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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945050/decreased-nitric-oxide-serum-level-after-pituitary-adenoma-resection
#1
Daniel Babula, Anna Horecka, Dorota Luchowska-Kocot, Joanna Kocot, Jacek Kurzepa
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by the conversion of Arginine (Arg) into the NO and Citrulline (Cit). Although the NO is involved into the pathogenesis of several physiological and pathological processes, the role of NO in pituitary adenomas (PA) progres-sion is not determined. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between NO and PA as well as the effect of tumor resection on NO metabolites level in serum. METHODS: The study group consisted of 21 patients with PA, 18 patients with macroade-nomas and 3 with microadenomas...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945011/prediction-of-drug-drug-interaction-between-tacrolimus-and-principal-ingredients-of-wuzhi-capsule-in-chinese-healthy-volunteers-using-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling
#2
Hongyan Zhang, Fengjiao Bu, Lei Li, Zheng Jiao, Guo Ma, Weimin Cai, Xiaomei Zhuang, Hai-Shu Lin, Jae-Gook Shin, Xiaoqiang Xiang
Schisantherin A and schisandrin A, the most abundant active ingredients of Wuzhi capsule, are known to inhibit tacrolimus metabolism by inhibiting CYP3A4/5. We aimed to predict the contribution of schisantherin A and schisandrin A to drug-drug interaction (DDI) between Wuzhi capsule and tacrolimus using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Firstly, the inhibition mechanism of schisantherin A and schisandrin A on CYP3A4/5 were investigated. Thereafter, PBPK models of schisantherin A, schisandrin A and tacrolimus were established...
September 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945001/organ-on-a-chip-technology-for-reproducing-multiorgan-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Seung Hwan Lee, Jong Hwan Sung
In the drug development process, the accurate prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity is important in order to reduce the cost, labor, and effort involved. For this purpose, conventional 2D cell culture models are used in the early phase of drug development. However, the differences between the in vitro and the in vivo systems have caused the failure of drugs in the later phase of the drug-development process. Therefore, there is a need for a novel in vitro model system that can provide accurate information for evaluating the drug efficacy and toxicity through a closer recapitulation of the in vivo system...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944993/evaluation-of-prolonged-exposure-to-varenicline-in-adult-rats-hematological-biochemical-and-anatomopathological-studies
#4
Julia Zaccarelli-Magalhães, Natalia Moreira, Thaisa Meira Sandini, Gabriel Ramos de Abreu, Angélica Maria Sánchez-Sarmiento, Esther Lopes Ricci, André Rinaldi Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Varenicline is a synthetic chemical substance produced from the alkaloid cytisine, used for smoking treatment, which acts as a partial agonist for α4β2 and α3β4 nicotinic cholinergic receptors and as a total agonist for α7 receptor. While there are studies regarding varenicline's non-smoking-related effects, as in treatment for drug dependence, there are no studies in the literature evaluating the long-term toxicity of varenicline through a physiological approach. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible toxicity through hematological, biochemical and anatomopathological parameters of prolonged exposure (30 days) to varenicline in rats...
September 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944988/evaluation-and-treatment-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-patients-with-central-nervous-system-abnormalities-current-views-and-new-vistas
#5
REVIEW
E Ann Yeh, Jay Greenberg, Oussama Abla, Giulia Longoni, Eli Diamond, Michelle Hermiston, Brandon Tran, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Carl E Allen, Kenneth L McClain
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can include mass lesions of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormalities of the cerebellum, pons, and basal ganglia. The term neurodegenerative (ND) CNS-LCH has been given to the MRI signal abnormalities and neurologic dysfunction, although initially patients may have no clinical symptoms. Standardized evaluations to better understand the natural history and response to therapy are needed...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944931/basic-concepts-of-heart-lung-interactions-during-mechanical-ventilation
#6
Martin R Grübler, Olivier Wigger, David Berger, Stefan Blöchlinger
Critically ill patients with the need for mechanical ventilation show complex interactions between respiratory and cardiovascular physiology. These interactions are important as they may guide the clinician's therapeutic decisions and, possibly, affect patient outcome. The aim of the present review is to provide the practicing physician with an overview of the concepts of heart-lung interactions during mechanical ventilation. We outline the basic cardiac and respiratory physiology during spontaneous breathing and under mechanical ventilation...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944894/glucosylceramide-synthase-regulates-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-liver-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-by-bcl%C3%A2-2-bax-pathway
#7
Jun-Feng Li, Su-Jun Zheng, Li-Li Wang, Shuang Liu, Feng Ren, Yu Chen, Li Bai, Mei Liu, Zhong-Ping Duan
Our previous study found that glucosylceramide, a type of sphingolipids, was associated with liver inflammation and fibrosis. Glucosylceramide is generated by glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), which is encoded by the UDP‑glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) gene. GCS is a key enzyme to regulate the physiological activity of cells. However, the role of GCS in hepatic cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the mechanism of GCS in the proliferation and apoptosis of liver cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944829/thymic-function-in-the-regulation-of-t-cells-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-modulation-of-cytokines-and-stress-signaling-review
#8
Fenggen Yan, Xiumei Mo, Junfeng Liu, Siqi Ye, Xing Zeng, Dacan Chen
The thymus is critical in establishing and maintaining the appropriate microenvironment for promoting the development and selection of T cells. The function and structure of the thymus gland has been extensively studied, particularly as the thymus serves an important physiological role in the lymphatic system. Numerous studies have investigated the morphological features of thymic involution. Recently, research attention has increasingly been focused on thymic proteins as targets for drug intervention. Omics approaches have yielded novel insights into the thymus and possible drug targets...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944774/renal-physiology-prostaglandins-in-thiazide-induced-hyponatraemia-do-they-hold-water
#9
Ewout J Hoorn, Jack F M Wetzels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944766/magnesium-oxide-nanoparticle-loaded-polycaprolactone-composite-electrospun-fiber-scaffolds-for-bone-soft-tissue-engineering-applications-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#10
Ajay Suryavanshi, Kunal Khanna, K R Sindhu, Jayesh Bellare, Rohit Srivastava
The objective of the present investigation was to assess the potential of magnesium oxide nanoparticle (MgO NP)-loaded electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer composites as a bone-soft tissue engineering scaffold. MgO NPs were synthesized using a hydroxide precipitation sol-gel method and characterized using field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (FEG-SEM/EDS), field emission gun-transmission electron microscopy (FEG-TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis...
September 25, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944752/a-randomised-controlled-study-of-the-effectiveness-of-breathing-retraining-exercises-taught-by-a-physiotherapist-either-by-instructional-dvd-or-in-face-to-face-sessions-in-the-management-of-asthma-in-adults
#11
Mike Thomas, Anne Bruton, Paul Little, Stephen Holgate, Amanda Lee, Lucy Yardley, Steve George, James Raftery, Jennifer Versnel, David Price, Ian Pavord, Ratko Djukanovic, Michael Moore, Sarah Kirby, Guiqing Yao, Shihua Zhu, Emily Arden-Close, Manimekalai Thiruvothiyur, Frances Webley, Mark Stafford-Watson, Elizabeth Dixon, Lynda Taylor
BACKGROUND: Asthma control is suboptimal, resulting in quality of life (QoL) impairment and costs. Breathing retraining exercises have evidence of effectiveness as adjuvant treatment, but are infrequently used. OBJECTIVES: To transfer the contents of a brief (three-session) physiotherapist-delivered breathing retraining programme to a digital versatile disc (DVD) and booklet format; to compare the effectiveness of the self-guided intervention with that of 'face-to-face' physiotherapy and usual care for QoL and other asthma-related outcomes; to perform a health economic assessment of both interventions; and to perform a process evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methods...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944649/neuromuscular-responses-and-physiological-patterns-during-a-soccer-simulation-protocol-artificial-turf-versus-natural-grass
#12
Jorge López-Fernández, Jorge García-Unanue, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Manuel León, Enrique Hernando, Leonor Gallardo
BACKGROUND: Latest studies suggest similar performance of soccer players either on artificial turf (AT) or natural grass (NG). However, it is not clear if their muscular and physiological responses are also similar on both surfaces. This research aims to assess the influence of game surface on physiological patterns and neuromuscular responses of soccer players during a soccer simulation protocol (SSP) that incorporates repeated sprints and nonlinear actions at maximum speed. METHODS: Sixteen amateur soccer players completed three bouts of the SSP on both AT and NG...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944646/acute-blood-glucose-cardiovascular-and-exaggerated-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-in-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Shohn G Wormgoor, Lance C Dalleck, Caryn Zinn, Nigel K Harris
BACKGROUND: Optimising exercise-induced physiological responses without increasing the risk of negative exaggerated responses is an important aspect of exercise prescription for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, knowledge of acute responses, including exaggerated responses, of different training modalities is limited. AIM: To compare acute physiological responses of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in T2DM...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944626/caveolin-1-secreted-from-adipose-tissues-and-adipocytes-functions-as-an-adipogenesis-enhancer
#14
Chia-Chu Chang, Chen-Yu Chen, Hui-Chin Wen, Chih-Yang Huang, Ming-Shiu Hung, Hsi-Chi Lu, Woan-Ling Chen, Chung-Ho Chang
OBJECTIVE: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is expressed abundantly in adipose tissue and involved in many physiological processes. While Cav-1 has been reported to be secreted in pancreatic acinar cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, its secretion from adipose tissue awaits investigation. METHODS: Cav-1 secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat tissues from normal chow diet- and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice was measured. Functions and uptake of secreted Cav-1 proteins were assessed by adding Cav-1 back to preadipocytes and LNCaP cells...
September 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944527/psychophysiological-changes-during-pure-vs-guided-mirror-exposure-therapies-in-women-with-high-body-dissatisfaction-what-are-they-learning-about-their-bodies
#15
Sandra Díaz-Ferrer, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruiz, Blanca Ortega-Roldán, José Luis Mata-Martín, M Carmen Fernández-Santaella
This study aimed to examine the psychophysiological changes resulting from two mirror exposure treatments that are effective at reducing body dissatisfaction. Thirty-five university women with body dissatisfaction and subclinical eating disorders were randomly assigned to one of two groups: pure (n = 17) or guided exposure (n = 18). The participants received six sessions of treatment. Their thoughts, feelings and avoidance behaviours were assessed after each session. Their subjective discomfort, heart rate and skin conductance were assessed within the sessions...
September 24, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944516/innovation-or-violation-leveraging-mobile-technology-to-conduct-socially-responsible-community-research
#16
Amanda L Roy
Mobile technology is increasingly being used to measure individuals' moods, thoughts, and behaviors in real time. Current examples include the use of smartphones to collect ecological momentary assessments (EMAs; assessments delivered "in the moment"); wearable technology to passively collect objective measures of participants' movement, physical activity, sleep, and physiological response; and smartphones and wearable devices with global positioning system (GPS) capabilities to collect precise information about where participants spend their time...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944507/peri-conceptional-under-nutrition-alters-transcriptomic-profile-in-the-endometrium-during-the-peri-implantation-period-the-study-in-domestic-pigs
#17
K Zglejc, M Martyniak, E Waszkiewicz, G Kotwica, A Franczak
Female under-nutrition during early pregnancy may affect the physiological pattern of the transcriptomic profile in the endometrium. We aimed to determine if restricted diet applied to females during peri-conceptional period, that is, from the onset of the oestrus until day nine of pregnancy, alters transcriptomic profile in the endometrium during the peri-implantation period. The restricted diet gilts were fed forage, in which the dose of proteins and energy had been reduced by 30% compared to normal diet...
September 24, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944500/social-cognitive-and-physiological-aspects-of-humour-perception-from-4-to-8-months-two-longitudinal-studies
#18
Gina C Mireault, Susan C Crockenberg, Keri Heilman, John E Sparrow, Kassandra Cousineau, Brady Rainville
Infants laugh by 4 months, but whether they understand humour based on social or cognitive factors is unclear. We conducted two longitudinal studies of 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds (N = 60), and 5-, 6-, and 7-month-olds (N = 53) to pinpoint the onset of independent humour perception and determine when social and cognitive factors are most salient. Infants were shown six events in randomized repeated-measures designs: two ordinary events and two absurd iterations of those events, with parents' affect manipulated (laugh or neutral) during the latter...
September 25, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944480/predicting-human-ageing-with-masters-athletics-one-size-doesn-t-fit-all
#19
Jonathon Senefeld, Christopher W Sundberg
Scientific understanding of human ageing is confounded by lifelong differences in physical activity, exercise training, disease, nutrition and a myriad of other environmental and physiological factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944442/protein-folding-and-trna-biology
#20
REVIEW
Mónica Marín, Tamara Fernández-Calero, Ricardo Ehrlich
Polypeptides can fold into tertiary structures while they are synthesized by the ribosome. In addition to the amino acid sequence, protein folding is determined by several factors within the cell. Among others, the folding pathway of a nascent polypeptide can be affected by transient interactions with other proteins, ligands, or the ribosome, as well as by the translocation through membrane pores. Particularly, the translation machinery and the population of tRNA under different physiological or adaptive responses can dramatically affect protein folding...
September 24, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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