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Rong Wang Yingying Chu Mengjun Chen
137Cs+/90Sr2+ adsorption kinetics on natural Ca-bentonite under the impact of different adsorption conditions was examined in detail. The results indicate that natural Ca-bentonite shows a strong adsorption capacity for Cs+/Sr2+. The adsorption reached at equilibrium after 2 h for Cs+. Cs+/Sr2+removal efficiency reaches the highest when the pH value is 5-8 and increases with the increase of Ca-bentonite adding amount. Cs+ removal efficiency increases with the increase of Cs+ initial concentration, while Sr2+ removal efficiency slightly varies around 70%...
May 19, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Jixin Qiao, Peter Steier, Sven Nielsen, Xiaolin Hou, Per Roos, Robin Golser
This work focuses on the occurrence of (236)U in seawater along Danish coasts, which is the sole water-exchange region between the North Sea-Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Seawater collected in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for (236)U (as well as (238)U and (137)Cs). Our results indicate that (236)U concentrations in Danish seawater are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (3.6-8.2) × 10(7) atom/L and, to a certain extent, independent of salinity. (236)U/(238)U atomic ratios in Danish seawater are more than 4 times higher than the estimated global fallout value of 1× 10(-9)...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Li-Hong Yao, Jun-Jie Wang, Charles Shang, Ping Jiang, Lei Lin, Hai-Tao Sun, Lu Liu, Hao Liu, Di He, Rui-Jie Yang
BACKGROUND: A novel radioactive 125I seed-loaded biliary stent has been used for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. However, the dosimetric characteristics of the stents remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to describe the dosimetry of the stents of different lengths - with different number as well as activities of 125I seeds. METHODS: The radiation dosimetry of three representative radioactive stent models was evaluated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations...
May 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
Michelle Howard, Chris Beltran, Jann Sarkaria, Michael G Herman
Various types of radiation are utilized in the treatment of cancer. Equal physical doses of different radiation types do not always result in the same amount of biological damage. In order to account for these differences, a scaling factor known as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) can be used. 137Cesium (137Cs) has been used as a source of radiation in a significant body of radiation therapy research. However, high-energy X-rays, such as 6 MV X-rays, are currently used clinically to treat patients...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Marcelino Hermida-López, Lorenzo Brualla
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum on the Monte Carlo simulation of (106) Ru/(106) Rh ophthalmic plaques, which has been neglected without a quantitative estimation in all previous publications. METHODS: Simulations were run with the penelope 2014 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. Depth-dose distributions in water were simulated for the plaque models CCA, CCC, CCX and CIA. In addition to the (106) Rh beta spectrum, all gamma components from the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were included in the simulations...
April 1, 2017: Medical Physics
Dogan Yasar, Enis Kapdan, Muharrem Korkmaz
The Active personal dosemeter (APD) developed by Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center/Nuclear Electronic Laboratory (ÇNRTC/NEL) was calibrated at the reference radiation quality (137Cs). The performance tests were carried out with 137Cs, 60Co and X-ray beam qualities in compliance with the standards of International Organization for Standardization ISO4037-1,3 and The International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC61526:2010. Response of the personal dose equivalent was observed to be within the range from -7...
March 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Yumiko Ishii, Seiji Hayashi, Noriko Takamura
To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5-2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi...
2017: PloS One
Huiping Guo, Chenyang Tian, Hongbin Xue, Ning Lv, Yingguang Wei, Guangzhi Fu, Wenhui Lv, Kuo Zhao, Yijie Hou
For Cs and Co gamma ray spectra, gamma ray energy is proportional to the amplitude of the pulse signal, and energy resolution can be improved by pulse signal processing with mathematical algorithms. Influenced by system measurement noise and baseline fluctuation, the pulse amplitude is difficult to calculate accurately. A method that combines the Kalman filter baseline estimation with the non-linear exponential fitting has been used. By this method, the pulse signal is divided into two parts: one is the raising edge before the pulse peak, and another is after the pulse peak...
March 2017: Health Physics
Seiichi Wada, Nobuhiko Ito, Masamichi Watanabe, Takehiko Kakizaki, Masahiro Natsuhori, Jun Kawamata, Yoshio Urayama
As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter...
2017: PloS One
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
Emilie Bayart, Frédéric Pouzoulet, Lucie Calmels, Jonathan Dadoun, Fabien Allot, Johann Plagnard, Jean-Luc Ravanat, André Bridier, Marc Denozière, Jean Bourhis, Eric Deutsch
Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source...
2017: PloS One
V M Shkarupa, S V Klymenko, V V Talko
OBJECTIVE: Cytogenetic analysis of the effects of sodium humate in induced γ irradiation mutagenesis in Allium test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. seeds carried by ana telophase. Inves tigated the effect of sodium humate (100 mg/l) on cytogenetic effects γ irradiation (137Cs) at doses of 5, 10 and 20 Gy. RESULTS: Antimutagenic effect of sodium humate was revealed, what allows to consider it as potential therapeutic modifier of radiation damage...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
D E Afanasyev, O V Kaminskyi, O V Kopylova, I G Chikalova, I M Muraveva, K O Vakoluk, O V Pronin, O O Samoylov, T O Belingio, O V Tepla, L V Rozhkivska, I V Ylyanchenko, K V Gryschenko, L O Tsvet, N S Dombrovska
The objective of this paper is to analyze the data from scientific literature and available recommendations for health professionals on healthcare providing to pediatric population in the events associated with risk of radiation exposure. Over the past sixty years there were several large scale radiological events with a large number of chil dren affected, namely the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant, contact to 137Cs radiation source unutilized at the hospital shutdown in Brazil etc...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Hassan Alinaghizadeh, Robert Wålinder, Eva Vingård, Martin Tondel
OBJECTIVES: To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. METHODS: A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of (137)Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare...
December 20, 2016: BMJ Open
Karl Östlund, Christer Samuelsson, Sören Mattsson, Christopher L Rääf
The peak-to-valley (PTV) method was investigated experimentally comparing PTV ratios for three HPGe detectors, with complementary Monte Carlo simulations of scatter in air for larger source-detector distances. The measured PTV ratios for 137Cs in air were similar for three different detectors for incident angles between 0 and 90°. The study indicated that the PTV method can differentiate between surface and shallow depth sources if the detector field of view is limited to a radius of less than 3.5m.
February 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A A Oudalova, S V Pyatkova, S A Geras'kin, S M Kiselev, S V Akhromeev
This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly...
March 2016: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
Jian Zheng, Liguo Cao, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
High yield fission products, (135)Cs and (137)Cs, have entered the environment as a result of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Analytical methods for ultratrace measurement of (135)Cs and (137)Cs are required for environmental geochemical and nuclear forensics studies. Here we report a highly sensitive method combining a desolvation sample introduction system (APEX-Q) with triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (AEPX-ICPMS/MS) for the determination of (135)Cs and (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratio at femtogram levels...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Junko Maeda, Ian M Cartwright, Jeremy S Haskins, Yoshihiro Fujii, Hiroshi Fujisawa, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Mitsuru Uesaka, Hisashi Kitamura, Akira Fujimori, Douglas H Thamm, Takamitsu A Kato
Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
A Vargas, A Camacho, M Laubenstein, W Plastino
Aerosol samples collected at the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona were analysed for traces of 134Cs and 137Cs emitted during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Samples were collected with a high-volume airborne particulate sampling system, and with a dry and wet deposition collection system for subsequent analysis. Due to the very low activities, the filters were measured in an underground ultra-low background laboratory. This has enabled the characterization of dry velocity deposition for 134Cs and 137Cs...
March 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Wei-Han Chu, Chin-Hsien Yeh, Ming-Chen Yuan
The National Radiation Standard Laboratory of Taiwan organized in 2014 a comparison exercise by distributing 210 L drum-typed samples to seven radioactive waste analysis laboratories in Taiwan. Four drums were filled with uniformly distributed active carbon, water, resin and concrete, respectively and five drums were filled with cracked metals and heterogeneously distributed radioactive sources. Measurement uncertainties of participants results are in the range 3–40% (k=2) and about 96% of the reported results produced En values (ISO, 1997) smaller than one for drums with activity uniformly distributed...
March 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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