Read by QxMD icon Read


Hideo Yamazaki, Masanobu Ishida, Ryoichi Hinokio, Yosuke Alexandre Yamashiki, Ryokei Azuma
A monitoring survey was conducted from August 2011 to July 2016 of the spatiotemporal distribution in the 400 km2 area of the northern part of Tokyo Bay and in rivers flowing into it of radiocesium released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The average inventory in the river mouth (10 km2) was 131 kBq⋅m-2 and 0.73 kBq⋅m-2 in the central bay (330 km2) as the decay corrected value on March 16, 2011. Most of the radiocesium that flowed into Tokyo Bay originated in the northeastern section of the Tokyo metropolitan area, where the highest precipitation zone of 137Cs in soil was almost the same level as that in Fukushima City, then flowed into and was deposited in the Old-Edogawa River estuary, deep in Tokyo Bay...
2018: PloS One
Roser Esplugas, Maria Isabel LLovet, Montserrat Bellés, Noemí Serra, Joan Carles Vallvé, José Luis Domingo, Victoria Linares
137-Cesium (137Cs) is one of the most important distributed radionuclides after a nuclear accident. Humans are usually co-exposed to various environmental toxicants, being Bisphenol-A (BPA) one of them. Exposure to IR and BPA in early life is of major concern, due to the higher vulnerability of developing organs. We evaluate the renal and hepatic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) and BPA. Sixty male mice (C57BL/6J) were randomly assigned to six experimental groups (n=10) and received a single subcutaneous dose of 0...
February 22, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mina Ha, Young Su Ju, Won Jin Lee, Seung Sik Hwang, Sang Chul Yoo, Kyung Hwa Choi, Eunae Burm, Jieon Lee, Yun Keun Lee, Sanghyuk Im
BACKGROUND: In 2011, two roads in a residential area in Seoul were found to be contaminated with the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). In response to public concerns, an epidemiological study was conducted. METHODS: The standardized cancer incidence ratios in the affected and neighboring regions were calculated based on the central cancer registry. Households in the region were sampled using the random stratified sampling technique, and questionnaires were administered to family members, via home visit and via students in elementary to high schools...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Hamza Al-Qasmi, Gareth T W Law, L Keith Fifield, John A Howe, Tim Brand, Gregory L Cowie, Kathleen A Law, Francis R Livens
The nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the Sellafield site (UK) have released low-level effluents into the Irish Sea under authorisation since 1952. This has led to the labelling of nearby offshore sediments with a range of artificial radionuclides. In turn, these sediments act as a long-term secondary source of both soluble and particle-associated radionuclides to coastal areas. These radionuclides are of interest both in assessing possible environmental impacts and as tracers for marine processes. Here we present results from a study of the geochemistry of natural (234, 238U) and artificial (137Cs, 241Am, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 236U) radionuclides and their accumulation in sediments from Loch Etive, Scotland...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Momo Kurihara, Yuichi Onda, Hiroaki Kato, Nicolas Loffredo, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Frederic Coppin
Cesium-137 (137Cs) migration in the litter layer consists of various processes, such as input via throughfall, output via litter decomposition, and input from deeper layers via soil organism activity. We conducted litter bag experiments over 2 years (December 2014-November 2016) to quantify the inputs and outputs of 137Cs in the litter layer in a Japanese cedar plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) and a mixed broadleaf forest dominated by Quercus serrata located 40 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mengistu T Teramage, Loic Carasco, Daniel Orjollet, Frederic Coppin
The effects of 137Cs deposit forms on its ageing in soil have not yet been reported. Soluble and Solid 137Cs input forms were mixed with the mineral soils collected under Fukushima's coniferous and broadleaf forests, incubated under controlled laboratory, and examined the evolution of 137Cs availability over time. Results show that the extracted 137Cs fraction with water was less than 1% for the soluble input form and below detection limit for the solid input forms. Likewise, with an acetate reagent, the extracted 137Cs fraction ranged from 46 to 56% for the soluble input and from 2 to 15% for the solid input, implying that the nature of the 137Cs contamination strongly influences its extractability and mobility in soil...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Weifeng Yang, Xiufeng Zhao, Fang Zhang, Ziming Fang, Haoyang Ma, Min Chen, Yusheng Qiu, Minfang Zheng
Over the past 30years, the rapid development of the Chinese economy resulted in environmental problems, especially in coastal areas. To discern the effects of anthropogenic activities, 210Pb and 137Cs were examined in the sediment from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea. The specific activity of 137Cs showed a clear maximum, corresponding to 1963. 210Pb specific activity varied from 25.1 to 78.5Bq kg-1. 210Pb distribution showed a hiatus at 18-19cm with 5-6cm of older sediment (>150years), indicating direct land-originating material over a short timescale rather than natural processes...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Matea Krmpotic, Martina Rožmaric, Branko Petrinec, Tomislav Bituh, Željka Fiket, Ljudmila Benedik
Major elements concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and the activity concentrations of 226,228Ra, 234,238U, 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in northern and eastern Croatian thermal and mineral waters, collected directly from springs (or wells), are presented herein with total effective doses assessed for those waters that are considered as drinking 'cures' and are available for consumption. The methods used for radionuclide determination included alpha-particle spectrometry, gas-proportional counting and gamma-ray spectrometry, while the major element composition was determined by ICP-MS...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Takahiro Yamashita, Hiroki Kamada, Yasuaki Kojima, Michihiro Shibata
We demonstrated coincidence summing corrections for the measured spectra of multi γ-ray emitters with the add-back mode of a 4π clover detector with an almost 98% solid angle condition using a Monte Carlo calculation based on nuclear decay data. The total and peak efficiencies were determined by Monte Carlo simulation code GEANT4 so that the experimental efficiencies measured mono/quasi-mono energetic γ-ray sources of 109Cd, 139Ce, 137Cs, 54Mn, 57, 60Co and 88Y may be reproduced well. Under a large solid angle condition, (i...
February 2, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jakub Kaizer, Michio Aoyama, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Mihály Molnár, László Palcsu, Pavel P Povinec
Impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on tritium (3H) and radiocarbon (14C) levels in the water column of the western North Pacific Ocean in winter 2012 is evaluated and compared with radiocesium (134,137Cs) data collected for the same region. Tritium concentrations in surface seawater, varying between 0.4 and 2.0 TU (47.2-236 Bq m-3), follow the Fukushima radiocesium trend, however, some differences in the vertical profiles were observed, namely in depths of 50-400 m. No correlation was visible in the case of 14C, whose surface Δ14C levels raised from negative values (about -40‰) in the northern part of transect, to positive values (∼68‰) near the equator...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Ješkovský, M Lištjak, I Sýkora, O Slávik, P P Povinec
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been one of the sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment. This work combines the results from monitoring stations around NPPs in Slovakia (Mochovce and Jaslovské Bohunice) and academic measurements at the Comenius University campus in Bratislava. Most of the atmospheric 137Cs in this region come from the resuspension of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs, as well as caesium produced during nuclear weapons testing. By comparison of the obtained results at NPPs with Bratislava data, radiation impacts of the NPPs on the local environments have been estimated to be negligible...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
V Ramzaev, A Barkovsky
Activity of biota is one of the factors influencing vertical migration of radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere onto the ground surface. The goal of this work was to study the vertical distribution of 137Cs in grassland soils disturbed by moles (Talpa europaea L.) in comparison with undisturbed grassland soils. Field observations and soil sampling were carried out in the areas of eight settlements in the Klintsovskiy, Krasnogorskiy and Novozybkovskiy districts of the Bryansk region, Russia in six years during the period 1999-2016...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
F Terrasi, R Buompane, A D'Onofrio, A Esposito, L Gialanella, F Marzaioli, A Petraglia, G Porzio, C Sabbarese, F Scolamacchia, C Sirignano
The assessment of the radiological impact of decommissioning activities at a Nuclear Power Plant requires a detailed mapping of the distribution of radionuclides both in the environment surrounding the NPP and in its structural material. The detection of long-lived actinide isotopes and possibly the identification of their origin is particularly interesting and valuable if ultrasensitive measurement of the relative abundance of U isotopes is performed via Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). In this paper we present an investigation carried out on the structural materials of the Garigliano NPP aiming to determine the abundance of 235,236,238U in the various compartments of the plant buildings under decommissioning...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A K Aidarkhanova, S N Lukashenko, N V Larionova, V V Polevik
This paper provides research data on levels and character of radionuclide contamination distribution in the «sediments- water - plants » system of objects of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). As the research objects there were chosen water bodies of man-made origin which located at the territory of "Experimental Field", "Balapan", "Telkem" and "Sary-Uzen" testing sites. For research the sampling of bottom sediments, water, lakeside and water plants was taken. Collected samples were used to determine concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yu Zhang, Bo Chen, Chao Zhao, Weihai Zhuo
In order to carry out on-site calibrations of environmental gamma dose rate monitors, a new irradiation apparatus was developed in this study. The apparatus mainly consists of a piece of 137Cs source, a set of beam attenuators, and 3 built-in laser rangefinders, and it can be remotely controlled by using a laptop through WiFi network. With an activity of 4.6 × 108 Bq of 137Cs source, the reference air kerma rate could be adjusted from 0.26 μGy h-1 to 140 μGy h-1 by changing the calibration distance from 0...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kazuyuki Sakuma, Hideki Tsuji, Seiji Hayashi, Hironori Funaki, Alex Malins, Kazuya Yoshimura, Hiroshi Kurikami, Akihiro Kitamura, Kazuki Iijima, Masaaki Hosomi
A study is presented on the applicability of the distribution coefficient (Kd) absorption/desorption model to simulate dissolved 137Cs concentrations in Fukushima river water. The upstream Ota River basin was simulated using GEneral-purpose Terrestrial Fluid-flow Simulator (GETFLOWS) for the period 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015. Good agreement was obtained between the simulations and observations on water and suspended sediment fluxes, and on particulate bound 137Cs concentrations under both base and high flow conditions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hyoe Takata, Masashi Kusakabe, Naohiko Inatomi, Takahito Ikenoue
Monitoring of 137Cs in seawater in coastal areas around Japan between 1983 and 2016 yielded new insights into the sources and transport of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived 137Cs, particularly along the west coast of Japan. Before the FDNPP accident (1983-2010), the activity concentrations of 137Cs, mainly from fallout, were decreasing exponentially. Effective 137Cs half-lives in surface seawater ranged from 15.6 to 18.4 yr. After the FDNPP accident (March 2011) 137Cs activity concentrations in seawater off Fukushima and neighboring prefectures immediately increased...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
S H Lee, J S Oh, K B Lee, J M Lee, S H Hwang, M K Lee, E H Kwon, C S Kim, I H Choi, I Y Yeo, J Y Yoon, J M Im
Food samples are collected nationwide from January 2016 to February 2017 and their contents of artificial radionuclides are measured to address the growing concerns regarding the radioactive contamination of food products in Korea. Specifically, 900 food samples are collected for this study and their contents of representative artificial radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 90Sr are analyzed. The analysis shows that the activity concentrations of 137Cs in fish range from minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 340 mBq/kg of fresh weight...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ravell Bengiat, Benny Bogoslavsky, Daniel Mandler, Joseph Almog
The nuclear disasters of Chernobyl and Fukushima presented an urgent need for finding solutions to treatment of radioactive wastes. Among the by-products of nuclear fission is the radioactive 137Cs, which evokes an environmental hazard due to its long half-life (>30 years) and high solubility in water. In this work, a water-soluble organic ligand, readily obtained from alloxan and 1,3,5-benzenetriol, has been found to selectively bind and precipitate Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions. The special rigid structure of the ligand, which consists of a "tripodal" carbonyl base above and below an aromatic plane, contributes to the size-driven selectivity towards the large Cs+ ions and the formation of a giant, insoluble supramolecular complex...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Akira Matsumoto, Hiroshi Myouse, Hisayuki Arakawa, Ken Higuchi, Naoto Hirakawa, Yoshiaki Morioka, Takuji Mizuno
We studied the very shallow coastal water off Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, and investigated: (1) temporal variation in 137Cs concentrations; (2) particle-size distribution of sediments; and (3) the effect on variation by waves, component-fractionated concentration of radiocesium and mineral composition at three sampling stations (Yotsukura, Ena rocky reef and Ena sandy station). There was a decline in 137Cs concentrations in sediment samples at all sampling stations between 425 and 1173 days after the accident...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"