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Elizabeth Gathoni Kibaru, Amos Magembe Otara
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality has remained high in Kenya despite various efforts being applied to reduce this negative trend. Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving new born survival. Toward this end there is need for the mothers to be able to identify signs in neonates that signifies severe neonatal illnesses. The objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge of mothers attending well baby clinics on postnatal neonatal danger signs and determine the associated factors...
October 25, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Leila Katirayi, Caspian Chouraya, Kwashie Kudiabor, Mohammed Ali Mahdi, Mary Pat Kieffer, Karen Marie Moland, Thorkild Tylleskar
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in sub-Saharan Africa, 26 % of the adult population is infected with HIV. The prevalence is highest among pregnant women, at 41.1 %. According to Swaziland's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines, approximately 50 % of pregnant women are eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) by CD4 criteria (<350 cells/ml). Studies have shown that most mother-to-child transmission and postnatal deaths occur among women who are eligible for ART...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Ahmed I Nossier, Ola S Mohammed, Rasha R Fakhr El-Deen, Ashraf S Zaghloul, Sanaa Eissa
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particularly gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were reported as urinary markers of bladder cancer. In this work, we developed a simple colorimetric gold nanoparticle (AuNP) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of urinary total gelatinase activity based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) property of AuNPs. Gelatin-modified AuNPs were stably suspended in solution even upon addition of an aggregation inducer as 6-mercaptohexan-1-ol (6-MCH). Gelatinases digest gelatin capping...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Songyot Pilasant, Wantanee Kulpeng, Pitsaphun Werayingyong, Nattha Tritasavit, Inthira Yamabhai, Yot Teerawattananon, Sangay Wangmo, Sripen Tantivess
BACKGROUND: The Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme (MCHVS) was introduced in Myanmar to address the high rate of maternal and infant mortalities. It aimed to increase access to maternal and child health (MCH) services by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and improve the health of pregnant women and their babies. A study to pilot a voucher scheme was implemented in May 2013 in Yedarshey Township. This paper provides a report on a mid-term review of the programme after 7 months of implementation to determine the outcomes of the programme and its impediments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common pregnancy complication and is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. Placental hypoxia contributes to adverse fetal consequences, including IUGR. Exposing pregnant rats to hypoxia can lead to IUGR; however, assessment of maternal vascular function in a rat model of hypoxia, and the mechanisms that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, has not been extensively studied. We hypothesized that exposing pregnant rats to hypoxia will affect maternal systemic vascular function and increase the uterine artery resistance index (RI), which will be associated with IUGR...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
O Naseer, J A Khan, M S Khan, M O Omer, G A Chishti, M L Sohail, M U Saleem
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. which are injurious to animals and humans The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG), haematological and serum biochemical responses of Bovine Calves and to determine the comparative efficacy of two different liver tonics against AFB1. Twenty seven calves were selected from herd and divided into 3 groups. All calves were fed with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 for a period of 10 days...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Giulio Rosati, Matteo Scaramuzza, Elisabetta Pasqualotto, Alessandro De Toni, Carlo Reggiani, Alessandro Paccagnella
In this work, we demonstrate how an innovative, out-of-cleanroom customized CD/DVD fabrication process can be successfully used for mass production of biosensors with thin-film electrodes. We show that silver and gold electrodes can be used for impedimetric and voltammetric biosensing applications, both in presence and absence of a redox mediator. We modeled the redox/non-redox electrodes impedance through equivalent electrical circuits, and we evaluated their transfer function sensitivity with a one-factor-at-a-time approach...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Ophélia Le Thuc, Céline Cansell, Miled Bourourou, Raphaël Gp Denis, Katharina Stobbe, Nadège Devaux, Alice Guyon, Julie Cazareth, Catherine Heurteaux, William Rostène, Serge Luquet, Nicolas Blondeau, Jean-Louis Nahon, Carole Rovère
Sickness behavior defines the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral, and metabolic responses associated with infection. While inflammatory responses were suggested to be instrumental in the loss of appetite and body weight, the molecular underpinning remains unknown. Here, we show that systemic or central lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection results in specific hypothalamic changes characterized by a precocious increase in the chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) followed by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and a decrease in the orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)...
October 12, 2016: EMBO Reports
Sangay Wangmo, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Wai Mar Mar Htun, Tin Tun Aung, Chiraporn Khitdee, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol, Pe Thet Htoon, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: BMC Public Health
T Vuk, J Bingulac-Popović, T Očić, L J Mayer, M Milošević, I Jukić
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of using combined cell index (CCI) in the assessment of iron stores in blood donors. This index is calculated by the formula: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) × 10(4) × mean corpuscular volume (MCV)(-1) × mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH)(-1) . BACKGROUND: Ferritin measurement is a reliable method for estimating iron stores in blood donors. The sensitivity of red blood cell (RBC) parameters of complete blood count in detecting non-anaemic iron deficiency is significantly lower...
October 11, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
Jianjun Wang, Zhiyong Deng, Zeyou Wang, Jianhong Wu, Tao Gu, Yibiao Jiang, Guangxin Li
Exosomes containing microRNA-155 act as molecule carriers during immune cell-cell communication and play an important role in the inflammatory response of H. pylori infection macrophages. Previous reports have found that miR-155 was over-expressed in H. pylori infection macrophages, but the significance of which is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-155 loaded in exosomes derived from macrophages to the inflammatory response of H. pylori infection macrophages and possible mechanisms...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Georgette M Lang, Dirk Skaper, Frank Hampel, John A Gladysz
Three routes are explored to the title halide/cyanide complexes trans-Fe(CO)(NO)(X)(P((CH2)14)3P) (9c-X; X = Cl/Br/I/CN), the Fe(CO)(NO)(X) moieties of which can rotate within the diphosphine cages (ΔH(‡)/ΔS(‡) (kcal mol(-1)/eu(-1)) 5.9/-20.4 and 7.4/-23.9 for 9c-Cl and 9c-I from variable temperature (13)C NMR spectra). First, reactions of the known cationic complex trans-[Fe(CO)2(NO)(P((CH2)14)3P)](+) BF4(-) and Bu4N(+) X(-) give 9c-Cl/-Br/-I/-CN (75-83%). Second, reactions of the acyclic complexes trans-Fe(CO)(NO)(X)(P((CH2)mCH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)3)2 and Grubbs' catalyst afford the tris(cycloalkenes) trans-Fe(CO)(NO)(X)(P((CH2)mCH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH(CH2)m)3P) (m/X = 6/Cl,Br,I,CN, 7/Cl,Br, 8/Cl,Br) as mixtures of Z/E isomers (24-41%)...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Aimee Chan, SiHan Li, Ahn R Lee, Joseph Leung, Alissa Yip, Jaimie Bird, Kyle E Godden, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels C Rattenborg, Evan Balaban, Maria Pompeiano
Coordinated activity in different sets of widely-projecting neurochemical systems characterize waking (W) and sleep (S). How and when this coordination is achieved during development is not known. We used embryos and newborns of a precocial bird species (chickens) to assess developmental activation in different neurochemical systems using cFos expression, which has been extensively employed to examine cellular activation during S and W in adult mammals. Similarly to adult mammals, newborn awake chicks showed significantly higher cFos expression in W-active hypocretin/orexin (H/O), serotonergic Dorsal Raphe, noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus and cholinergic Laterodorsal and Pedunculopontine Tegmental (Ch-LDT/PT) neurons when compared to sleeping chicks...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
S V Madhu, Abhishek Raj, Stuti Gupta, S Giri, Usha Rusia
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and to compare its levels before and after iron supplementations. METHODS: Age and sex matched subjects were enrolled and clustered in 2 groups: IDA (n=62) and healthy controls (HC; n=60). HbA1c levels were estimated by HPLC. Hemogram were estimated by hematology analyser. Serum ferritin (ELISA) and other parameters of iron profile were measured by standard guidelines of ICSH...
October 5, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Hao Sun, Jia Guo, Yaoke Duan, Tiantian Zhang, Heqiang Huo, Haijun Gong
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely grown cucurbitaceous vegetable that exhibits a relatively high capacity for silicon (Si) accumulation, but the molecular mechanism for silicon uptake remains to be clarified. Here we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a gene encoding a silicon transporter in cucumber (cv. Mch-4). CsLsi1 shares 55.70 and 90.63% homology with the Lsi1s of a monocot and dicot, rice (Oryza sativa) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), respectively. CsLsi1 was predominantly expressed in the roots, and application of exogenous silicon suppressed its expression...
October 4, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Harrison M Brookes, Darrell W Ross, Tara M Strand, Harold W Thistle, Iral R Ragenovich, Laura L Lowrey
Current recommendations for applying the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) to protect live trees from Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, infestation are to space individual passive releasers (MCH bubble capsules) on a 12- by 12-m grid throughout areas to be protected. Previous field studies and a theoretical study using a puff dispersion model to predict pheromone concentrations have shown that releasers emitting higher rates of MCH spaced farther apart may be as effective as the established standard treatment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sima M Derakhshan, Mahmoud S Khaniani, Fateme Afkhami, Abbasali H PourFeizi
The aim of this study was to determine the molecular spectrum and frequency of deletional and nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlation in common mutations in the Azeri population of Northwestern Iran. A total of 1256 potential carriers with microcytic and hypochromic anemia and normal Hb A2 levels (<3.5%) and without iron deficiency anemia plus three fetuses, were identified. Multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) and sequencing for α-thal mutations were carried out...
September 30, 2016: Hemoglobin
Santiago Rodriguez-Segade, Javier Rodriguez Garcia, José M García-López, Francisco Gude, Felipe F Casanueva, Santiago Rs-Alonso, Félix Camiña
BACKGROUND: Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A1c determination is requested in clinical practice. METHODS: The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A1c, fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
S Vakali, I Vogiatzis, A Florou, S Giavi, S Zakynthinos, N G Papadopoulos, Ch Gratziou
Diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) requires the use of bronchial provocation tests (BPTs). We assessed exercise-induced respiratory symptoms (EIRS), EIB and asthma in athletes and evaluated the validity of BPTs in the diagnosis of EIB. Rhinitis and atopy were also assessed. Athletes with (n=55) and without previous asthma diagnosis (n=145) were tested by skin prick tests, lung function and eNO measurements. EIRS were recorded and EIB was assessed by methacholine (Mch), eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH), mannitol and exercise test...
September 24, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Himadri Saha, Asim Kumar Pal, Narottam Prasad Sahu, Ratan Kumar Saha
A 60-day experiment was carried out to delineate the role of dietary pyridoxine (DP) in Labeo rohita fingerlings in modulating immunity and prevention of fungal infection. Two hundred and seventy fingerlings were randomly distributed into three treatments in triplicates. Three iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous purified diets were prepared with graded levels of pyridoxine. Three experimental groups were C (0.0% DP), T1 (0.01% DP) and T2 (0.02% DP). The role of dietary pyridoxine in modulating immunity and prevention of fungal infection was assessed by haemato-immunological parameters like erythrocyte counts (EC), leucocyte counts (LC), haemoglobulin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT), phagocytic activity, albumin, globulin, total plasma protein, albumin/globulin and by challenge study with Saprolegnia parasitica, where relative percentage survival (RPS) were recorded...
September 23, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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