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Fukushima Daiichi

Akihiko Ozaki, Masaharu Tsubokura, Claire Leppold, Toyoaki Sawano, Manabu Tsukada, Tsuyoshi Nemoto, Kazuhiro Kosugi, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Shigeaki Kato, Hiromichi Ohira
RATIONALE: The primary setting of palliative care has shifted from inpatient care to patients' residences. Family caregiving is essential for patients with life-limiting illnesses to receive palliative care at home, however little information is available regarding potential interventions to achieve palliative homecare for those without sufficient support from family members in various settings, including disasters. PATIENT CONCERNS: In March 2011, Fukushima, Japan experienced an earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Masabumi Komatsu, Keizo Hirai, Junko Nagakura, Kyotaro Noguchi
We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha(-1)) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015). (137)Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Motoko Morimoto, Ayaka Kato, Jin Kobayashi, Kei Okuda, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yasushi Kino, Yasuyuki Abe, Tsutomu Sekine, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, Manabu Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, radioactive contaminants were released over a widespread area. Monitoring the biological effects of radiation exposure in animals in the ex-evacuation zone should be continued to understand the health effects of radiation exposure in humans. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of radiation by investigating whether there is any alteration in the morphology and gene expressions of immune molecules in the intestine of pigs and inobuta (wild boar and domestic pig hybrid) in the ex-evacuation zone in 2012...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Masaki Uesugi, Ryosuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Sakai, Akihiko Yokoyama
A rapid determination method of (90)Sr is developed for the monitoring of seawater around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Three ideas of chemical separation and measurements to accelerate (90)Sr analysis are investigated. Strontium is co-precipitated in a two-step procedure with hydroxyapatite after the removal of magnesium phosphate in the presence of citric acid. The purification process of strontium is in combination with solid phase extraction disks. One or two sheets of Sr Rad disk and cyclic operations are examined to eliminate interfering substances and secure the exchange capacity...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Masanobu Ishida, Hideo Yamazaki
Radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was analyzed via surface soil sampled during a two-month period after the accident. 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were detected in these soil samples. The activity and inventory of radioactive material in the eastern part of Tokyo tended to be high. The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in soil was 0.978 ± 0.053. The 131I/137Cs ratio fluctuated widely, and was 19.7 ± 9.0 (weighted average 18...
2017: PloS One
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
In the present study, (129)I activities and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios were measured in 60 soil samples contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The (127)I concentrations, (129)I activities, and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in dry-weight were observed to be 0.121-23.6 mg kg(-1), 0.962-275 mBq kg(-1), and (0.215-79.3) × 10(-7), respectively. The maximum values of both (129)I activities and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in Japanese soil increased about three orders of magnitude due to this accident...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yukihisa Sanada, Genki Katata, Naoki Kaneyasu, Chika Nakanishi, Yoshimi Urabe, Yukiyasu Nishizawa
To understand the formation process of radiologically contaminated areas in eastern Japan caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident, the deposition mechanisms over complex topography are the key factors to be investigated. To characterize the atmospheric deposition processes of radionuclides over complex mountainous topography, we investigated the altitudinal distributions of the radiocesium deposited during the accident. In five selected areas, altitudinal characteristics of the air dose rates observed using airborne surveys were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Weihua Zhang, Kurt Ungar
This article presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring obtained by three Canadian radiation monitoring stations before, after and during Fukushima-Daiichi accident. It includes 210 Pb, 212 Pb and 7 Be (naturally occurring radionuclides) and 131 I, 132 I, 129 Te, 129 m Te, 132 Te, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs and 133 Xe (Fukushima contaminants). The maximum activity concentrations were in range of 2.3-3.7 Bq/m 3 for 133 Xe; 2.0-4.4 mBq/m 3 for 131 I in aerosol form; 0.27-0.83 mBq/m 3 for 137 Cs depending on monitoring locations...
October 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Kazuhiko Hayano, Kumiko Okayama, Masatoshi Yamada
Six years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, data for (236)U and (236)U/(238)U have remained limited to a few heavily contaminated samples. In the present study, activities of (236)U, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu, along with other U isotopes in 46 soil samples both heavily and lightly contaminated by this accident were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and triple-quadrupole ICP-MS. The (236)U activities and (236)U/(238)U atom ratios in these soil samples were in the range of (0...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
C M Marianno, M R Smith, K M Cook
This paper will examine deposition patterns of four radionuclides following the Fukushima-Daiichi accident. For nearly 13 d following the event, fission products were released into the environment through planned venting procedures and hydrogen explosions. To assist the government of Japan (GOJ) in the assessment of the releases, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) deployed and took nearly 3 mo of measurements using airborne radiation sensors, fixed monitors, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, and health physics survey equipment...
October 18, 2017: Health Physics
Azusa Ishizaki, Yukihisa Sanada, Mutsushi Ishida, Masahiro Munakata
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident in 2011, aerial radiation monitoring (ARM) using a manned helicopter was conducted to rapidly measure air dose rates and the deposition of radioactive nuclides over a large area. Typically, the air dose rate is obtained by conversion from the count rate using conventional flat source model (FSM). The converted dose rate obtained via aerial monitoring poorly matches the results of ground measurement in the mountain and forest areas because FSM does not consider topographical effects...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sho Takahashi, Jun Shigemura, Yoshitomo Takahashi, Soichiro Nomura, Aihide Yoshino, Takeshi Tanigawa
OBJECTIVE: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The Daiichi workers faced multiple stressors (workplace trauma, victim experiences, and public criticism deriving from their company's post-disaster management). Literatures suggest the importance of workplace interpersonal support (WIS) in enhancing psychological health among disaster workers. We sought to elucidate the role of their demographics, disaster-related experiences, and post-traumatic stress symptoms on perceived WIS...
October 10, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Randeep Rakwal, Gohei Hayashi, Junko Shibato, Saligrama A Deepak, Seetaramanjaneyulu Gundimeda, Upendra Simha, Arunkumar Padmanaban, Ravi Gupta, Sang-Ik Han, Sun Tae Kim, Akihiro Kubo, Tetsuji Imanaka, Manabu Fukumoto, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Seiji Shioda
Here, we present an update on the next level of experiments studying the impact of the gamma radiation environment, created post-March, 2011 nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, on rice plant and its next generation - the seed. Japonica-type rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) plant was exposed to low-level gamma radiation (~4 μSv/h) in the contaminated Iitate Farm field in Iitate village (Fukushima). Seeds were harvested from these plants at maturity, and serve as the treated group...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Yang Li, Tetsuji Imanaka, Hitoshi Sato, Ken Ishida
Radiation contaminated soils are widespread around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and such soils raise concerns over its harmful effect on soil-dwelling organisms. We evaluated the effects of contaminated soil and moss sampled in Fukushima on the embryogenesis and hatching of aphid eggs, along with the measurement of the egg exposure dose. Cs-137 concentration in soil and moss from Fukushima ranged from 2200 to 3300 Bq/g and from 64 to 105 Bq/g, respectively. Eggs of the eriosomatine aphid Prociphilus oriens that were collected from a non-contaminated area were directly placed on the soil and moss for four or three months during diapause and then incubated until hatching...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Koki Kashiwaya, Yuta Muto, Taiki Kubo, Reo Ikawa, Shinji Nakaya, Katsuaki Koike, Atsunao Marui
Spatial variations in tritium concentrations in groundwater were identified in the southern part of the coastal region in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Higher tritium concentrations were measured at wells near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS). Mean tritium concentrations in precipitation in the 5 weeks after the F1NPS accident were estimated to be 433 and 139 TU at a distance of 25 and 50 km, respectively, from the F1NPS. The elevations of tritium concentrations in groundwater were calculated using a simple mixing model of the precipitation and groundwater...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda, Taeko Wakahara, Ayumi Kawamori
Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited radiocesium on the forest floor and the temporal evolution were measured in two Japanese cedar stands and a secondary mixed broad-leaved forest in the early phase of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In situ measurements of the (137)Cs gamma count were made using a portable germanium gamma ray detector. These measurements revealed that the forest floors were contaminated with radionuclides derived from the accident. In the cedar stands, the inter-canopy area had higher (137)Cs count rate relative to the under-canopy area, whereas no clear relationship was found between the radiocesium pattern and canopy cover in the mixed broad-leaved forest...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michio Murakami, Masaharu Tsubokura, Kyoko Ono, Shuhei Nomura, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
The 2011 Fukushima disaster led to increases in multiple risks (e.g., lifestyle diseases and radiation exposure) and fear among the public. Here, we assessed the additional risks of cancer caused by radiation and diabetes related to the disaster and the cost-effectiveness of countermeasures against these conditions. Our study included residents of the cities of Minamisoma and Soma (10-40 km and 35-50 km north of the Fukushima Daiichi (N° 1) Nuclear Power Station, respectively). We used the loss of life expectancy (LLE) as an indicator to compare risks between radiation exposure and diabetes...
2017: PloS One
Shunichi Yamashita
The increase in risk for late-onset thyroid cancer due to radiation exposure is a potential health effect after a nuclear power plant accident mainly due to the release of radioiodine in fallout. The risk is particularly elevated in those exposed during infancy and adolescence. To estimate the possibility and extent of thyroid cancer occurrence after exposure, it is of utmost importance to collect and analyze epidemiological information providing the basis for evaluation of radiation risk, and to consider radiobiology and molecular genetics...
September 27, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
N Arima
With confirmation of the cold shutdown conditions of the nuclear reactors after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the Japanese Government reclassified the areas under evacuation orders as follows: (1) difficult-to-return zones (>50 mSv y(-1)), (2) restricted residence zones (20-50 mSv y(-1)), and (3) zones in preparation for lifting of the evacuation order (<20 mSv y(-1)). The Government continued its initiatives towards reconstruction of Fukushima, and has lifted evacuation orders in Zones 2 and 3...
December 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Itaru Miura, Masato Nagai, Masaharu Maeda, Mayumi Harigane, Senta Fujii, Misari Oe, Hirooki Yabe, Yuriko Suzuki, Hideto Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Seiji Yasumura, Masafumi Abe
Predictive factors including risk perception for mid-term mental health after a nuclear disaster remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived radiation risk and other factors at baseline and mid-term mental health after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of 2011 in Japan. A mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2012 and January 2013. Mental health status was assessed using the K6 scale. Psychological distress over the 2-year period was categorized into the following four groups: chronic, recovered, resistant, or worsened...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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