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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048352/effects-of-short-term-probiotic-ingestion-on-immune-profiles-and-microbial-translocation-among-hiv-1-infected-vietnamese-children
#1
Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children-including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(-)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040287/antimicrobial-activity-of-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-mn-co-3-tpa-%C3%AE%C2%BA3n-br-versus-multidrug-resistant-isolates-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-synergy-with-colistin
#2
Jonathan Betts, Christopher Nagel, Ulrich Schatzschneider, Robert Poole, Robert M La Ragione
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global concern in human and veterinary medicine, with an ever-increasing void in the arsenal of clinicians. Novel classes of compounds including carbon monoxoide-releasing molecules (CORMs), for example the light-activated metal complex [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]Br, could be used as alternatives/to supplement traditional antibacterials. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) represent a large reservoir of antibiotic resistance and can cause serious clinical disease in poultry, with potential as zoonotic pathogens, due to shared serotypes and virulence factors with human pathogenic E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038125/modulators-of-enterococcus-faecalis-cell-envelope-integrity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-influence-stable-colonization-of-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
Ismael L Banla, Sushma Kommineni, Michael Hayward, Marinelle Rodrigues, Kelli L Palmer, Nita H Salzman, Christopher J Kristich
The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis is both a colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and an agent of serious nosocomial infections. Although typically required for pathogenesis, GIT colonization by E. faecalis is poorly understood. E. faecalis tolerates high concentrations of GIT antimicrobials like cholate and lysozyme, leading us to hypothesize that resistance to intestinal antimicrobials is essential for long-term GIT colonization. Analyses of E. faecalis mutants exhibiting defects in antimicrobial resistance revealed that IreK, a determinant of envelope integrity and antimicrobial resistance, is required for long-term GIT colonization...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038052/serine-threonine-protein-kinase-ppka-contributes-to-the-adaptation-and-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Jianyi Pan, Zhenzhong Zha, Pengfei Zhang, Ran Chen, Chen Ye, Ting Ye
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and has become a serious public health threat, which is attributed to a large extent to its extraordinary environmental adaptability and diverse virulence factors that result in infection and progression of pathogenesis. The eukaryote-type serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases, known for playing major regulatory roles in eukaryotes, have been demonstrated to play a central role in regulating various bacterial cellular processes via catalyzing protein phosphorylation...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035101/biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-sanitizer-tolerance-of-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-from-beef-trim
#5
Rong Wang, John W Schmidt, Dayna M Harhay, Joseph M Bosilevac, David A King, Terrance M Arthur
In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella contamination in commercial establishments are not well understood. We characterized 89 S. enterica strains isolated from beef trim with respect to their biofilm-forming ability, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm cell survival/recovery growth after sanitizer exposure...
October 16, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034329/comparative-metabolomics-of-mycoplasma-bovis-and-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-reveals-fundamental-differences-in-active-metabolic-pathways-and-suggests-novel-gene-annotations
#6
Y Masukagami, D P De Souza, S Dayalan, C Bowen, S O'Callaghan, K Kouremenos, B Nijagal, D Tull, K A Tivendale, P F Markham, M J McConville, G F Browning, F M Sansom
Mycoplasmas are simple, but successful parasites that have the smallest genome of any free-living cell and are thought to have a highly streamlined cellular metabolism. Here, we have undertaken a detailed metabolomic analysis of two species, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which cause economically important diseases in cattle and poultry, respectively. Untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of mycoplasma metabolite extracts revealed significant differences in the steady-state levels of many metabolites in central carbon metabolism, while (13)C stable isotope labeling studies revealed marked differences in carbon source utilization...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033110/investigating-of-four-main-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-in-high-level-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-patients
#7
Soodabeh Rostami, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Saeed Shoja, Abbas Farahani, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Abbas Jolodar, Raheleh Sheikhi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved in many infections. Carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa has emerged as an important cause of infection in different hospitals worldwide. We aimed to determine frequencies of the four main resistance mechanisms [metallo-beta lactamase (MBL) production (blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSPM and blaNDM), overproduction of the MexAB-OprM and MexXY efflux pumps, overproduction of chromosome-encoded AmpC β-lactamase, and reduced OprD expression] in high-level carbapenem-resistant P...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032734/gammaplex-%C3%A2-5-and-10-in-the-treatment-of-primary-immunodeficiency-and-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#8
Richard L Wasserman
Immunoglobulin G is used to both prevent infection in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) and prevent bleeding in immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Gammaplex is a highly purified human intravenous immunoglobulin G available as 5 and 10% liquid formulations. Gammaplex 5% has proven efficacy and safety in PID and immune thrombocytopenic purpura, protecting against serious acute bacterial infections and treating bleeding by improving platelet counts, respectively. The therapeutic effect of Gammaplex 10% is expected to be similar to that of Gammaplex 5% based on demonstrated bioequivalence in a bridging study in PID...
October 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032026/4-hydroxy-2-pyridones-discovery-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-class-of-antibacterial-agents-targeting-dna-synthesis
#9
Michael A Arnold, Aleksey I Gerasyuto, Jiashi Wang, Wu Du, Yi Jin Kim Gorske, Tamil Arasu, John Baird, Neil G Almstead, Jana Narasimhan, Srinivasa Peddi, Olya Ginzburg, Stanley W Lue, Jean Hedrick, Josephine Sheedy, Guy Lagaud, Arthur A Branstrom, Marla Weetall, J V N Vara Prasad, Gary M Karp
The continued emergence of bacteria resistant to current standard of care antibiotics presents a rapidly growing threat to public health. New chemical entities (NCEs) to treat these serious infections are desperately needed. Herein we report the discovery, synthesis, SAR and in vivo efficacy of a novel series of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones exhibiting activity against Gram-negative pathogens. Compound 1c, derived from the N-debenzylation of 1b, preferentially inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis as determined by standard macromolecular synthesis assays...
October 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030994/transplant-tourism-following-the-declaration-of-istanbul-poor-outcomes-and-nephrologist-dilemma
#10
Meteb M AlBugami, Fahad E AlOtaibe, Abdulnaser M AlAbadi, Khaled Hamawi, Khalid Bel'eed-Akkari
BACKGROUND: Transplant tourism (TT) violates many international laws and documents. Despite all efforts, TT seems to be increasing. The aim of this study is to review outcomes of recipients of commercially transplanted kidneys since the Declaration of Istanbul. METHODS: All recipients of kidney transplantation done abroad and then returned to our center, from September 2008 to December 2015, were included (tourists). Demographics and outcomes were collected from patients' charts...
October 14, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029072/detection-of-optra-in-the-african-continent-tunisia-within-a-mosaic-enterococcus-faecalis-plasmid-from-urban-wastewaters
#11
Ana R Freitas, Houyem Elghaieb, Ricardo León-Sampedro, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Carla Novais, Teresa M Coque, Abdennaceur Hassen, Luisa Peixe
Objectives: Oxazolidinone resistance is a serious limitation in the treatment of MDR Enterococcus infections. Plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance has been strongly linked to animals where the use of phenicols might co-select resistance to both antibiotic families. Our goal was to assess the diversity of genes conferring phenicol/oxazolidinone resistance among diverse enterococci and to characterize the optrA genetic environment. Methods: Chloramphenicol-resistant isolates (>16 mg/L, n = 245) from different sources (hospitals/healthy humans/wastewaters/animals) in Portugal, Angola and Tunisia (1996-2016) were selected...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028005/microbiome-and-infectivity-studies-reveal-complex-polyspecies-tree-disease-in-acute-oak-decline
#12
Sandra Denman, James Doonan, Emma Ransom-Jones, Martin Broberg, Sarah Plummer, Susan Kirk, Kelly Scarlett, Andrew R Griffiths, Maciej Kaczmarek, Jack Forster, Andrew Peace, Peter N Golyshin, Francis Hassard, Nathan Brown, John G Kenny, James E McDonald
Decline-diseases are complex and becoming increasingly problematic to tree health globally. Acute Oak Decline (AOD) is characterized by necrotic stem lesions and galleries of the bark-boring beetle, Agrilus biguttatus, and represents a serious threat to oak. Although multiple novel bacterial species and Agrilus galleries are associated with AOD lesions, the causative agent(s) are unknown. The AOD pathosystem therefore provides an ideal model for a systems-based research approach to address our hypothesis that AOD lesions are caused by a polymicrobial complex...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026654/population-genetic-structuring-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clone-emrsa-15-within-uk-reflects-patient-referral-patterns
#13
Tjibbe Donker, Sandra Reuter, James Scriberras, Rosy Reynolds, Nicholas M Brown, M Estée Török, Richard James, East Of England Microbiology Research Network, David M Aanensen, Stephen D Bentley, Matthew T G Holden, Julian Parkhill, Brian G Spratt, Sharon J Peacock, Edward J Feil, Hajo Grundmann
Antibiotic resistance forms a serious threat to the health of hospitalised patients, rendering otherwise treatable bacterial infections potentially life-threatening. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms by which resistance spreads between patients in different hospitals is required in order to design effective control strategies. We measured the differences between bacterial populations of 52 hospitals in the United Kingdom and Ireland, using whole-genome sequences from 1085 MRSA clonal complex 22 isolates collected between 1998 and 2012...
July 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016581/bacteriological-study-of-otitis-media-and-its-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern
#14
Rabina Basnet, Sudarshan Sharma, Jid Chani Rana, Pradeep Kumar Shah
BACKGROUND: Otitis Media is a prevailing and notorious infection in developing countries causing serious local damage and threating complication. Mainly in developing countries like Nepal, Otitis Media results because of illiteracy, poverty and poor hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of Otitis Media, its causative agents and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. METHODS: The study included 263 pus samples from 240 patients attending ENT department of Bharatpur hospital from May 2015 to January 2016...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016319/clinical-epidemiology-of-septic-arthritis-caused-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-in-northeast-thailand
#15
Prapit Teparrukkul, Jiraphorn Nilsakul, Susanna Dunachie, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Septic arthritis is a medical emergency, and if not treated appropriately, it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Melioidosis, a serious infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is highly endemic in South and Southeast Asia and northern Australia. We reviewed the medical charts of adult patients admitted with bacterial septic arthritis at Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand from January 2012 to December 2014. Bacterial septic arthritis was defined as one or more hot swollen joints with isolation of a pathogenic organism from an affected joint or from blood...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016295/ignoring-the-itch-the-global-health-problem-of-scabies
#16
Lola V Stamm, Lindsay C Strowd
Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a common human parasitic affliction endemic in tropical developing countries. Scabies is transmitted by close person-person contact, and outbreaks have been reported in reception centers for asylum seekers. Scabies presents clinically as extremely pruritic excoriated papules and linear burrows in the skin. This infestation predisposes to bacterial skin infections that can result in serious complications affecting the kidneys and possibly the heart. Treatment of individuals with scabies and their close contacts involves the use of antiparasitic agents...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989246/general-overview-of-phenolics-from-plant-to-laboratory-good-antibacterials-or-not
#17
REVIEW
Omar A Aldulaimi
The emergence and rapid development of seriously drug-resistant pathogens have created the greatest danger to public health and made the treatment of infectious diseases ineffective; to control the antibiotic-resistant microbes, the discovery of new effective antibacterials with new mechanisms of action against bacteria remains an urgent task to control the bacterial resistance. The paucity of infections in wild plants supports the role of innate defense system of plants. Many researchers nominate the natural extracts to act against bacterial resistance mechanisms, and the majority of them have now been focused on the combination of plant extracts and antibiotics to define the availability of resistance modification agents...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985710/early-life-exposures-and-johne-s-disease-risk-in-zoo-ruminants
#18
Tristan L Burgess, Carmel L Witte, Bruce A Rideout
Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic, progressive bacterial enteritis of ruminants that can cause serious losses in both livestock and exotic species. Infection risk in exotic ruminants is associated with maternal infection status, but the effect of other herdmates on risk of infection has not been reported, to our knowledge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between MAP infection status and early-life contact with infected herdmates...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981760/community-based-interventions-for-newborns-in-ethiopia-combine-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#19
Bereket Mathewos, Helen Owen, Deborah Sitrin, Simon Cousens, Tedbabe Degefie, Stephen Wall, Abeba Bekele, Joy E Lawn, Emmanuelle Daviaud
About 87 000 neonates die annually in Ethiopia, with slower progress than for child deaths and 85% of births are at home. As part of a multi-country, standardized economic evaluation, we examine the incremental benefit and costs of providing management of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) for newborns at health posts in Ethiopia by Health Extension Workers (HEWs), linked to improved implementation of existing policy for community-based newborn care (Health Extension Programme). The government, with Save the Children/Saving Newborn Lives and John Snow, Inc...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978286/the-clinical-diagnosis-and-management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
Lindsey Korbel, Marianella Howell, John David Spencer
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common and serious bacterial infections encountered by paediatricians and primary care physicians. Although the diagnosis and management of UTI appear simplistic, they remain among the most contentious issues in paediatrics. In part, UTI controversies stem from the absence of classic clinical symptoms, inappropriate urine specimen collection, modified urinary tract imaging recommendations, and diverse treatment and prevention strategies. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies...
October 5, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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