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Fukushima Daiichi

Naoko Horikoshi, Tetsuya Ohira, Seiji Yasumura, Hirooki Yabe, Masaharu Maeda
Objectives Fukushima Medical University has been conducting the Fukushima Health Management Survey "Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey" annually as part of the health care of evacuees following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. This study aimed to clarify the effects of telephone support performed by nurses or public health nurses. In particular, we investigated the response rates for questionnaire of the following year and the recommended effect of medical support for evacuees with risks of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the fiscal year 2011 (FY2011)...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Akihiko Ozaki, Takeru Yokota, Shuhei Nomura, Masaharu Tsubokura, Claire Leppold, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Toru Miura, Kana Yamamoto, Toyoaki Sawano, Manabu Tsukada, Masahiro Kami, Yukio Kanazawa, Hiromichi Ohira
OBJECTIVE: Animals, including arthropods, are one health threat that can be affected by disasters. This institution-based study aimed to assess trends in Hymenoptera stings following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with hymenopteran stings who visited Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, located 23 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, from March 2005 to March 2016. Patient and sting characteristics of post-disaster patients were examined, and the annual incidence of hospital visits for hymenopteran stings was compared with the pre-disaster baseline, calculating an incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each year...
March 8, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sachiko Hirakawa, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Kana Murakami, Mari Takizawa, Masaki Kawai, Osamu Sato, Shunji Takagi, Gen Suzuki
As a result of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS) after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, volatile radionuclides including iodine-131 were released into the environment and contaminated open-field vegetables, raw milk, tap water, etc. It is important for the health care of residents to correctly comprehend the level of their exposure to radioactive substances released following the accident. However, an evaluation of the internal exposure doses of residents of Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the ingestion of foods, which is indicated in the report issued by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)1 is based on a number of assumptions...
2017: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Arend Harms, Mai Khanh Pham, Oxana Blinova, Sandor Tarjan, Hartmut Nies, Iolanda Osvath
The International Atomic Energy Agency organised four proficiency tests between 2012 and 2015 to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in sea water samples. These exercises were initiated to support IAEA Member States in sea water analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment.
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Sang-Geon Cho, Jahae Kim, Ho-Chun Song
Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures...
March 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Research carried out by me and my group over the last almost four decades are summarized here. The main emphasis of my work was and continues to be on plant physiology using radiation and radioisotopes. Plants live on water and inorganic elements. In the case of water, we developed neutron imaging methods and produced (15)O-labeled water (half-life 2 min) and applied them to understand water circulation pattern in the plant. In the case of elements, we developed neutron activation analysis methods to analyze a large number of plant tissues to follow element specific distribution...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Kazuma Ogawa, Miho Aoki, Tadahisa Fukuda, Sumi Kadono, Tatsuto Kiwada, Akira Odani
Radioactive nuclides leak into the surrounding environment after nuclear power plant disasters, such as the Chernobyl accident and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) (t1/2=30.1 year), a water-soluble radionuclide with a long physical half-life, contaminates aquatic ecosystems and food products. In humans, (137)Cs concentrates in muscle tissue and has a long biological half-life, indicating it may be harmful. myo-Inositol-hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a compound found in grain, beans, and oil seeds...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Asako J Nakamura, Masatoshi Suzuki, Christophe E Redon, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Hideaki Yamashiro, Yasuyuki Abe, Shintaro Takahashi, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, William M Bonner, Manabu Fukumoto
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident, the largest nuclear incident since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, occurred when the plant was hit by a tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The subsequent uncontrolled release of radioactive substances resulted in massive evacuations in a 20-km zone. To better understand the biological consequences of the FNPP accident, we have been measuring DNA damage levels in cattle in the evacuation zone. DNA damage was evaluated by assessing the levels of DNA double-strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes by immunocytofluorescence-based quantification of γ-H2AX foci...
February 27, 2017: Radiation Research
Yurika Oba, Toshihiro Yamada
We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the (137)Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of (137)Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to (137)Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Genki Furuki, Junpei Imoto, Asumi Ochiai, Shinya Yamasaki, Kenji Nanba, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Bernd Grambow, Rodney C Ewing, Satoshi Utsunomiya
The nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 caused partial meltdowns of three reactors. During the meltdowns, a type of condensed particle, a caesium-rich micro-particle (CsMP), formed inside the reactors via unknown processes. Here we report the chemical and physical processes of CsMP formation inside the reactors during the meltdowns based on atomic-resolution electron microscopy of CsMPs discovered near the FDNPP. All of the CsMPs (with sizes of 2.0-3.4 μm) comprise SiO2 glass matrices and ~10-nm-sized Zn-Fe-oxide nanoparticles associated with a wide range of Cs concentrations (1...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark Coletti, Carolynne Hultquist, William G Kennedy, Guido Cervone
Safecast is a volunteered geographic information (VGI) project where the lay public uses hand-held sensors to collect radiation measurements that are then made freely available under the Creative Commons CC0 license. However, Safecast data fidelity is uncertain given the sensor kits are hand assembled with various levels of technical proficiency, and the sensors may not be properly deployed. Our objective was to validate Safecast data by comparing Safecast data with authoritative data collected by the U. S...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shojiro Yasui
In January 2014, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) learned that the committed effective dose (CED) for nine emergency workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident had been assessed by a method other than the standard assessment methods, established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in a secondary evaluation conducted in July 2013. The MHLW requested that the TEPCO and primary contractors review all CED data for 6,245 workers who engaged in emergency work in March and April 2011 except those previously reviewed in the 2013 secondary evaluation...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Michio Murakami, Shigeki Harada, Taikan Oki
Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Dai Tomono, Tetsuya Mizumoto, Atsushi Takada, Shotaro Komura, Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Yoshitaka Mizumura, Makoto Oda, Toru Tanimori
We have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), which provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF) by reconstructing a direction of each gamma as a point and realizes simultaneous measurement of brightness and spectrum of MeV gamma-rays for the first time. Here, we present the results of our on-site pilot gamma-imaging-spectroscopy with ETCC at three contaminated locations in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants in Japan in 2014. The obtained distribution of brightness (or emissivity) with remote-sensing observations is unambiguously converted into the dose distribution...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Atsushi Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Seiji Yasumura, Masato Nagai, Hiromasa Ohira, Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Hiroaki Satoh, Akira Sakai, Akira Ohtsuru, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Gen Kobashi, Kotaro Ozasa, Shunichi Yamashita, Kenji Kamiya, Masafumi Abe
BACKGROUND: The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused residents to switch from their normal lives to lives focused on evacuation. We evaluated liver function before and after this disaster to elucidate the effects of evacuation on liver function. METHODS: This study was a longitudinal survey of 26,006 Japanese men and women living near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This study was undertaken using data from annual health checkups conducted for persons aged 40-90 years between 2008 and 2010...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
Kazumasa Inoue, Moeko Arai, Makoto Fujisawa, Kyouko Saito, Masahiro Fukushi
A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities...
2017: PloS One
Akira Sakai, Hironori Nakano, Tetsuya Ohira, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Seiji Yasumura, Akira Ohtsuru, Hiroaki Satoh, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshihiro Sugiura, Hiroaki Shishido, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Hideto Takahashi, Gen Kobashi, Kotaro Ozasa, Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Hitoshi Ohto, Masafumi Abe
We previously reported that the lifestyle of evacuees significantly increased the prevalence of polycythemia compared with non-evacuees at an average of 1.6 years (2011-2012) from the previous annual health checkup before the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). Here we analyzed how the prolonged evacuation affected the prevalence of polycythemia an average of 2.5 years (2013-2014) after the previous data. Subjects were individuals aged 40-90 years living in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima Prefecture who had attended the annual health checkups since 2008...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
P Strand, S Sundell-Bergman, J E Brown, M Dowdall
The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Karin Hain, Thomas Faestermann, Leticia Fimiani, Robin Golser, José Manuel Gómez-Guzmán, Gunther Korschinek, Florian Kortmann, Christoph Lierse von Gostomski, Peter Ludwig, Peter Steier, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
The concentration of plutonium (Pu) and the isotopic ratios of (240)Pu to (239)Pu and (241)Pu to (239)Pu were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Pacific Ocean water samples (20 L each) collected in late 2012. The isotopic Pu ratios are important indicators of different contamination sources and were used to identify a possible release of Pu into the ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In particular, (241)Pu is a well-suited indicator for a recent entry of Pu because (241)Pu from fallout of nuclear weapon testings has already significantly decayed...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Shigeki Harada, Mitsunori Yanagisawa
The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter...
April 2017: Chemosphere
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