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Oyetunde Kazeem Ekeolu, Olamide Elizabeth Adebiyi
BACKGROUND: Hematological parameters are vital diagnostic tools for understanding health dynamics of humans and animals. Franquet's fruit bat (Epomops franqueti) is host to several parasites such as protozoa, bacteria, viruses and mites. Yet, studies exploring the values of its blood components with interest for research or food purposes are scarce. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the hematological values of the adult E. franqueti. METHODS: Seventeen (nine female and eight male) apparently healthy adult E...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
E Kondera, B Teodorczuk, K Ługowska, M Witeska
The effects of Roundup (glyphosate-based herbicide) on peripheral blood parameters and hematopoietic tissue cellular composition and activity in common carp juveniles were evaluated. The fish were exposed for 7 days at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, or 5.0 mg/L of glyphosate. In fish exposed to Roundup, hematological alterations were observed; however, most of them were not directly related to the herbicide concentration. An increase in Ht and MCV, and decrease in Hb, MCH, and MCHC compared to the control were observed. Fish exposed to Roundup showed also a reduction in WBC and oxidative metabolic activity of phagocytes (NBT) compared to the control...
March 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Arvind Gupta, Akhilesh Kumar Pal, Eamor M Woo, Vimal Katiyar
This article demonstrates an elegant approach for the fabrication of high heat-stable PLA using an industrially viable technique i.e. melt extrusion, which is quite challenging due to the higher viscosity of poly(lactic acid) melt. scPLA has been fabricated by melt extrusion of PLLA/PDLA using nano-amphiphilic chitosan (modified chitosan, MCH) which has been synthesized by grafting chitosan with oligomeric PLA via insitu polycondensation of L-lactic acid that possibly increases the molecular surface area and transforms it into nano-amphiphilic morphology and in turn lead to the formation of stereocomplex crystallites...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Soo Ji Woo, Na Young Kim, Shin Hu Kim, Sang Jung Ahn, Jung Soo Seo, Sung Hee Jung, Joon Ki Chung
Trichlorfon is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of trichlorfon on hematological parameters, biochemical factors, and stress reaction in Cyprinus carpio L. The fish were exposed to acute concentrations of trichlorfon (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L-1 ) at 25 °C and 15 °C for 1 and 2 weeks, after which several parameters were evaluated to assess the effects of the pesticide. Significant decreases were observed in red blood cell (RBC) Count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), and plasma protein levels after each exposure period...
March 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Aline Menezes Carlos, Bruna Maria Bereta de Souza, Renata Andréia Volpe de Souza, Gláucia Aparecida Domingos Resende, Gilberto de Araújo Pereira, Helio Moraes-Souza
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Microcytic anaemia results from defective synthesis of haemoglobin in the erythroid precursors, causing a reduction in its mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The most common causes of microcytosis, without the increase in HbA2 levels, are iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and α-thalassemia. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of microcytic anaemia and evaluate the haematological parameters from blood donors deemed ineligible (due to the low haematocrit level) that would differentiate the IDA and α-thal, whether isolated or in association...
March 9, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Rita Kiss, Katalin Szabó, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Sándor Somodi, Péter Kovács, Zoltán Szabó, József Németh, Dániel Priksz, Andrea Kurucz, Béla Juhász, Zoltán Szilvássy
In developed, developing and low-income countries alike, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases, the severity of which is substantially a consequence of multiple organ complications that occur due to long-term progression of the disease before diagnosis and treatment. Despite enormous investment into the characterization of the disease, its long-term management remains problematic, with those afflicted enduring significant degradation in quality-of-life. Current research efforts into the etiology and pathogenesis of T2DM, are focused on defining aberrations in cellular physiology that result in development of insulin resistance and strategies for increasing insulin sensitivity, along with downstream effects on T2DM pathogenesis...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vahid Vosooghi-Postindoz, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intermittent watering on Baluchi lambs, regarding their performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Methods: Twenty male Baluchi lambs, 120 ± 5 days of age and 29 ±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to four watering treatments: (T1) free access to water during the day, (T2) watered ad libitum twice a day, (T3) watered ad libitum once a day, (T4) watered ad libitum once every two days...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
David Barry Hipgrave, Lukman Hendro Laksmono, Gita Maya Koemarasakti, Robin Nandy, Budhi Setiawan, Lukas Hermawan, Deswanto Marbun
District team problem solving (DTPS) was developed by WHO in the 1980s to explicitly engage local stakeholders in decentralized planning and, in later iterations, budgeting of health services. It became WHO's global flagship approach to district-level health priority-setting and planning. DTPS entails multisectoral stakeholders (the team) using local data to prioritize and fund services, and should enhance capacity in management of decentralized healthcare. From the late 1990s, DTPS evolved through several phases in Indonesia...
March 5, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
L R Oliveira, M Simionatto, B R Cruz, J I M Bittencourt, E A Krum, M F Moss, D C K Borato
INTRODUCTION: Sample stability is essential to obtain reliable results in the clinical laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of hematological parameters using ABX Pentra 60 in samples stored for up to 72 hours at different temperatures. METHODS: A total of 651 blood samples were analyzed at different analysis times: 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours and forms and storage: room temperature (25°C) and at 4°C. The imprecision of the results was evaluated by the analytical coefficient of variation (CVa%) obtained by the typical error (TE) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis, to compare the averages...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Saurav Kumar, R P Raman, K Pani Prasad, P P Srivastava, Sanath Kumar, K V Rajendran
Monogenea (gill parasite) is a major problem in aquaculture that reduces the growth of cultured fish and adversely affects the economy. The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of various degrees of Thaparocleidus sp. (dactylogyrids, monogenean) infestation on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A standard cohabitation study, following complete randomized design in triplicate, was conducted to obtain low, moderate and high degrees of infestation in P...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Chengke Wang, Rong Tan, Dan Chen
In this paper, a FRET (Forster resonance energy transfer) based fluorescence method was developed for the quickly detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in agricultural products (e.g., flour and beer). A highly fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon dots (CD) were served as energy donor, the DNA and MCH (6-mercapto-1-hexanol) modified Ag nanoparticles were served as energy acceptor in the FRET system. OTA can be detected in a concentration range between 10 and 5000 nM, the limit of detection is 8.7 nM. This method has three advantages: (1) an enhanced fluorescent intensity can be acquired by utilizing the nitrogen doped CD synthesized by one-step approach without sophisticated modification of nanoparticles; (2) OTA detection was accomplished quickly (less than 30 min) by using MCH as assistant molecule; (3) an extended OTA detection linear range was acquired, which may facilitate the OTA detection in real agricultural samples, and is helpful for solving food safety problems...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Deborah Allen, Chad Abresch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Wuping Bao, Yingying Zhang, Min Zhang, Aihua Bao, Xia Fei, Xue Zhang, Xin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of ozone repeated short exposures on airway/lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway hypersecretion in ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized/challenged asthmatic mouse model. METHODS: OVA sensitization was performing by intraperitoneal injection. Ozone exposures (3ppm for 3hours) were given one hour after aerosolized OVA challenges (once every other day, 4 times totally). Methacholine (MCH) bronchial provocation tests, Liu's staining of BALF cell smears, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of lung tissue were performed...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hidechika Akashi, Miwa Ishioka, Akiko Hagiwara, Rumiko Akashi, Yasuyo Osanai
Providing a continuum of care (CoC) is important strategy for improving maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH). Japan's current very low maternal and infant mortality rates suggest that its CoC for MNCH is good. In this paper, we attempt to clarify how CoC and low mortality rates are being maintained in Japan, by examining the entire MNCH service provision system. First, we examine two important tools for integrated service provision, the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook and registration of pregnant women with local governments, both introduced in 1942...
February 26, 2018: Bioscience Trends
L Porra, L Dégrugilliers, L Broche, G Albu, S Strengell, H Suhonen, G H Fodor, F Peták, P Suortti, W Habre, A R A Sovijärvi, S Bayat
To understand the determinants of inhaled aerosol particle distribution and targeting in the lung, knowledge of regional deposition, lung morphology and regional ventilation, is crucial. No single imaging modality allows the acquisition of all such data together. Here we assessed the feasibility of dual-energy synchrotron radiation imaging to this end in anesthetized rabbits; both in normal lung (n = 6) and following methacholine (MCH)-induced bronchoconstriction (n = 6), a model of asthma. We used K-edge subtraction CT (KES) imaging to quantitatively map the regional deposition of iodine-containing aerosol particles...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahmoud M Elgari, Omar F Khabour, Samaher M Alhag
Preeclampsia is a condition that might severely impact the health of mothers and their newborns. The aim of this investigation is to examine hematological parameters in mothers with preeclampsia and umbilical cord blood. Eighty preecalmptic mothers were recruited in the study. In addition, eighty normal pregnant mothers served as controls. Hematological parameters that include hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), red cell distribution width (RDW), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell counts (WBC), platelet counts, mean platelet volume (MPV) and Platelet large cell ratio (PLCR) were examined...
February 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Jefferson Comin Jonco Aquino-Junior, BreAnne MacKenzie, Ana Roberta Almeida-Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Auriléa Aparecida Britto, Fernanda Magalhaes Arantes-Costa, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Elia Garcia Caldini, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Dioze Guadagnini, Luiz Osorio Leiria, Djalma Rabelo Ricardo, Mario Jose Abdalla Saad, Rodolfo Paula Vieira
PURPOSE: Obesity results in decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) reduced lung inflammation and remodeling in a variety of respiratory disease models. Therefore, this study investigated whether AE can attenuate a diet-induced obesity respiratory phenotype; including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), remodeling and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty C57Bl/6 male mice were distributed into four groups: control lean (CL), exercise lean (EL), obese (O) and obese exercise (OE) groups (2 sets of 7 and 8 mice per group; n = 15)...
February 14, 2018: Cytokine
Megan J Kaliszewski, Xiaojun Shi, Yixuan Hou, Ryan Lingerak, Soyeon Kim, Paul Mallory, Adam W Smith
Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) is an advanced fluorescence technique that can quantify protein-protein interactions in vivo. Due to the dynamic, heterogeneous nature of the membrane, special considerations must be made to interpret FCCS data accurately. In this study, we describe a method to quantify the oligomerization of membrane proteins tagged with two commonly used fluorescent probes, mCherry (mCH) and enhanced green (eGFP) fluorescent proteins. A mathematical model is described that relates the relative cross-correlation value (f c ) to the degree of oligomerization...
February 12, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Zeyu Zeng, Xixi Lin, Rongying Zheng, Hui Zhang, Weixi Zhang
Severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a clinical feature of asthma, which has been associated with obesity and has shown a poor response to standard asthma treatments such as glucocorticoids. Numerous studies have shown that Interleukin (IL)-17 producing CD4 + T cells (Th17 cells), which could be inhibited by celastrol, is essential in mediating steroid-resistant AHR. The following study investigates the impact of celastrol and its mechanism on the regulation of AHR in murine model of obesity and asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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