioperative care. Such information may be used to inform a variety of changes in clinical practice, including interventions that may reduce the risk of perioperative adverse events...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161391/an-overview-of-space-medicine
#7
P D Hodkinson, R A Anderton, B N Posselt, K J Fong
Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council. This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#8
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161351/echoes-of-affective-stimulation-in-brain-connectivity-networks
#9
Viola Borchardt, Yan Fan, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucia Herrera Melendez, Malek Bajbouj, Matti Gärtner, Meng Li, Martin Walter, Simone Grimm
Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e., can be distinguished from cognitive task execution. Our study included fMRI scans during and after affective stimulation with sad and neutral movies and a working memory task complemented with measures of cardiovascular activity and mood...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161271/a-mathematical-function-for-the-description-of-nutrient-response-curve
#10
Hamed Ahmadi
Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a) has biological interpretation, b) may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c) provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161257/regulation-of-camp-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-contributes-to-the-neuronal-conversion-of-glioma
#11
Jinsoo Oh, Yongbo Kim, Lihua Che, Jeong Beom Kim, Gyeong Eon Chang, Eunji Cheong, Seok-Gu Kang, Yoon Ha
Glioma is the most malignant type of primary central nervous system tumors, and has an extremely poor prognosis. One potential therapeutic approach is to induce the terminal differentiation of glioma through the forced expression of pro-neural factors. Our goal is to show the proof of concept of the neuronal conversion of C6 glioma through the combined action of small molecules. We investigated the various changes in gene expression, cell-specific marker expression, signaling pathways, physiological characteristics, and morphology in glioma after combination treatment with two small molecules (CHIR99021, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 [GSK3] inhibitor and forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP] activator)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161231/epigenetic-regulation-mechanisms-of-microrna-expression
#12
Sara Morales, Mariano Monzo, Alfons Navarro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, development and carcinogenesis. Because of the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of gene expression, their expression needs to be tightly controlled. Here, we summarize the different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of miRNAs, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modification...
November 21, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161229/sex-and-dose-specific-effects-of-maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-pancreatic-islets-of-first-and-second-generation-adult-mice-offspring
#13
Amita Bansal, Cetewayo Rashid, Frances Xin, Changhong Li, Erzsebet Polyak, Anna Duemler, Tom van der Meer, Martha Stefaniak, Sana Wajid, Nicolai Doliba, Marisa S Bartolomei, Rebecca A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with the increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We recently demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure is associated with higher body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin secretion in first- (F1) and second-generation (F2) C57BL/6J male mice offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the multigenerational effects of maternal bisphenol A exposure on mouse pancreatic islets...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161215/recent-advances-in-nanomedicine-and-survivin-targeting-in-brain-cancers
#14
Jake Mazur, Kislay Roy, Jagat R Kanwar
Brain cancer is a highly lethal disease, especially devastating toward both the elderly and children. This cancer has no therapeutics available to combat it, predominately due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing treatments from maintaining therapeutic levels within the brain. Recently, nanoparticle technology has entered the forefront of cancer therapy due to its ability to deliver therapeutic effects while potentially passing physiological barriers. Key nanoparticles for brain cancer treatment include glutathione targeted PEGylated liposomes, gold nanoparticles, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle-albumin bound drugs, with these being discussed throughout this review...
November 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#15
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161082/gut-microbiome-and-obesity-how-to-prove-causality
#16
Philippe Gérard
In recent years, the gut microbiota (the microorganisms that live in our digestive tract) has become an area of great interest. Indeed, this intestinal microbial community performs essential functions in maintaining our health, and has been proven to influence host physiology and metabolism. Thereby, dysregulation of this gut microbiota may be implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity. However, studies rarely assess causality, which requires the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161079/a-new-frontier-in-immunometabolism-cholesterol-in-lung-health-and-disease
#17
Michael B Fessler
The lung has a unique relationship to cholesterol that is shaped by its singular physiology. On the one hand, the lungs receive the full cardiac output and have a predominant dependence on plasma lipoprotein uptake for their cholesterol supply. On the other hand, surfactant lipids, including cholesterol, are continually susceptible to oxidation owing to direct environmental exposure and must be cleared or recycled because of the very narrow biophysical mandates placed upon surfactant lipid composition. Interestingly, increased lipid-laden macrophage "foam cells" have been noted in a wide range of human lung pathologies...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161034/dynamic-glycosylation-governs-the-vertebrate-copii-protein-trafficking-pathway
#18
Nathan J Cox, Gokhan Unlu, Brittany J Bisnett, Thomas R Meister, Brett Condon, Peter M Luo, Tim J Smith, Michael Hanna, Abhishek Chhetri, Erik J Soderblom, Anjon Audhya, Ela W Knapik, Michael Boyce
The COPII coat complex, which mediates secretory cargo trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum, is a key control point for subcellular protein targeting. Because misdirected proteins cannot function, protein sorting by COPII is critical for establishing and maintaining normal cell and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, mutations in COPII genes cause a range of human pathologies, including cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia (CLSD), which is characterized by collagen trafficking defects, craniofacial abnormalities and skeletal dysmorphology...
November 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161021/recent-advances-in-solid-nano-pores-channel-analysis
#19
Zi Long, Shenshan Zhan, Pengcheng Gao, Yongqian Wang, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia
Inspired by the natural phenomenon that various types of transmembrane pores and ion channels in the range of 1-100 nm are found in each biological cell, playing crucial roles in various significant physiological activities such as maintaining cell osmotic balance and stabilizing cell volume, different biomimetic nanodevices (nano-pore/channel) with various characteristics have emerged as an attractive and powerful platform, and have been used for a wide range of applications. As the key components of any nano-pore/channel-based applications, the nano-pore/channel can be broadly sorted into two types, biological and solid state...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160925/effects-of-swaddled-and-traditional-tub-bathing-methods-on-crying-and-physiological-responses-of-newborns
#20
Sinem Yalnızoğlu Çaka, Duygu Gözen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two bathing methods on crying duration and physiological measurements of newborns. DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized trial design was used in this study. The sample consisted of newborns (n = 80) who were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital located in a large city. The groups were determined as swaddled bathing (SB) (n = 40) and traditional tub bathing (TTB) (n = 40) by using random number table...
November 21, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
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