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Immune evasion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426973/non-linear-enhancement-of-mrna-delivery-efficiencies-by-influenza-a-derived-ns1-protein-engendering-host-gene-inhibition-property
#1
Kyle K L Phua, Yi Liu, Shun Hui Sim
Nucleic acid induced immunogenicity remains a significant impediment in biomedical therapeutics because the innate immune system is a complex network overlaid with functional redundancies. Herein we report that non-structural protein 1 (NS1), an immune evasion protein derived from influenza A virus, when co-delivered in mRNA format is a potent mRNA transfection enhancer without toxicity. Transfection enhancement is mediated by NS1's effector domain through inhibition of IRF3 and PKR, activators of early anti-viral responses as well as CPSF30, a non immunostimulating protein...
April 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425034/the-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-death-effector-domain-containing-protein-mc160-rxdl-motifs-are-not-required-for-its-known-viral-immune-evasion-functions
#2
Michael Beaury, Uday Kiran Velagapudi, Sarah Weber, Cassandra Soto, Tanaji T Talele, Daniel Brian Nichols
The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) uses a variety of immune evasion strategies to antagonize host immune responses. Two MCV proteins, MC159 and MC160, contain tandem death effector domains (DEDs). They are reported to inhibit innate immune signaling events such as NF-κB and IRF3 activation, and apoptosis. The RxDL motif of MC159 is required for inhibition of both apoptosis and NF-κB activation. However, the role of the conserved RxDL motif in the MC160 DEDs remained unknown. To answer this question, we performed alanine mutations to neutralize the arginine and aspartate residues present in the MC160 RxDL in both DED1 and DED2...
April 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424696/spirochetal-lipoproteins-and-immune-evasion
#3
REVIEW
Alexei Christodoulides, Ani Boyadjian, Theodoros Kelesidis
Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424285/equine-arteritis-virus-has-specific-tropism-for-stromal-cells-and-cd8-t-and-cd21-b-lymphocytes-but-not-glandular-epithelium-at-the-primary-site-of-persistent-infection-in-the-stallion-reproductive-tract
#4
Mariano Carossino, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, R Frank Cook, Juliana R Campos, Bora Nam, Yun Young Go, Edward L Squires, Mats H T Troedsson, Thomas Swerczek, Fabio Del Piero, Ernest Bailey, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry being the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, EAV is only detectable in the reproductive tract and viral persistence occurs despite the presence of high serum neutralizing antibodies. Carrier stallions constitute the natural reservoir of the virus as they continuously shed EAV in their semen...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423491/the-mir-25-93-106b-cluster-regulates-tumor-metastasis-and-immune-evasion-via-modulation-of-cxcl12-and-pd-l1
#5
Michele Cioffi, Sara M Trabulo, Mireia Vallespinos, Deepak Raj, Tony Bou Kheir, Meng-Lay Lin, Julfa Begum, Ann-Marie Baker, Ala Amgheib, Jaimy Saif, Manuel Perez, Joaquim Soriano, Manuel Desco, Maria Victoria Gomez-Gaviro, Lorena Cusso, Diego Megias, Alexandra Aicher, Christopher Heeschen
The stromal microenvironment controls response to injury and inflammation, and is also an important determinant of cancer cell behavior. However, our understanding of its modulation by miRNA (miR) and their respective targets is still sparse. Here, we identified the miR-25-93-106b cluster and two new target genes as critical drivers for metastasis and immune evasion of cancer cells. Using miR-25-93-106b knockout mice or antagomiRs, we demonstrated regulation of the production of the chemoattractant CXCL12 controlling bone marrow metastasis...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421060/the-heme-metabolite-carbon-monoxide-facilitates-kshv-infection-by-inhibiting-tlr4-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#6
Sara Botto, Jean K Gustin, Ashlee V Moses
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and certain rare B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. KSHV infection of endothelial cells (EC) in vitro increases expression of the inducible host-encoded enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is also strongly expressed in KS tumors. HO-1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme into iron, biliverdin and the gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO), all of which share anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, pro-survival, and tumorigenic activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421046/horses-in-denmark-are-a-reservoir-of-diverse-clones-of-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Md Zohorul Islam, Carmen Espinosa-Gongora, Peter Damborg, Raphael N Sieber, Rikke Munk, Louise Husted, Arshnee Moodley, Robert Skov, Jesper Larsen, Luca Guardabassi
Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418388/glioma-immune-evasion
#8
Zoltan Fehervari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416598/ebv-microrna-bart16-suppresses-type-i-ifn-signaling
#9
Marjolein J G Hooykaas, Michiel van Gent, Jasper A Soppe, Elisabeth Kruse, Ingrid G J Boer, Dik van Leenen, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Frank C P Holstege, Maaike E Ressing, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Robert Jan Lebbink
Type I IFNs play critical roles in orchestrating the antiviral defense by inducing direct antiviral activities and shaping the adaptive immune response. Viruses have evolved numerous strategies to specifically interfere with IFN production or its downstream mediators, thereby allowing successful infection of the host to occur. The prototypic human gammaherpesvirus EBV, which is associated with infectious mononucleosis and malignant tumors, harbors many immune-evasion proteins that manipulate the adaptive and innate immune systems...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414184/mouse-cytomegalovirus-encoded-immunoevasins-and-evolution-of-ly49-receptors-sidekicks-or-enemies
#10
REVIEW
Jelena Zeleznjak, Branka Popovic, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic, Vanda Juranic Lisnic
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have dedicated a large portion of their genome towards immune evasion targeting many aspects of the host immune system, particularly NK cells. However, the host managed to cope with the infection by developing multiple mechanisms to recognize viral threat and counterattack it, thus illustrating never-ending evolutionary interplay between CMV and its host. In this review, we will focus on several mechanisms of NK cell evasion by mouse CMV (MCMV), the role of host inhibitory and activating Ly49 receptors involved in the virus control and acquisition of adaptive features by NK cells as a consequence of MCMV infection...
April 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413216/uncompromised-nk-cell-activation-is-essential-for-virus-specific-ctl-activity-during-acute-influenza-virus-infection
#11
Yuan Liu, Jian Zheng, Yinping Liu, Liyan Wen, Lei Huang, Zheng Xiang, Kwok-Tai Lam, Aizhen Lv, Huawei Mao, Yu-Lung Lau, Wenwei Tu
Natural killer (NK) cells are indispensable components of both the innate and adaptive immune response. However, their precise roles in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity during influenza virus infection remain controversial. By comparing NK cell dynamics and activity under a sub-lethal dose and high dose of influenza virus infection, we showed that influenza virus PR8 directly infected NK cells during natural infection, which was consistent with our previous findings obtained from an in vitro investigation of human NK cells...
April 17, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412568/first-report-on-mrsa-cc398-recovered-from-wild-boars-in-the-north-of-portugal-are-we-facing-a-problem
#12
Margarida Sousa, Nuno Silva, Vera Manageiro, Sónia Ramos, António Coelho, David Gonçalves, Manuela Caniça, Carmen Torres, Gilberto Igrejas, Patrícia Poeta
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from wild boars, to analyze their genetic lineages, and to investigate the susceptibility to oxacillin. Samples from mouth and nose of 45 wild boars (Sus scrofa) were collected during hunt activity from November 2012 to January 2013 in the North of Portugal. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 30 of these samples (33%); one isolate/sample was further studied. The susceptibility of the isolates was tested by disk-diffusion test against 14 antimicrobial agents and minimal inhibitory concentration was used to test oxacillin according to EUCAST guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410411/hepatitis-c-virus-impairs-natural-killer-cell-activity-via-viral-serine-protease-ns3
#13
Chang Mo Yang, Joo Chun Yoon, Jeon Han Park, Jae Myun Lee
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by a high frequency of chronic cases owing to the impairment of innate and adaptive immune responses. The modulation of natural killer (NK) cell functions by HCV leads to an impaired innate immune response. However, the underling mechanisms and roles of HCV proteins in this immune evasion are controversial, especially in the early phase of HCV infection. To investigate the role of HCV nonstructural proteins especially NS3 in the impairment of NK functions, NK cells were isolated from the PBMCs by negative selection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410133/the-role-of-lipids-in-host-microbe-interactions
#14
Roland Lang, Jochen Mattner
Lipids are one of the major subcellular constituents and serve as signal molecules, energy sources, metabolic precursors and structural membrane components in various organisms. The function of lipids can be modified by multiple biochemical processes such as (de-)phosphorylation or (de-)glycosylation, and the organization of fatty acids into distinct cellular pools and subcellular compartments plays a pivotal role for the morphology and function of various cell populations. Thus, lipids regulate, for example, phagosome formation and maturation within host cells and thus, are critical for the elimination of microbial pathogens...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406478/the-suppression-of-apoptosis-by-%C3%AE-herpesvirus
#15
REVIEW
Yu You, An-Chun Cheng, Ming-Shu Wang, Ren-Yong Jia, Kun-Feng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Ma-Feng Liu, Xin-Xin Zhao, Xiao-Yue Chen
Apoptosis, an important innate immune mechanism that eliminates pathogen-infected cells, is primarily triggered by two signalling pathways: the death receptor pathway and the mitochondria-mediated pathway. However, many viruses have evolved various strategies to suppress apoptosis by encoding anti-apoptotic factors or regulating apoptotic signalling pathways, which promote viral propagation and evasion of the host defence. During its life cycle, α-herpesvirus utilizes an elegant multifarious anti-apoptotic strategy to suppress programmed cell death...
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404966/a-novel-bispecific-c-met-pd-1-antibody-with-therapeutic-potential-in-solid-cancer
#16
Zu-Jun Sun, Yi Wu, Wei-Hua Hou, Yu-Xiong Wang, Qing-Yun Yuan, Hui-Jie Wang, Min Yu
The bispecific antibody is a novel antibody, which can target two different antigens and mediate specific killing effects by selectively redirecting effector cells to the target cells. Here, we designed and synthesized a bispecific antibody (BsAb) that can bind cellular-mesenchymal to epithelial transition factor (c-MET, overexpressed in several human solid tumor), and programmed death-1 (PD-1, involved in cancer cell immune evasion) with high affinity and specificity. We found that BsAb can induce the degradation of c-MET protein in cancer cells, including MKN45, a gastric cancer cell line, and A549, a lung cancer cell line...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403532/temozolomide-increases-mhc-i-expression-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-glioma-stem-cells
#17
Dongyong Zhang, Bo Qiu, Yunjie Wang, Yanlei Guan, Luyang Zhang, Anhua Wu
Gliomas are the most common and primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the main drug used to treat glioma, however, prognosis remains poor for most patients. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to enable glioma initiation and evasion from immune surveillance; their immunogenicity can be determined by expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I. The present study investigated the effect of TMZ on MHC-I expression in GSCs. Glioma spheres were cultured in serum-free medium containing epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and B27; MHC-I expression was detected by immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and flow cytometry...
April 12, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400131/linking-tumor-glycolysis-and-immune-evasion-in-cancer-emerging-concepts-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Shanmugasundaram Ganapathy-Kanniappan
Metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion are two hallmarks of cancer. Metabolic reprogramming is exemplified by cancer's propensity to utilize glucose at an exponential rate which in turn is linked with "aerobic glycolysis", popularly known as the "Warburg effect". Tumor glycolysis is pivotal for the efficient management of bioenergetics and uninterrupted cancer growth. Mounting evidence suggests that tumor glycolysis also plays a key role in instigating immunosuppressive networks that are critical for cancer cells to escape immune surveillance ("immune evasion")...
April 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396663/bacterial-secretant-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dampens-inflammasome-activation-in-a-quorum-sensing-dependent-manner
#19
Jungmin Yang, Kang-Mu Lee, Sangjun Park, Yoeseph Cho, Eunju Lee, Jong-Hwan Park, Ok Sarah Shin, Junghyun Son, Sang Sun Yoon, Je-Wook Yu
Inflammasome signaling can contribute to host innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, bacterial evasion of host inflammasome activation is still poorly elucidated. Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication mechanism that promotes coordinated adaptation by triggering expression of a wide range of genes. QS is thought to strongly contribute to the virulence of P. aeruginosa, but the molecular impact of bacterial QS on host inflammasome defense is completely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394921/cd8-t-cell-evasion-mandates-cd4-t-cell-control-of-chronic-gamma-herpesvirus-infection
#20
Cindy S E Tan, Clara Lawler, Philip G Stevenson
Gamma-herpesvirus infections are regulated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However clinical disease occurs mainly in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts. In CD4+ T cell-deficient mice, CD8+ T cells control acute but not chronic lung infection by Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4). We show that acute and chronic lung infections differ in distribution: most acute infection was epithelial, whereas most chronic infection was in myeloid cells. CD8+ T cells controlled epithelial infection, but CD4+ T cells and IFNγ were required to control myeloid cell infection...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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