keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Immune evasion

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088061/galectins-emerging-regulatory-checkpoints-linking-tumor-immunity-and-angiogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Santiago P Méndez-Huergo, Ada G Blidner, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Immune checkpoints, a plethora of inhibitory pathways aimed at maintaining immune cell homeostasis, may be co-opted by cancer cells to evade immune destruction. Therapies targeting immune checkpoints have reached a momentum yielding significant clinical benefits in patients with various malignancies by unleashing anti-tumor immunity. Galectins, a family of glycan-binding proteins, have emerged as novel regulatory checkpoints that promote immune evasive programs by inducing T-cell exhaustion, limiting T-cell survival, favoring expansion of regulatory T cells, de-activating natural killer cells and polarizing myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079476/mimiviruses-and-the-human-interferon-system-viral-evasion-of-classical-antiviral-activities-but-inhibition-by-a-novel-interferon-%C3%AE-regulated-immunomodulatory-pathway
#2
Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Lorena C Ferreira Silva, Philippe Colson, Jonatas Santos Abrahao
In this review we discuss the role of mimiviruses as potential human pathogens focusing on clinical and evolutionary evidence. We also propose a novel antiviral immunomodulatory pathway controlled by interferon-β (IFN-β) and mediated by immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) and itaconic acid, its product. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV) was isolated from amoebae in a hospital while investigating a pneumonia outbreak. Mimivirus ubiquity and role as protist pathogens are well understood, and its putative status as a human pathogen has been gaining strength as more evidence is being found...
January 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077173/is-cd47-an-innate-immune-checkpoint-for-tumor-evasion
#3
REVIEW
Xiaojuan Liu, Hyunwoo Kwon, Zihai Li, Yang-Xin Fu
Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) (also known as integrin-associated protein) is a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a critical role in self-recognition. Various solid and hematologic cancers exploit CD47 expression in order to evade immunological eradication, and its overexpression is clinically correlated with poor prognoses. One essential mechanism behind CD47-mediated immune evasion is that it can interact with signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) expressed on myeloid cells, causing phosphorylation of the SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to ultimately result in delivering an anti-phagocytic-"don't eat me"-signal...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075442/increased-expression-of-pd%C3%A2-l1-by-the-human-papillomavirus-16-e7-oncoprotein-inhibits-anticancer-immunity
#4
Chaoqi Liu, Jiao Lu, Huiqun Tian, Wei Du, Lin Zhao, Jing Feng, Ding Yuan, Zhiying Li
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte dysfunction is frequently associated with PD‑L1/PD‑1 pathway activation, and is a principal obstacle in cancer therapy. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the human papillomavirus (HPV)‑induced evasion of cervical cancer cells to the host immune system via the programmed death ligand  1/programmed death 1 (PD‑L1/PD‑1) signaling pathway was investigated. A significant increase in the expression of the HPV16E7 viral protein and PD‑L1 in cervical tissues was observed when compared with normal cervical tissues...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067913/impaired-h3k36-methylation-defines-a-subset-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#5
Simon Papillon-Cavanagh, Chao Lu, Tenzin Gayden, Leonie G Mikael, Denise Bechet, Christina Karamboulas, Laurie Ailles, Jason Karamchandani, Dylan M Marchione, Benjamin A Garcia, Ilan Weinreb, David Goldstein, Peter W Lewis, Octavia Maria Dancu, Sandeep Dhaliwal, William Stecho, Christopher J Howlett, Joe S Mymryk, John W Barrett, Anthony C Nichols, C David Allis, Jacek Majewski, Nada Jabado
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are deadly and common cancers. Recent genomic studies implicate multiple genetic pathways, including cell signaling, cell cycle and immune evasion, in their development. Here we analyze public data sets and uncover a previously unappreciated role of epigenome deregulation in the genesis of 13% of HPV-negative HNSCCs. Specifically, we identify novel recurrent mutations encoding p.Lys36Met (K36M) alterations in multiple H3 histone genes...
January 9, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066813/risks-posed-by-reston-the-forgotten-ebolavirus
#6
REVIEW
Diego Cantoni, Arran Hamlet, Martin Michaelis, Mark N Wass, Jeremy S Rossman
Out of the five members of the Ebolavirus family, four cause life-threatening disease, whereas the fifth, Reston virus (RESTV), is nonpathogenic in humans. The reasons for this discrepancy remain unclear. In this review, we analyze the currently available information to provide a state-of-the-art summary of the factors that determine the human pathogenicity of Ebolaviruses. RESTV causes sporadic infections in cynomolgus monkeys and is found in domestic pigs throughout the Philippines and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RESTV is most closely related to the Sudan virus, which causes a high mortality rate in humans...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064317/-b7-h4-mediated-immunoresistance-is-supressed-by-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-inhibitors
#7
S Zeng, H Song, Y Chen, W Xie, L Zhang
B7-H4 plays an important role in tumor immune evasion. In previous studies we have found that B7-H4 can translocate to the nucleus, and the exposure to PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 affects B7-H4 subcellular distribution. In this study we report the role of PI3K/Akt pathway in the B7-H4 subcellular distribution and the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibitors on B7-H4-mediated immunoresistance. The involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in B7-H4 subcellular distribution was evident in experiments with wortmannin, while MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3 and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin were used to dissect the signaling downstream of Akt...
November 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053102/5-phospho-rna-acceptor-specificity-of-gdp-polyribonucleotidyltransferase-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-in-mrna-capping
#8
Minako Ogino, Tomoaki Ogino
: The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5' -phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5' -triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5' -cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053099/hcmv-specific-cd4-t-cells-are-poly-functional-and-can-respond-to-hcmv-infected-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#9
Sarah E Jackson, George X Sedikides, Gavin M Mason, Georgina Okecha, Mark R Wills
: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and periodic re-activation is generally well controlled by the HCMV-specific T cell response in healthy people. While the CD8+ T cell response to HCMV has been extensively studied, the HCMV-specific CD4+ T cell effector response is not as well understood, especially in the context of direct interactions with HCMV infected cells. We screened the IFNγ and IL-10 response to 6 HCMV peptide pools (selected as the most frequently responded to in our previous studies: pp65, pp71, IE1, IE2, gB and US3) in 84 donors, aged 23 - 74 years...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045926/survival-and-intra-nuclear-trafficking-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-strategies-of-evasion-from-immune-surveillance
#10
Jamuna Vadivelu, Kumutha Malar Vellasamy, Jaikumar Thimma, Vanitha Mariappan, Wen-Tyng Kang, Leang-Chung Choh, Esaki M Shankar, Kum Thong Wong
BACKGROUND: During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei) reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure. METHODS: We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039302/camp-signaling-of-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-blocks-the-oxidative-burst-of-neutrophils-through-epac-mediated-inhibition-of-phospholipase-c-activity
#11
Ondrej Cerny, Karen E Anderson, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) plays a key role in immune evasion and virulence of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA penetrates the complement receptor 3-expressing phagocytes and ablates their bactericidal capacities by catalyzing unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP to the key second messenger molecule cAMP. We show that signaling of CyaA-generated cAMP blocks the oxidative burst capacity of neutrophils by two converging mechanisms. One involves cAMP/protein kinase A-mediated activation of the Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and limits the activation of MAPK ERK and p38 that are required for assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035385/increased-expression-of-pd-l1-by-the-human-papillomavirus-16-e7-oncoprotein-inhibits-anticancer-immunity
#12
Chaoqi Liu, Jiao Lu, Huiqun Tian, Wei Du, Lin Zhao, Jing Feng, Ding Yuan, Zhiying Li
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte dysfunction is frequently associated with PD‑L1/PD‑1 pathway activation, and is a principal obstacle in cancer therapy. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the human papillomavirus (HPV)‑induced evasion of cervical cancer cells to the host immune system via the programmed death ligand  1/programmed death 1 (PD‑L1/PD‑1) signaling pathway was investigated. A significant increase in the expression of the HPV16E7 viral protein and PD‑L1 in cervical tissues was observed when compared with normal cervical tissues...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032590/predicting-the-impact-of-combined-therapies-on-myeloma-cell-growth-using-a-hybrid-multi-scale-agent-based-model
#13
Zhiwei Ji, Jing Su, Dan Wu, Huiming Peng, Weiling Zhao, Brian Nlong Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
Multiple myeloma is a malignant still incurable plasma cell disorder. This is due to refractory disease relapse, immune impairment, and development of multi-drug resistance. The growth of malignant plasma cells is dependent on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and evasion of the host's anti-tumor immune response. Hence, we hypothesized that targeting tumor-stromal cell interaction and endogenous immune system in BM will potentially improve the response of multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, we proposed a computational simulation of the myeloma development in the complicated microenvironment which includes immune cell components and bone marrow stromal cells and predicted the effects of combined treatment with multi-drugs on myeloma cell growth...
December 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031466/cell-based-fluorescence-complementation-reveals-a-role-for-hiv-1-nef-dimerization-in-ap-2-recruitment-and-cd4-downregulation
#14
Sherry T Shu, Lori A Emert-Sedlak, Thomas E Smithgall
The HIV-1 Nef accessory factor enhances viral infectivity, immune evasion, and AIDS progression. Nef triggers rapid downregulation of CD4 via the endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, a process linked to enhanced viral infectivity and immune escape. Here we describe a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize the interaction of Nef with AP-2 and CD4 in living cells. Interacting protein pairs were fused to complementary, non-fluorescent fragments of YFP and co-expressed in 293T cells...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031457/force-spectroscopy-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-vaccine-candidate-circumsporozoite-protein-suggests-a-mechanically-pliable-repeat-region
#15
Aditya Prasad Patra, Shobhona Sharma, Sri Rama Koti Ainavarapu
The most effective vaccine candidate of malaria is based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface protein implicated in the structural strength, motility and immune evasion properties of the infective sporozoites. It is suspected that reversible conformational changes of CSP are required for infection of the mammalian host, but CSP's detailed structure and dynamic properties remain incompletely understood, limiting our understanding of its function in the infection. Here, we report the structural and mechanical properties of the CSP studied using single-molecule force spectroscopy on several constructs, one including CSP's central region rich in NANP amino acid repeats (CSPrep) and a second consisting of a near full-length sequence without the signal and anchor hydrophobic domains (CSPΔHP)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031364/an-optimized-hepatitis-c-virus-e2-glycoprotein-core-adopts-a-functional-homodimer-that-efficiently-blocks-virus-entry
#16
Kathleen McCaffrey, Irene Boo, Catherine M Owczarek, Matthew P Hardy, Matthew A Perugini, Louis Fabri, Pierre Scotney, Pantelis Poumbourios, Heidi E Drummer
: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 is the major target of broadly neutralizing antibodies in vivo and is the focus of efforts in the rational design of a universal B cell vaccine against HCV. The E2 glycoprotein exhibits a high degree of amino-acid variability which localizes to three discrete regions: hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), hypervariable region 2 (HVR2) and the intergenotypic variable region (igVR). All three variable regions contribute to immune evasion and/or isolate-specific structural variations, both important considerations for vaccine design...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030896/cancer-metabolism-fueling-more-than-just-growth
#17
REVIEW
Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim
The early landmark discoveries in cancer metabolism research have uncovered metabolic processes that support rapid proliferation, such as aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), glutaminolysis, and increased nucleotide biosynthesis. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of specifically targeting the metabolic processes which support rapid proliferation. First, as other normal proliferative tissues also share similar metabolic features, they may also be affected by such treatments. Secondly, targeting proliferative metabolism may only target the highly proliferating "bulk tumor" cells and not the slower-growing, clinically relevant cancer stem cell subpopulations which may be required for an effective cure...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030753/expression-dynamics-physiologically-relevant-functional-study-of-stevor-in-asexual-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#18
Himanshu Singh, Kripa Madnani, Ying Bena Lim, Jianshu Cao, Peter R Preiser, Chwee Teck Lim
The extensive modification of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes by Variant Surface Antigens (VSA) plays a major role in immune evasion and malaria induced pathology. Here, using high resolution microscopy we visualize the spatio-temporal expression dynamics of STEVOR, an important VSA family, in a stage dependent manner. We demonstrate that it is exported to the cell surface where protein molecules cluster and preferentially localize in proximity to knobs. Quantitative evidence from our force measurements and microfluidic assays reveal that STEVOR can effectively mediate the formation of stable, robust rosettes under static and physiologically relevant flow conditions...
December 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018352/the-capricious-nature-of-bacterial-pathogens-phasevarions-and-vaccine-development
#19
REVIEW
Aimee Tan, John M Atack, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and vaccines are one of the most successful and cost-effective tools for disease prevention. One of the key considerations for rational vaccine development is the selection of appropriate antigens. Antigens must induce a protective immune response, and this response should be directed to stably expressed antigens so the target microbe can always be recognized by the immune system. Antigens with variable expression, due to environmental signals or phase variation (i...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017801/spatial-avascular-growth-of-tumor-in-a-homogeneous-environment
#20
Louise Viger, Fabrice Denis, Clément Draghi, Thibault Ménard, Christophe Letellier
Describing tumor growth is a key issue in oncology for correctly understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to deleterious cancers. In order to take into account the micro-environment in tumor growth, we used a model describing - at the tissue level - the interactions between host (non malignant), effector immune and tumor cells to simulate the evolution of cancer. The spatial growth is described by a Laplacian operator for the diffusion of tumor cells. We investigated how the evolution of the tumor diameter is related to the dynamics (periodic or chaotic oscillations, stable singular points) underlying the interactions between the different populations of cells in proliferation sites...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
keyword
keyword
34948
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"