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Catheter biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#1
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704490/the-synthetic-killer-peptide-kp-impairs-candida-albicans-biofilm-in-vitro
#2
Simona Paulone, Andrea Ardizzoni, Arianna Tavanti, Serena Piccinelli, Cosmeri Rizzato, Antonella Lupetti, Bruna Colombari, Eva Pericolini, Luciano Polonelli, Walter Magliani, Stefania Conti, Brunella Posteraro, Claudio Cermelli, Elisabetta Blasi, Samuele Peppoloni
Candida albicans is a commensal organism, commonly inhabiting mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, as a part of the resident microbiota. However, in susceptible hosts, especially hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients, it may cause a wide range of infections. The presence of abiotic substrates, such as central venous or urinary catheters, provides an additional niche for Candida attachment and persistence, particularly via biofilm development. Furthermore, Candida biofilm is poorly susceptible to most antifungals, including azoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702016/burn-serum-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-via-oxidative-stress
#3
Supeng Yin, Bei Jiang, Guangtao Huang, Yali Gong, Bo You, Zichen Yang, Yu Chen, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Ming Li, Fuquan Hu, Yan Zhao, Yizhi Peng
Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen isolated from burn patients that can form biofilms on burn wounds and implanted deep vein catheters, which often leads to refractory infections or even biofilm-related sepsis. As biofilm formation is usually regulated by environmental conditions, we hypothesized that serum composition may be altered after burn injury, potentially affecting the ability of infecting bacteria to form biofilms. As predicted, we observed that serum from burn-injured rats increases biofilm formation by S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689873/chitosans-inhibit-the-growth-and-the-adhesion-of-klebsiella-pneumonia-and-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates-on-urinary-catheters
#4
Raffaella Campana, Luca Casettari, Eleonora Ciandrini, Lisbeth Illum, Wally Baffone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of different chitosans (CS) against typical colonizing pathogens of the urinary tract and to assess their efficacy against bacterial adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation on urinary catheters. METHODS: The antimicrobial activity of high and low molecular weight CS (50 and 150 kDa) at pH 5.0 and 6.0 was tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates by time-killing studies...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676513/antibiotic-lock-in-tenckhoff-catheter-for-biofilm-associated-peritonitis
#5
Steve Siu-Man Wong, Wai-Yan Lau, Ping-Kwan Chan, Ching-Kit Wan, Yuk-Lun Cheng
Biofilm bacteria in the Tenckhoff catheter are notoriously difficult to eradicate. They are the potential sources of relapsing or repeat peritonitis among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Inadequate penetration into biofilms by standard intraperitoneal antibiotics, as well as a lack of effective adjunctive treatment, leads to a high rate of Tenckhoff catheter loss as a result of biofilm bacteria. In hemodialysis, on the other hand, catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by biofilm bacteria does not necessarily lead to a loss of catheter...
July 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#6
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674314/candida-tropicalis-biofilm-formation-and-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-time-lapse-images
#7
Akira Kawai, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Candida species bloodstream infection such as candidemia remains a significant with high morbidity and mortality. Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species is often associated with the ability of Candida to form biofilms by using medical devices, such as central venous catheters. Non-albicans Candida species are increasing gradually in recent clinical practices. One of the Candida species, C. tropicalis, is likely to form biofilms and is also an independent risk factor with high morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657579/self-sterilizing-sputtered-films-for-applications-in-hospital-facilities
#8
REVIEW
Sami Rtimi, Stefanos Giannakis, Cesar Pulgarin
This review addresses the preparation of antibacterial 2D textile and thin polymer films and 3D surfaces like catheters for applications in hospital and health care facilities. The sputtering of films applying different levels of energy led to the deposition of metal/oxide/composite/films showing differentiated antibacterial kinetics and surface microstructure. The optimization of the film composition in regards to the antibacterial active component was carried out in each case to attain the fastest antibacterial kinetics, since this is essential when designing films avoiding biofilm formation (under light and in the dark)...
June 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656173/heparin-mimics-extracellular-dna-in-binding-to-cell-surface-localized-proteins-and-promoting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#9
Surabhi Mishra, Alexander R Horswill
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639245/biofilm-forming-ability-and-clonality-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-isolated-from-urine-samples-and-urinary-catheters-in-different-european-hospitals
#10
Claudia Vuotto, Filipa Grosso, Francesca Longo, Maria Pia Balice, Mariana Carvalho de Barros, Luisa Peixe, Gianfranco Donelli
OBJECTIVE: Biofilm formation has been associated with the persistence of Acinetobacter baumannii in hospital settings and its propensity to cause infection. We investigated the adhesion ability and clonality of 128 A. baumannii isolates recovered from urine and urinary catheters of patients admitted to 5 European hospitals during 1991-2013. METHODS: Isolates identification was confirmed by rpoB sequencing and by the presence of blaOXA-51. The presence of carbapenemases was detected by PCR...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629757/bacterial-biofilm-based-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-causative-pathogens-and-antibiotic-resistance
#11
Nargis Sabir, Aamer Ikram, Gohar Zaman, Luqman Satti, Adeel Gardezi, Abeera Ahmed, Parvez Ahmed
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the incidence of bacterial biofilm-based catheter-associated urinary tract infections, identify variables affecting biofilm formation, and identify etiologic bacterial pathogens and antibiotic-resistance patterns associated with biofilm-based catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in our setup. METHODS: Patients who developed at least 2 symptoms of urinary tract infection after at least 2 days of indwelling urinary catheters were included...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628622/urinary-catheter-associated-microbiota-change-in-accordance-with-treatment-and-infection-status
#12
Laetitia Bossa, Kimberly Kline, Diane McDougald, Bonsan Bonne Lee, Scott A Rice
The use of long-term catheterisation to manage insensate bladders, often associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), increases the risk of microbial colonisation and infection of the urinary tract. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is typically diagnosed and treated based on the culturing of organisms from the urine, although this approach overlooks low titer, slow growing and non-traditional pathogens. Here, we present an investigation of the urinary tract microbiome in catheterised SCI individuals, using T-RFLP and metagenomic sequencing of the microbial community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623661/graphene-nanolayers-as-a-new-method-for-bacterial-biofilm-prevention-preliminary-results
#13
Łucja Dybowska-Sarapuk, Andrzej Kotela, Jakub Krzemiński, Marta Wróblewska, Halina Marchel, Magdalena Romaniec, Paweł Łęgosz, Małgorzata Jakubowska
Biofilms are microbial communities of surface-attached cells embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix. They have been found to play a role in a wide variety of infections, including catheter-related urinary tract and bloodstream infections, and, therefore remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality among the world's population. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the prevention of biofilm formation on implant surfaces. Nanomaterials such as graphene, characterized by antibacterial activity and low toxicity to human cells, are promising candidates for biomedical applications...
June 16, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605563/the-contribution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence-factors-and-host-factors-in-the-establishment-of-urinary-tract-infections
#14
J W Newman, R V Floyd, J L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#15
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598310/in-vitro-activities-of-vancomycin-and-linezolid-against-biofilm-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-species-isolated-from-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-from-an-egyptian-tertiary-hospital
#16
Asmaa A Hashem, Noha M Abd El Fadeal, Atef S Shehata
PURPOSE: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections. We aimed to survey methicillin resistance, biofilm production and susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics for staphylococci isolated from CRBSIs. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-eight isolates [20 S. aureus and 38 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 20 Staphylococcusepidermidis, nine Staphylococcushaemolyticus, three Staphylococcusschleiferi, two Staphylococcuswarneri and four Staphylococcuslugdunensis)] were tested for methicillin resistance by cefoxitin disk diffusion and detection of the mecA gene by PCR; biofilm-forming ability using Congo red agar and tissue culture plate methods; susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin and tetracycline; and MIC determination for vancomycin...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579540/a-multi-defense-strategy-enhancing-bactericidal-activity-of-a-medical-grade-polymer-with-a-nitric-oxide-donor-and-surface-immobilized-quaternary-ammonium-compound
#17
Jitendra Pant, Jing Gao, Marcus J Goudie, Sean P Hopkins, Jason Locklin, Hitesh Handa
Although the use of biomedical devices in hospital-based care is inevitable, unfortunately, it is also one of the leading causes of the nosocomial infections, and thus demands development of novel antimicrobial materials for medical device fabrication. In the current study, a multi-defense mechanism against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is demonstrated by combining a nitric oxide (NO) releasing agent with a quaternary ammonium antimicrobial that can be covalently grafted to medical devices. Antibacterial polymeric composites were fabricated by incorporating an NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) in CarboSil® polymer and top coated with surface immobilized benzophenone based quaternary ammonium antimicrobial (BPAM) small molecule...
June 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569502/prevention-of-bacterial-colonization-on-catheters-by-a-one-step-coating-process-involving-an-antibiofouling-polymer-in-water
#18
Hyeongseop Keum, Jin Yong Kim, Byeongjun Yu, Seung Jung Yu, Jinjoo Kim, Hyungsu Jeon, Dong Yun Lee, Sung Gap Im, Sangyong Jon
As reports of multidrug resistant pathogens have increased, patients with implanted medical catheters increasingly need alternative solutions to antibiotic treatments. As most catheter-related infections are directly associated with biofilm formation on the catheter surface, which, once formed, is difficult to eliminate, a promising approach to biofilm prevention involves inhibiting the initial adhesion of bacteria to the surface. In this study, we report an amphiphilic, antifouling polymer, poly(DMA-mPEGMA-AA) that can facilely coat the surfaces of commercially available catheter materials in water and prevent bacterial adhesion to and subsequent colonization of the surface, giving rise to an antibiofilm surface...
June 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559263/efficient-killing-of-planktonic-and-biofilm-embedded-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-by-bactericidal-protein-p128
#19
Nethravathi Poonacha, Sandhya Nair, Srividya Desai, Darshan Tuppad, Deepika Hiremath, Thulasi Mohan, Aradhana Vipra, Umender Sharma
Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the major causative agents of foreign body-related infections including catheters-related blood stream infections. Because of involvement of biofilms, the foreign body-related infections are difficult to treat. P128, a chimeric recombinant phage-derived ectolysin has been shown to possess bactericidal activity on strains of S. aureus including MRSA. We have now tested the killing potential of P128 on three clinically significant species of CoNS, S. epidermidis, S...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558916/microbiological-diagnosis-of-biofilm-related-infections
#20
María D Macià, José Luis Del Pozo, María Díez-Aguilar, Jesús Guinea
Biofilm-related infections represent a serious health problem, accounting for 65- 80% of all infections. The infections are generally chronic and characterized by the persistence of the microorganism, due to the increased resistance of biofilms to both the immune system and antimicrobials. Biofilms can be located to almost every human body tissue and on exogenous devices such as catheters, pacemakers, prosthetic material, implants, urinary catheters, etc. Traditional antimicrobial susceptibility studies in clinical microbiology laboratories have lied on the study of planktonic form of microorganisms...
May 27, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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