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Venous catheters biofilm

Maria Loza-Correa, Yuntong Kou, Mariam Taha, Miloslav Kalab, Jennifer Ronholm, Patrick M Schlievert, Michael P Cahill, Robert Skeate, Christine Cserti-Gazdewich, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) with Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant ongoing transfusion safety risks in developed countries. CASE REPORT: This report describes a transfusion reaction in an elderly patient diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, transfused with a 4-day-old buffy coat PC through a central venous catheter. The transfusion was interrupted when a large fibrous clot in the PC obstructed infusion pump flow...
February 16, 2017: Transfusion
Wilmari L Niehaus, Robert P Howlin, David A Johnston, Daniel J Bull, Gareth L Jones, Elizabeth Calton, Mark N Mavrogordato, Stuart C Clarke, Philipp J Thurner, Saul N Faust, Paul Stoodley
Bacterial infections of central venous catheters (CVCs) cause much morbidity and mortality, and are usually diagnosed by concordant culture of blood and catheter tip. However, studies suggest that culture often fails to detect biofilm bacteria. This study optimizes X-ray micro-focus computed tomography (X-ray µCT) for the quantification and determination of distribution and heterogeneity of biofilms in in vitro CVC model systems. Bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms grown on catheters in vitro in both flow and static biofilm models...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
Mircea Radu Mihu, Vitor Cabral, Rodney Pattabhi, Moses T Tar, Kelvin P Davies, Adam J Friedman, Luis R Martinez, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated in the setting of infections of indwelling medical devices, which are mediated by the microbe's ability to form biofilms on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts and often cause chronic infections and sepsis, particularly in patients with prolonged hospitalizations. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) interfere with S. aureus adhesion and prevent biofilm formation on a rat central venous catheter (CVC) model of infection...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Michael Stenger, Kasper Klein, Rasmus B Grønnemose, Janne K Klitgaard, Hans J Kolmos, Jes S Lindholt, Martin Alm, Peter Thomsen, Thomas E Andersen
Approximately half of all nosocomial bloodstream infections are caused by bacterial colonization of vascular catheters. Attempts have been made to improve devices using anti-adhesive or antimicrobial coatings; however, it is often difficult to bind coatings stably to catheter materials, and the low amounts of drug in thin-film coatings limit effective long-term release. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) are polymer hybrid materials with unique drug release properties. While IPNs have been extensively investigated for use in tablet- or capsule-based drug delivery systems, the potential for use of IPNs in drug release medical devices remains largely unexplored...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
İlker Devrim, Rana İşgüder, Hasan Ağın, Gökhan Ceylan, Yüce Ayhan, Özlem Sara Sandal, Ferhat Sarı, Ahu Kara, Mine Düzgöl, Gamze Gülfidan, Nuri Bayram
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the correlation of caspofungin E-tests with the prognosis and response to caspofungin therapy of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections in children hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: All children who had C. parapsilosis complex bloodstream infections and who were treated with caspofungin were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, the following parameters, including all consecutive blood and central venous catheter (CVC) cultures, the duration between diagnosis and CVC removal, mortality rate, relapses of the C...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Michael B Winter, Eugenia C Salcedo, Matthew B Lohse, Nairi Hartooni, Megha Gulati, Hiram Sanchez, Julie Takagi, Bernhard Hube, David R Andes, Alexander D Johnson, Charles S Craik, Clarissa J Nobile
UNLABELLED: Candida albicans is a fungal species that is part of the normal human microbiota and also an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans cells proliferate in a planktonic (suspension) state, but they also form biofilms, organized and tightly packed communities of cells attached to a solid surface. Biofilms colonize many niches of the human body and persist on implanted medical devices, where they are a major source of new C. albicans infections...
September 13, 2016: MBio
Mauro Pittiruti, Sergio Bertoglio, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Roberto Biffi, Massimo Lamperti, Alberto Dal Molin, Nicola Panocchia, Nicola Petrosillo, Mario Venditti, Carla Rigo, Enrico DeLutio
BACKGROUND: The most appropriate lock solution for central venous access devices is still to be defined. GAVeCeLT - the Italian group for venous access devices - has developed a consensus on the evidence-based criteria for the choice and the clinical use of the most appropriate lock solution for central venous catheters (excluding dialysis catheters). METHOD: After the constitution of a panel of experts, a systematic collection and review of the literature has been performed, focusing on clinical studies dealing with lock solutions used for prevention of occlusion (heparin, citrate, urokinase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [r-TPA], normal saline) or for prevention of infection (citrate, ethanol, taurolidine, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics), in both adults and in pediatric patients...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Wilmari L Niehaus, Robert Paul Howlin, David A Johnston, Daniel J Bull, Gareth L Jones, Elizabeth Calton, M N Mavrogordato, Stuart C Clarke, P J Thurner, Saul Nicholas Faust, P Stoodley
Bacterial infections of central venous catheters (CVCs) cause much morbidity and mortality, and are usually diagnosed by concordant culture of blood and catheter tip. However, studies suggest that culture often fails to detect biofilm bacteria. This study optimises X-ray micro computed tomography (X-ray µCT) for the quantification and determination of distribution and heterogeneity of biofilms in in vitro central venous catheter (CVC) model systems.Bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms grown on catheters in vitro in both flow and static biofilm models...
July 6, 2016: Microbiology
María Jesús Pérez-Granda, María Guembe, Raquel Cruces, Emilio Bouza
BACKGROUND: Superficial culture has a high negative predictive value in the assessment of catheter tip colonization (CC) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI). However, the process of hub culture requires the hubs to be swabbed, and this carries a risk of dislodging the biofilm. At present, most catheter hubs are closed by needleless connectors (NCs) that are periodically replaced. Our objective was to compare the yield of SC (skin + hub culture) with that of skin + NC culture in the assessment of CC and C-RBSI...
May 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Marian Van Kerckhoven, An Hotterbeekx, Ellen Lanckacker, Pieter Moons, Christine Lammens, Monique Kerstens, Margareta Ieven, Peter Delputte, Philippe G Jorens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Louis Maes, Paul Cos
Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are commonly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis that is able to form a biofilm on the catheter surface. Many studies involving biofilm formation by Staphylococcus have been published each adopting an own in vitro model. Since the capacity to form a biofilm depends on multiple environmental factors, direct comparison of results obtained in different studies remains challenging. This study characterized the phenotype (strong versus weak biofilm-producers) of S...
August 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Issam Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ramia Zakhour, Mary Jordan, Zanaib Al Hamal, Ying Jiang, Ammar Yousif, Kumait Garoge, Victor Mulanovich, George M Viola, Soha Kanj, Egbert Pravinkumar, Joel Rosenblatt, Ray Hachem
In cancer patients with long-term central venous catheters (CVC), removal and reinsertion of a new CVC at a different site might be difficult because of the unavailability of accessible vascular sites. In vitro and animal studies showed that a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol (M-EDTA-EtOH) lock solution may eradicate microbial organisms in biofilms, hence enabling the treatment of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) while retaining the catheter in situ Between April 2013 and July 2014, we enrolled 30 patients with CLABSI in a prospective study and compared them to a historical group of 60 patients with CLABSI who had their CVC removed and a new CVC inserted...
June 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jeniel E Nett, Jonathan Cabezas-Olcoz, Karen Marchillo, Deane F Mosher, David R Andes
New drug targets are of great interest for the treatment of fungal biofilms, which are routinely resistant to antifungal therapies. We theorized that the interaction of Candida albicans with matricellular host proteins would provide a novel target. Here, we show that an inhibitory protein (FUD) targeting Candida-fibronectin interactions disrupts biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo in a rat venous catheter model. The peptide appears to act by blocking the surface adhesion of Candida, halting biofilm formation...
May 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ashwini Chauhan, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin
Venous access catheters used in clinics are prone to biofilm contamination, contributing to chronic and nosocomial infections. Although several animal models for studying device-associated biofilms were previously described, only a few detailed protocols are currently available. Here we provide a protocol using totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) implanted in rats. This model recapitulates all phenomena observed in the clinic, and it allows bacterial biofilm development and physiology to be studied...
March 2016: Nature Protocols
María Jesús Pérez-Granda, María Guembe, Raquel Cruces, José María Barrio, Emilio Bouza
BACKGROUND: Culture of catheter hubs and skin surrounding the catheter entry site has a negative predictive value for catheter tip colonization. However, manipulation of the hub for culture requires the hubs to be swabbed, introducing potential dislodging of biofilm and subsequent migration of microorganisms. Hubs are usually closed with needleless connectors (NCs), which are replaced regularly. Our objective was to evaluate whether culture of flushed withdrawn NCs is an alternative to hub culture when investigating central venous catheter colonization...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mohammed S Ahmadi, Hiu Ham Lee, David A Sanchez, Adam J Friedman, Moses T Tar, Kelvin P Davies, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Luis R Martinez
Candida albicansis a leading nosocomial pathogen. Today, candidal biofilms are a significant cause of catheter infections, and such infections are becoming increasingly responsible for the failure of medical-implanted devices.C. albicansforms biofilms in which fungal cells are encased in an autoproduced extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Consequently, the enclosed fungi are protected from antimicrobial agents and host cells, providing a unique niche conducive to robust microbial growth and a harbor for recurring infections...
April 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Namrata Raman, Karen Marchillo, Myung-Ryul Lee, Angélica de L Rodríguez López, David R Andes, Sean P Palecek, David M Lynn
Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections and forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices that are notoriously difficult to treat or remove. We recently demonstrated that the colonization of C. albicans on the surfaces of catheter tube segments can be reduced in vitro by coating them with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) that release a potent antifungal β-peptide. Here, we report on the impact of polymer structure and film composition on both the inherent and β-peptide-mediated ability of PEM-coated catheters to prevent or reduce the formation of C...
January 11, 2016: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Gunilla Björling, Dorota Johansson, Linda Bergström, Shah Jalal, Ivar Kohn, Claes Frostell, Sigridur Kalman
BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired infections worsen the outcome of patients treated in intensive care units and are costly. Coatings with silver or metal alloys may reduce or alter the formation of biofilm on invasive medical devices. An endotracheal tube (ETT) is used to connect the patient to a ventilator and coated tubes have been tested in relation to bacterial colonization and respiratory infection. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate and compare a coated and uncoated ETT for patient symptoms and local tracheal tolerability during short term clinical use...
December 1, 2015: BMC Anesthesiology
L Zhang, J Gowardman, M Morrison, N Runnegar, C M Rickard
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is one of the most serious complications in hospitalised patients, leading to increased hospitalisation, intensive care admissions, extensive antibiotic treatment and mortality. A greater understanding of these bacterial infections is needed to improve the prevention and the management of CRBSIs. We describe here the systematic culture-independent evaluation of intravascular catheter (IVC) bacteriology. Twelve IVCs (6 central venous catheters and 6 arterial catheters) were collected from 6 patients...
February 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Hanna Renk, Felix Neunhoeffer, Florian Hölzl, Michael Hofbeck, Matthias Kumpf
Background. Cardiac surgery offers multiple treatment options for children with congenital heart defects. However, infectious complications still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mediastinitis is a detrimental complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of mediastinitis after delayed sternal closure is up to 10%. Case Presentation. We report a case of Enterococcus faecium mediastinitis in a 4-week-old female baby on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after Norwood procedure...
2015: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Mahmoud Ghannoum, Emmanuel Roilides, Aspasia Katragkou, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh
Candida biofilm-associated infections of central venous catheters are a challenging therapeutic problem. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the structure, formation, pathogenesis, and treatment establish a rationale for new approaches to management of these tenacious infections.
December 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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