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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816432/an-integrated-microsystem-for-real-time-detection-and-threshold-activated-treatment-of-bacterial-biofilms
#1
Sowmya Subramanian, Ekaterina I Tolstaya, Thomas Winkler, William E Bentley, Reza Ghodssi
Bacterial biofilms are the primary cause of infections in medical implants and catheters. Delayed detection of biofilm infections contributes to the widespread use of high doses of antibiotics, leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for systems that can rapidly detect and treat biofilm infections in situ. As a step towards this goal, in this work we have developed for the first time a threshold-activated feedback-based impedance sensor-treatment system for combined real-time detection and treatment of biofilms...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792229/eugenol-exhibits-anti-virulence-properties-by-competitively-binding-to-quorum-sensing-receptors
#2
Prasanth Rathinam, H S Vijay Kumar, Pragasam Viswanathan
The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the anti-biofilm and anti-virulence properties of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels of eugenol against the standard strain PAO1 and two multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates utilizing quorum sensing inhibition (QSI). Eugenol at 400 μM significantly reduced biofilm formation on urinary catheters and the virulence factors (VF) including extracellular polysaccharides, rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, and pyoverdine (p < 0...
August 9, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782178/staphylococcal-biofilm-gene-expression-on-biomaterials-a-methodological-study
#3
Annika Juhlin, Sara Svensson, Peter Thomsen, Margarita Trobos
The combination of increased healthcare access, universal aging, and infallible therapy demands, synergistically drive the need for the development of biomaterial technologies that mitigate the challenge of biomaterial-associated infections (BAI). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus account for the majority of BAI due to their ability to accumulate in adherent multilayered biofilm. This investigation details the development of gene expression assays to evaluate the genetic processes of attachment, accumulation, maturation, and dispersal phases on biomaterials in vitro, while abiding by the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773945/application-of-a-loop-type-laboratory-biofilm-reactor-to-the-evaluation-of-biofilm-for-some-metallic-materials-and-polymers-such-as-urinary-stents-and-catheters
#4
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Hikonaru Kudara, Shun Kanesaki, Takeshi Kogo, Hajime Ikegai, Akiko Ogawa, Nobumitsu Hirai
A laboratory biofilm reactor (LBR) was modified to a new loop-type closed system in order to evaluate novel stents and catheter materials using 3D optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Two metallic specimens, pure nickel and cupronickel (80% Cu-20% Ni), along with two polymers, silicone and polyurethane, were chosen as examples to ratify the system. Each set of specimens was assigned to the LBR using either tap water or an NB (Nutrient broth based on peptone from animal foods and beef extract mainly)-cultured solution with E-coli formed over 48-72 h...
October 11, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771501/obliteration-of-bacterial-growth-and-biofilm-through-ros-generation-by-facilely-synthesized-green-silver-nanoparticles
#5
Shariq Qayyum, Mohammad Oves, Asad U Khan
Mangifera indica inflorescence aqueous extract was utilized for production of green AgNPs. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, TEM, FESEM and particles size analyzer. AgNPs showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 μg ml-1 and 16 μg ml-1 for Gram negative (K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and Gram positive (S. mutans and S. aureus) strains, respectively which was relatively quite low compared to chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. AgNPs inhibited 80% and 75% biofilms of E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770446/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-dispersed-cells-versus-planktonic-cells-from-clinical-industry-and-environmental-origins
#6
Mercedes Berlanga, Laura Gomez-Perez, Ricardo Guerrero
We examined the cell-surface physicochemical properties, the biofilm formation capability and the antibiotic susceptibility in dispersed cells (from an artificial biofilm of alginate beads) and compared with their planktonic (free-swimming) counterparts. The strains used were from different origins, such as clinical (Acinetobacter baumannii AB4), cosmetic industry (Klebsiella oxytoca EU213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa EU190), and environmental (Halomonas venusta MAT28). In general, dispersed cells adhered better to surfaces (measured as the "biofilm index") and had a greater hydrophobicity [measured as the microbial affinity to solvents (MATS)] than planktonic cells...
August 2, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764161/providencia-rettgeri-an-emerging-nosocomial-uropathogen-in-an-indwelling-urinary-catheterised-patient
#7
Siddharth Sagar, Nagalakshmi Narasimhaswamy, Jessica D'Souza
Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is an ubiquitous organism but is seldom associated with human disease. We report the isolation of P. rettgeri from the urine sample of a 39-year-old male patient on prolonged Foley's catheterisation following a severe head injury. Identification of this organism was done by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) based systems. P. rettgeri is an emerging pathogen among long term catheterised patients. It reflects its ability to form biofilm on the surface of the indwelling catheter as well as the inherent urease producing property of the pathogen in question as a possible mechanism of pathogenesis...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745297/foley-catheters-functionalised-with-a-synergistic-combination-of-antibiotics-and-silver-nanoparticles-resist-biofilm-formation
#8
Rajendran Mala, Antony Annie Aglin, Arul Selvaraj Ruby Celsia, Sivalingam Geerthika, Narbahvi Kiruthika, Chinnathambi VazagaPriya, Kumarapillai Srinivasa Kumar
Foley catheters are inevitable in health care unit. Pathogens colonise and form biofilm on catheter causing catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Therefore, the authors aimed to functionalise catheter to resist biofilm formation. The authors impregnated urinary catheters with a synergistic combination of antibiotics and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to evaluate antibiofilm efficacy in vitro and in vivo. SNPs were synthesised using Spirulina platensis. Synergy between the SNPs and antibiotics was determined by the checker-board method...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745020/distinct-roles-of-the-7-transmembrane-receptor-protein-rta3-in-regulating-the-asymmetric-distribution-of-phosphatidylcholine-across-the-plasma-membrane-and-biofilm-formation-in-candida-albicans
#9
Archita Srivastava, Shabnam Sircaik, Farha Husain, Edwina Thomas, Shivani Ror, Sumit Rastogi, Darakshan Alim, Priyanka Bapat, David R Andes, Clarissa J Nobile, Sneh L Panwar
Fungal pathogens like Candida albicans exhibit several survival mechanisms to evade attack by antifungals and colonize host tissues. Rta3, a member of the Rta1-like family of lipid-translocating exporters has a 7-transmembrane domain (7TMD) topology, similar to the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is unique to the fungal kingdom. Our findings point towards a role for the plasma membrane localized Rta3 in providing tolerance to miltefosine, an analog of alkylphosphocholine, by maintaining mitochondrial energetics...
July 25, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744885/water-infused-surface-protection-as-an-active-mechanism-for-fibrin-sheath-prevention-in-central-venous-catheters
#10
David W Sutherland, Xin Zhang, Joseph L Charest
Protein adhesion in central venous catheters (CVCs) leads to fibrin sheath formation, the precursor to thrombotic and biofilm-related CVC failures. Advances in material properties and surface coatings do not completely prevent fibrin sheath formation and post-formation treatment options are limited and expensive. We propose water infused surface protection (WISP), an active method for prevention of fibrin sheath formation on CVCs, which creates a blood-free boundary layer on the inner surface of the CVC, limiting blood contact with the CVC lumen wall...
July 26, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744481/visualizing-antimicrobials-in-bacterial-biofilms-three-dimensional-biochemical-imaging-using-tof-sims
#11
Sarah K Davies, Sarah Fearn, Luke P Allsopp, Freya Harrison, Ecaterina Ware, Stephen P Diggle, Alain Filloux, David S McPhail, Jacob G Bundy
Bacterial biofilms are groups of bacteria that exist within a self-produced extracellular matrix, adhering to each other and usually to a surface. They grow on medical equipment and inserts such as catheters and are responsible for many persistent infections throughout the body, as they can have high resistance to many antimicrobials. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause both acute and chronic infections and is used as a model for research into biofilms. Direct biochemical methods of imaging of molecules in bacterial biofilms are of high value in gaining a better understanding of the fundamental biology of biofilms and biochemical gradients within them...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#12
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704490/the-synthetic-killer-peptide-kp-impairs-candida-albicans-biofilm-in-vitro
#13
Simona Paulone, Andrea Ardizzoni, Arianna Tavanti, Serena Piccinelli, Cosmeri Rizzato, Antonella Lupetti, Bruna Colombari, Eva Pericolini, Luciano Polonelli, Walter Magliani, Stefania Conti, Brunella Posteraro, Claudio Cermelli, Elisabetta Blasi, Samuele Peppoloni
Candida albicans is a commensal organism, commonly inhabiting mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, as a part of the resident microbiota. However, in susceptible hosts, especially hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients, it may cause a wide range of infections. The presence of abiotic substrates, such as central venous or urinary catheters, provides an additional niche for Candida attachment and persistence, particularly via biofilm development. Furthermore, Candida biofilm is poorly susceptible to most antifungals, including azoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703700/comparative-study-of-isolates-from-community-acquired-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-with-reference-to-biofilm-producing-property-antibiotic-sensitivity-and-multi-drug-resistance
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vishwajeet Bardoloi, K V Yogeesha Babu
PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) can be community-acquired (Com-UTI) or catheter-associated (CAUTI) and may be associated with biofilm-producing organisms. A comparative analysis of biofilm-producing property (BPP), antibiotic-sensitivity and multi-drug resistance (MDR) and their relation with the BPP of isolates from Com-UTI and CAUTI has not yet been performed and necessitated this study. METHODOLOGY: HASH(0x44851c0) OBJECTIVES: (1) isolation of bacteria from CAUTI and Com-UTI and identification of their BPP, antibiotic-sensitivity and MDR status; (2) comparison of the isolates from CAUTI and Com-UTI as regards BPP, MDR status and their relation with BPP...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702016/burn-serum-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-via-oxidative-stress
#15
Supeng Yin, Bei Jiang, Guangtao Huang, Yali Gong, Bo You, Zichen Yang, Yu Chen, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Ming Li, Fuquan Hu, Yan Zhao, Yizhi Peng
Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen isolated from burn patients that can form biofilms on burn wounds and implanted deep vein catheters, which often leads to refractory infections or even biofilm-related sepsis. As biofilm formation is usually regulated by environmental conditions, we hypothesized that serum composition may be altered after burn injury, potentially affecting the ability of infecting bacteria to form biofilms. As predicted, we observed that serum from burn-injured rats increases biofilm formation by S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689873/chitosans-inhibit-the-growth-and-the-adhesion-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates-on-urinary-catheters
#16
Raffaella Campana, Luca Casettari, Eleonora Ciandrini, Lisbeth Illum, Wally Baffone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of different chitosans (CS) against typical colonizing pathogens of the urinary tract and to assess their efficacy against bacterial adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation on urinary catheters. METHODS: The antimicrobial activity of high and low molecular weight CS (50 and 150 kDa) at pH 5.0 and 6.0 was tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates by time-kill studies...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676513/antibiotic-lock-in-tenckhoff-catheter-for-biofilm-associated-peritonitis
#17
Steve Siu-Man Wong, Wai-Yan Lau, Ping-Kwan Chan, Ching-Kit Wan, Yuk-Lun Cheng
Biofilm bacteria in the Tenckhoff catheter are notoriously difficult to eradicate. They are the potential sources of relapsing or repeat peritonitis among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Inadequate penetration into biofilms by standard intraperitoneal antibiotics, as well as a lack of effective adjunctive treatment, leads to a high rate of Tenckhoff catheter loss as a result of biofilm bacteria. In hemodialysis, on the other hand, catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by biofilm bacteria does not necessarily lead to a loss of catheter...
July 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#18
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674314/candida-tropicalis-biofilm-formation-and-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-time-lapse-images
#19
Akira Kawai, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Candida species bloodstream infection such as candidemia remains a significant with high morbidity and mortality. Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species is often associated with the ability of Candida to form biofilms by using medical devices, such as central venous catheters. Non-albicans Candida species are increasing gradually in recent clinical practices. One of the Candida species, C. tropicalis, is likely to form biofilms and is also an independent risk factor with high morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657579/self-sterilizing-sputtered-films-for-applications-in-hospital-facilities
#20
REVIEW
Sami Rtimi, Stefanos Giannakis, Cesar Pulgarin
This review addresses the preparation of antibacterial 2D textile and thin polymer films and 3D surfaces like catheters for applications in hospital and health care facilities. The sputtering of films applying different levels of energy led to the deposition of metal/oxide/composite/films showing differentiated antibacterial kinetics and surface microstructure. The optimization of the film composition in regards to the antibacterial active component was carried out in each case to attain the fastest antibacterial kinetics, since this is essential when designing films avoiding biofilm formation (under light and in the dark)...
June 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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