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Hirokazu Miyatake, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Gen Suzuki
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment. Since the accident, measurements of radiation in the environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides have been performed by various organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously over widespread areas. Based on the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the prefectures surrounding Fukushima...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Mikhail I Balonov, Valery Kashparov, Elena Nikolaenko, Volodymyr Berkovsky, Sergey Fesenko
The article critically examines the practice of post-Chernobyl standardization of radionuclide concentrations (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) in food products in the USSR and the successor countries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Recommendations are given on potential harmonization of these standards of radionuclide concentrations in food products among three countries, taking into account substantial international experience. We propose to reduce the number of product groups for standardization purpose from the current several dozens to three to five groups to optimize radiation control and increase the transparency of the process...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Hiroshi Yasuda
The Fukushima Daiichi accident highlighted the difficulty in making good decisions regarding post-accident actions for the protection of members of the public. Discussions are continuing between the authorities and the residents about 'how safe is safe'. Although governmental officials have argued that 20 mSv per year is a safe level of exposure, many residents have expressed strong doubts, and one of their major concerns is the greater health risk of radiation exposure for children. For settling this controversy, the author has demonstrated risk projections for cancer mortality of female children (0 to 18 years old) resulting from four different levels of radiocaesium deposits on the ground...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Marek Piechowicz, R Chiarizia, L Soderholm
Uptake characteristics of a bis-amidoximated polymer are presented for 90Sr2+, 137Cs+, and 233UO22+ to assess rational ligand design and polymer engineering efforts applied to selective uranium extraction. Functionalized with the bis-amidoxime diaryl ether ligand at a loading of 1.98 mmol per gram of polymer, the polymer was found to sorb uranium from a pH 6 solution with a separation factor (α) over cesium of 1.2 × 103. Strontium uptake was negligible throughout the pH range studied whereas cesium uptake averaged <30%...
March 28, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hideo Yamazaki, Masanobu Ishida, Ryoichi Hinokio, Yosuke Alexandre Yamashiki, Ryokei Azuma
A monitoring survey was conducted from August 2011 to July 2016 of the spatiotemporal distribution in the 400 km2 area of the northern part of Tokyo Bay and in rivers flowing into it of radiocesium released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The average inventory in the river mouth (10 km2) was 131 kBq⋅m-2 and 0.73 kBq⋅m-2 in the central bay (330 km2) as the decay corrected value on March 16, 2011. Most of the radiocesium that flowed into Tokyo Bay originated in the northeastern section of the Tokyo metropolitan area, where the highest precipitation zone of 137Cs in soil was almost the same level as that in Fukushima City, then flowed into and was deposited in the Old-Edogawa River estuary, deep in Tokyo Bay...
2018: PloS One
Roser Esplugas, Maria Isabel LLovet, Montserrat Bellés, Noemí Serra, Joan Carles Vallvé, José Luis Domingo, Victoria Linares
137-Cesium (137 Cs) is one of the most important distributed radionuclides after a nuclear accident. Humans are usually co-exposed to various environmental toxicants, being Bisphenol-A (BPA) one of them. Exposure to IR and BPA in early life is of major concern, due to the higher vulnerability of developing organs. We evaluate the renal and hepatic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) and BPA. Sixty male mice (C57BL/6J) were randomly assigned to six experimental groups (n=10) and received a single subcutaneous dose of 0...
April 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mina Ha, Young Su Ju, Won Jin Lee, Seung Sik Hwang, Sang Chul Yoo, Kyung Hwa Choi, Eunae Burm, Jieon Lee, Yun Keun Lee, Sanghyuk Im
BACKGROUND: In 2011, two roads in a residential area in Seoul were found to be contaminated with the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). In response to public concerns, an epidemiological study was conducted. METHODS: The standardized cancer incidence ratios in the affected and neighboring regions were calculated based on the central cancer registry. Households in the region were sampled using the random stratified sampling technique, and questionnaires were administered to family members, via home visit and via students in elementary to high schools...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Hamza Al-Qasmi, Gareth T W Law, L Keith Fifield, John A Howe, Tim Brand, Gregory L Cowie, Kathleen A Law, Francis R Livens
The nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the Sellafield site (UK) have released low-level effluents into the Irish Sea under authorisation since 1952. This has led to the labelling of nearby offshore sediments with a range of artificial radionuclides. In turn, these sediments act as a long-term secondary source of both soluble and particle-associated radionuclides to coastal areas. These radionuclides are of interest both in assessing possible environmental impacts and as tracers for marine processes. Here we present results from a study of the geochemistry of natural (234, 238 U) and artificial (137 Cs, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, and 236 U) radionuclides and their accumulation in sediments from Loch Etive, Scotland...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Momo Kurihara, Yuichi Onda, Hiroaki Kato, Nicolas Loffredo, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Frederic Coppin
Cesium-137 (137 Cs) migration in the litter layer consists of various processes, such as input via throughfall, output via litter decomposition, and input from deeper layers via soil organism activity. We conducted litter bag experiments over 2 years (December 2014-November 2016) to quantify the inputs and outputs of 137 Cs in the litter layer in a Japanese cedar plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) and a mixed broadleaf forest dominated by Quercus serrata located 40 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mengistu T Teramage, Loic Carasco, Daniel Orjollet, Frederic Coppin
The effects of 137 Cs deposit forms on its ageing in soil have not yet been reported. Soluble and Solid 137 Cs input forms were mixed with the mineral soils collected under Fukushima's coniferous and broadleaf forests, incubated under controlled laboratory, and examined the evolution of 137 Cs availability over time. Results show that the extracted 137 Cs fraction with water was less than 1% for the soluble input form and below detection limit for the solid input forms. Likewise, with an acetate reagent, the extracted 137 Cs fraction ranged from 46 to 56% for the soluble input and from 2 to 15% for the solid input, implying that the nature of the 137 Cs contamination strongly influences its extractability and mobility in soil...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Weifeng Yang, Xiufeng Zhao, Fang Zhang, Ziming Fang, Haoyang Ma, Min Chen, Yusheng Qiu, Minfang Zheng
Over the past 30years, the rapid development of the Chinese economy resulted in environmental problems, especially in coastal areas. To discern the effects of anthropogenic activities, 210 Pb and 137 Cs were examined in the sediment from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea. The specific activity of 137 Cs showed a clear maximum, corresponding to 1963. 210 Pb specific activity varied from 25.1 to 78.5Bq kg-1 . 210 Pb distribution showed a hiatus at 18-19cm with 5-6cm of older sediment (>150years), indicating direct land-originating material over a short timescale rather than natural processes...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Matea Krmpotic, Martina Rožmaric, Branko Petrinec, Tomislav Bituh, Željka Fiket, Ljudmila Benedik
Major elements concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and the activity concentrations of 226,228Ra, 234,238U, 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in northern and eastern Croatian thermal and mineral waters, collected directly from springs (or wells), are presented herein with total effective doses assessed for those waters that are considered as drinking 'cures' and are available for consumption. The methods used for radionuclide determination included alpha-particle spectrometry, gas-proportional counting and gamma-ray spectrometry, while the major element composition was determined by ICP-MS...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Takahiro Yamashita, Hiroki Kamada, Yasuaki Kojima, Michihiro Shibata
We demonstrated coincidence summing corrections for the measured spectra of multi γ-ray emitters with the add-back mode of a 4π clover detector with an almost 98% solid angle condition using a Monte Carlo calculation based on nuclear decay data. The total and peak efficiencies were determined by Monte Carlo simulation code GEANT4 so that the experimental efficiencies measured mono/quasi-mono energetic γ-ray sources of 109 Cd, 139 Ce, 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 57, 60 Co and 88 Y may be reproduced well. Under a large solid angle condition, (i...
May 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jakub Kaizer, Michio Aoyama, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Mihály Molnár, László Palcsu, Pavel P Povinec
Impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on tritium (3 H) and radiocarbon (14 C) levels in the water column of the western North Pacific Ocean in winter 2012 is evaluated and compared with radiocesium (134,137 Cs) data collected for the same region. Tritium concentrations in surface seawater, varying between 0.4 and 2.0 TU (47.2-236 Bq m-3 ), follow the Fukushima radiocesium trend, however, some differences in the vertical profiles were observed, namely in depths of 50-400 m. No correlation was visible in the case of 14 C, whose surface Δ14 C levels raised from negative values (about -40‰) in the northern part of transect, to positive values (∼68‰) near the equator...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Ješkovský, M Lištjak, I Sýkora, O Slávik, P P Povinec
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been one of the sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment. This work combines the results from monitoring stations around NPPs in Slovakia (Mochovce and Jaslovské Bohunice) and academic measurements at the Comenius University campus in Bratislava. Most of the atmospheric 137 Cs in this region come from the resuspension of the Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs, as well as caesium produced during nuclear weapons testing. By comparison of the obtained results at NPPs with Bratislava data, radiation impacts of the NPPs on the local environments have been estimated to be negligible...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
V Ramzaev, A Barkovsky
Activity of biota is one of the factors influencing vertical migration of radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere onto the ground surface. The goal of this work was to study the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in grassland soils disturbed by moles (Talpa europaea L.) in comparison with undisturbed grassland soils. Field observations and soil sampling were carried out in the areas of eight settlements in the Klintsovskiy, Krasnogorskiy and Novozybkovskiy districts of the Bryansk region, Russia in six years during the period 1999-2016...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
F Terrasi, R Buompane, A D'Onofrio, A Esposito, L Gialanella, F Marzaioli, A Petraglia, G Porzio, C Sabbarese, F Scolamacchia, C Sirignano
The assessment of the radiological impact of decommissioning activities at a Nuclear Power Plant requires a detailed mapping of the distribution of radionuclides both in the environment surrounding the NPP and in its structural material. The detection of long-lived actinide isotopes and possibly the identification of their origin is particularly interesting and valuable if ultrasensitive measurement of the relative abundance of U isotopes is performed via Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). In this paper we present an investigation carried out on the structural materials of the Garigliano NPP aiming to determine the abundance of 235,236,238 U in the various compartments of the plant buildings under decommissioning...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A K Aidarkhanova, S N Lukashenko, N V Larionova, V V Polevik
This paper provides research data on levels and character of radionuclide contamination distribution in the «sediments- water - plants » system of objects of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). As the research objects there were chosen water bodies of man-made origin which located at the territory of "Experimental Field", "Balapan", "Telkem" and "Sary-Uzen" testing sites. For research the sampling of bottom sediments, water, lakeside and water plants was taken. Collected samples were used to determine concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yu Zhang, Bo Chen, Chao Zhao, Weihai Zhuo
In order to carry out on-site calibrations of environmental gamma dose rate monitors, a new irradiation apparatus was developed in this study. The apparatus mainly consists of a piece of 137 Cs source, a set of beam attenuators, and 3 built-in laser rangefinders, and it can be remotely controlled by using a laptop through WiFi network. With an activity of 4.6 × 108 Bq of 137 Cs source, the reference air kerma rate could be adjusted from 0.26 μGy h-1 to 140 μGy h-1 by changing the calibration distance from 0...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kazuyuki Sakuma, Hideki Tsuji, Seiji Hayashi, Hironori Funaki, Alex Malins, Kazuya Yoshimura, Hiroshi Kurikami, Akihiro Kitamura, Kazuki Iijima, Masaaki Hosomi
A study is presented on the applicability of the distribution coefficient (Kd ) absorption/desorption model to simulate dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in Fukushima river water. The upstream Ota River basin was simulated using GEneral-purpose Terrestrial Fluid-flow Simulator (GETFLOWS) for the period 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015. Good agreement was obtained between the simulations and observations on water and suspended sediment fluxes, and on particulate bound 137 Cs concentrations under both base and high flow conditions...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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