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Fukushima Daiichi

Hirokazu Miyatake, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Gen Suzuki
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment. Since the accident, measurements of radiation in the environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides have been performed by various organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously over widespread areas. Based on the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the prefectures surrounding Fukushima...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Guido Cervone, Carolynne Hultquist
A methodology is presented to calibrate contributed Safecast dose rate measurements acquired between 2011 and 2016 in the Fukushima prefecture of Japan. The Safecast data are calibrated using observations acquired by the U.S. Department of Energy at the time of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi power plant nuclear accident. The methodology performs a series of interpolations between the U.S. government and contributed datasets at specific temporal windows and at corresponding spatial locations. The coefficients found for all the different temporal windows are aggregated and interpolated using quadratic regressions to generate a time dependent calibration function...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kaori Murase, Joe Murase, Koji Machidori, Kentaro Mizuno, Yutaro Hayashi, Kenjiro Kohri
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the change of discharge rate after cryptorchidism surgery between pre- and post-disaster in Japan. Cryptorchidism cannot be diagnosed before birth and is not a factor that would influence a woman's decision to seek an abortion. Therefore, this disease is considered suitable for assessing how the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident (2011) influenced congenital diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained cryptorchidism discharge data collected over six years from hospitals that were included in an impact assessment survey of the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC survey) database in Japan and used these data to estimate the discharge rate after cryptorchidism surgery before and after the disaster...
May 8, 2018: Urology
Hugo Jaegler, Fabien Pointurier, Yuichi Onda, Amélie Hubert, J Patrick Laceby, Maëva Cirella, Olivier Evrard
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a significant release of radionuclides that were deposited on soils in Northeastern Japan. Plutonium was detected at trace levels in soils and sediments collected around the FDNPP. However, little is known regarding the spatial-temporal variation of plutonium in sediment transiting rivers in the region. In this study, plutonium isotopic compositions were first measured in soils (n = 5) in order to investigate the initial plutonium deposition...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Haruko M Wainwright, Akiyuki Seki, Satoshi Mikami, Kimiaki Saito
In this study, we quantify the temporal changes of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, and predict the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the future. We first apply the Bayesian geostatistical method developed by Wainwright et al. (2017) to integrate multiscale datasets including ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sae Ochi, Shigeaki Kato, Claire Leppold, Tomohiro Morita, Masaharu Tsubokura, Tomoyoshi Oikawa, Ryuzaburo Shineha, Yukio Kanazawa, Masatoshi Fujiwara
OBJECTIVE: As status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is highly affected by environmental factors, a catastrophic disaster may also affect RA activity. Herein we conducted a retrospective cohort study in the disaster area of the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan: an earthquake, tsunamis and a nuclear accident. METHODS: Clinical records of RA patients who attended a hospital near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were collected. For those who underwent whole-body counter testing, internal radiation exposure levels were also collected...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
K Sakai
Six and a half years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, an area of existing exposure situation remains. One of the main concerns of people is the higher level of ionising radiation than before the accident, although this is not expected to have any discernible health effect. Since the accident, several 'abnormalities' in environmental organisms have been reported. It is still not clear if these abnormalities were induced by radiation. It appears that the impact of the released radioactivity has not been sufficient to threaten the maintenance of biological diversity, the conservation of species, or the health and status of natural habitats, which are the focus in environmental protection...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Tomokazu Fukuda
The damage caused by the earthquake on 11 March, 2011 resulted in a serious nuclear accident in Japan. Due to the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment. In particular, one of the largest safety concerns is radioactive cesium (134 Cs and 137 Cs). Due to the FNPP nuclear accident, a 20 km area was restricted from human activity, and various types of domestic animals were left in the zone. We collected the organs and tissues from sacrificed animals to obtain scientific data to evaluate the internal deposition of radioactive compounds...
April 26, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Jun Koarashi, Syusaku Nishimura, Mariko Atarashi-Andoh, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tsutomu Sato, Seiya Nagao
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused serious radiocesium (137 Cs) contamination in soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. It is well documented that the interaction of 137 Cs with soil constituents, particularly clay minerals, in surface soil layers exerts strong control on the behavior of this radionuclide in the environment; however, there is little understanding of how soil aggregation-the binding of soil particles together into aggregates-can affect the mobility and bioavailability of 137 Cs in soils...
April 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Hiroshi Nukui, Sanae Midorikawa, Michio Murakami, Masaharu Maeda, Akira Ohtsuru
Work-related mental health impairment is recognized as a real problem in the context of helping responders, including health professionals, due to adverse health outcomes after a severe disaster. The Great East-Japan Earthquake, which occurred on 11 March 2011, was an unprecedented complex disaster that caused a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In addition to disaster stress and daily work, medical and health-care professionals, particularly nurses, provided counseling services to residents concerned about radiation health risks or mental health issues...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Yutaka Igarashi, Takashi Tagami, Jun Hagiwara, Takahiro Kanaya, Norihiro Kido, Mariko Omura, Ryoichi Tosa, Hiroyuki Yokota
INTRODUCTION: After the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, the Japanese government issued a mandatory evacuation order for people living within a 20 km radius of the nuclear power plant. The aim of the current study was to investigate long-term outcomes of these patients and identify factors related to mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who were evacuated from hospitals near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to the Aizu Chuo Hospital from 15 to 26 March, 2011 were included in this study...
2018: PloS One
D A Cool
Committee 4 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is charged with the development of principles and recommendations on radiological protection of people and the environment in all exposure situations. For the term beginning in July 2017, the Committee has a total of 18 members from 12 countries. The programme of work includes a wide range of activities in five major thematic areas. The first is the consolidation and preparation of reports elaborating application of the system of protection in existing exposure situations...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
K Tanigawa
The accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred following the huge tsunami and earthquake of 11 March 2011. After the accident, there was considerable uncertainty and concern about the health effects of radiation. In this difficult situation, emergency responses, including large-scale evacuation, were implemented. The Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS) was initiated 3 months after the accident. The primary purposes of FHMS were to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their well-being, and monitor any health effects related to long-term, low-dose radiation exposure...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Arifumi Hasegawa, Manami Takahashi, Mami Nemoto, Takashi Ohba, Chieri Yamada, Shiro Matsui, Mitsuko Fujino, Kenichi Satoh
Although many experts have attempted communication about radiation risk, fears about radiation exposure stemming from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident remain deeply rooted. The characteristics of the anxiety vary with social background, which makes it difficult to alleviate with one approach. Our ultimate goal is therefore to create risk-communication materials tailored to various groups with differing social backgrounds. Towards that end, the purpose of the present study was to clarify potential factors associated with radiation-related anxieties within these groups...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
W Naito, M Uesaka
The accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on 11 March 2011 released radioactive material into the atmosphere, and contaminated land in Fukushima and several neighbouring prefectures. During rehabilitation, it is important to accurately understand and determine individual external doses to allow individuals to make informed decisions about whether or not to return to the affected areas. Personal dosimeters (D-Shuttle), used together with a global positioning system and geographic information system device, can provide realistic individual external doses and associated individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity patterns of individuals in the affected areas of Fukushima...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Toshihiro Horiguchi, Keita Kodama, Takafumi Aramaki, Yoshiki Miyata, Seiya Nagao
In bottom-sediment samples collected in 2012 from a coastal strip (∼30 km × 120 km) off the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), radiocesium activity concentrations were generally higher south of the FDNPP, with high activity concentration patches in the north. In periodic surveys conducted at nearshore sites during 2012-2016, no clear temporal trends were observed in radiocesium activity concentrations in seawater or bottom sediment, and activity concentrations were higher in fish than in invertebrates...
March 30, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Masatsugu Orui, Yuriko Suzuki, Masaharu Maeda, Seiji Yasumura
BACKGROUND: Associations between nuclear disasters and suicide have been examined to a limited extent. AIM: To clarify the suicide rates in evacuation areas after the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which occurred in March 2011. METHOD: This descriptive study used monthly data from vital statistics between March 2009 and December 2015. Suicide rates in areas to which evacuation orders had been issued, requiring across-the-board, compulsory evacuation of residents from the entire or part of municipalities, were obtained and compared with the national average...
April 5, 2018: Crisis
Masaki Kawai, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Gen Suzuki
In March 2011, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident occurred and a large amount of radionuclides was released. To study its effect, we estimated the internal exposure due to intake of tap water in the early phase after the accident. As the number of measured values of tap water following the accident was limited, 131I concentration in tap water was estimated by 1-compartment model using the deposition amount of radionuclides calculated by an atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition simulation...
April 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hiroshi Yasuda
The Fukushima Daiichi accident highlighted the difficulty in making good decisions regarding post-accident actions for the protection of members of the public. Discussions are continuing between the authorities and the residents about 'how safe is safe'. Although governmental officials have argued that 20 mSv per year is a safe level of exposure, many residents have expressed strong doubts, and one of their major concerns is the greater health risk of radiation exposure for children. For settling this controversy, the author has demonstrated risk projections for cancer mortality of female children (0 to 18 years old) resulting from four different levels of radiocaesium deposits on the ground...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Kazuma Ogawa, Miho Aoki, Sumi Kadono, Akira Odani
90Sr, which was released into the atmosphere and the ocean following the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disasters, is an important nuclear fission element. Compounds that inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the bloodstream and enhance its elimination can be beneficial in decreasing the absorbed radiation dose in people exposed to 90Sr. Recently, we prepared complexes of myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP6) with zinc or lanthanum as decorporation agents. These complexes, called Zn-InsP6 and La-InsP6 respectively, are insoluble in water and can potentially chelate additional metal cations...
2018: PloS One
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