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Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
Emilie Bayart, Frédéric Pouzoulet, Lucie Calmels, Jonathan Dadoun, Fabien Allot, Johann Plagnard, Jean-Luc Ravanat, André Bridier, Marc Denozière, Jean Bourhis, Eric Deutsch
Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source...
2017: PloS One
V M Shkarupa, S V Klymenko, V V Talko
OBJECTIVE: Cytogenetic analysis of the effects of sodium humate in induced γ irradiation mutagenesis in Allium test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. seeds carried by ana telophase. Inves tigated the effect of sodium humate (100 mg/l) on cytogenetic effects γ irradiation (137Cs) at doses of 5, 10 and 20 Gy. RESULTS: Antimutagenic effect of sodium humate was revealed, what allows to consider it as potential therapeutic modifier of radiation damage...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
D E Afanasyev, O V Kaminskyi, O V Kopylova, I G Chikalova, I M Muraveva, K O Vakoluk, O V Pronin, O O Samoylov, T O Belingio, O V Tepla, L V Rozhkivska, I V Ylyanchenko, K V Gryschenko, L O Tsvet, N S Dombrovska
The objective of this paper is to analyze the data from scientific literature and available recommendations for health professionals on healthcare providing to pediatric population in the events associated with risk of radiation exposure. Over the past sixty years there were several large scale radiological events with a large number of chil dren affected, namely the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant, contact to 137Cs radiation source unutilized at the hospital shutdown in Brazil etc...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Hassan Alinaghizadeh, Robert Wålinder, Eva Vingård, Martin Tondel
OBJECTIVES: To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. METHODS: A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of (137)Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare...
December 20, 2016: BMJ Open
Karl Östlund, Christer Samuelsson, Sören Mattsson, Christopher L Rääf
The peak-to-valley (PTV) method was investigated experimentally comparing PTV ratios for three HPGe detectors, with complementary Monte Carlo simulations of scatter in air for larger source-detector distances. The measured PTV ratios for 137Cs in air were similar for three different detectors for incident angles between 0 and 90°. The study indicated that the PTV method can differentiate between surface and shallow depth sources if the detector field of view is limited to a radius of less than 3.5m.
February 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
A A Oudalova, S V Pyatkova, S A Geras'kin, S M Kiselev, S V Akhromeev
This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly...
March 2016: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
Jian Zheng, Liguo Cao, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
High yield fission products, (135)Cs and (137)Cs, have entered the environment as a result of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Analytical methods for ultratrace measurement of (135)Cs and (137)Cs are required for environmental geochemical and nuclear forensics studies. Here we report a highly sensitive method combining a desolvation sample introduction system (APEX-Q) with triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (AEPX-ICPMS/MS) for the determination of (135)Cs and (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratio at femtogram levels...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Junko Maeda, Ian M Cartwright, Jeremy S Haskins, Yoshihiro Fujii, Hiroshi Fujisawa, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Mitsuru Uesaka, Hisashi Kitamura, Akira Fujimori, Douglas H Thamm, Takamitsu A Kato
Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
A Vargas, A Camacho, M Laubenstein, W Plastino
Aerosol samples collected at the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona were analysed for traces of 134Cs and 137Cs emitted during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Samples were collected with a high-volume airborne particulate sampling system, and with a dry and wet deposition collection system for subsequent analysis. Due to the very low activities, the filters were measured in an underground ultra-low background laboratory. This has enabled the characterization of dry velocity deposition for 134Cs and 137Cs...
March 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Wei-Han Chu, Chin-Hsien Yeh, Ming-Chen Yuan
The National Radiation Standard Laboratory of Taiwan organized in 2014 a comparison exercise by distributing 210 L drum-typed samples to seven radioactive waste analysis laboratories in Taiwan. Four drums were filled with uniformly distributed active carbon, water, resin and concrete, respectively and five drums were filled with cracked metals and heterogeneously distributed radioactive sources. Measurement uncertainties of participants results are in the range 3–40% (k=2) and about 96% of the reported results produced En values (ISO, 1997) smaller than one for drums with activity uniformly distributed...
March 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Hyoe Takata, Masashi Kusakabe, Naohiko Inatomi, Takahito Ikenoue, Kazuyuki Hasegawa
We have evaluated the contribution of sources of (137)Cs to the inventory of radiocesium in waters (surface area: 6160 km(2), water volume: 753 km(3)) off Fukushima Prefecture and neighboring prefectures from May 2011 to February 2015. A time-series of the inventory of (137)Cs in the offshore waters revealed a clearly decreasing trend from May 2011 (283.4 TBq) to February 2015 (1.89 TBq). The (137)Cs inventory about four years after the accident was approximately twice the background inventory of 1.1 TBq. The magnitudes of the (137)Cs influxes from sources into offshore waters for periods of 182-183 days were estimated from the first period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2012: 15...
July 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
G A Posypanova, E Yu Moskaleva, A V Rodina, Yu P Semochkina, M G Ratushnjak, V G Perevozchikova
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exist in the brain in addition to the neural stem cells (NSC). The aim of this work was to investigate the sensitivity of mouse brain MSC (MSC(BR)) to sublethal doses of γ-radiation in comparison with the sensitivity of bone marrow MSC (MSC(BM)) and NSC and to study the effects of γ-irradiation at low doses on these cells. Cells were exposed to γ-radiation (137Cs) at the doses of 10 to 200 mGy at a dose rate of 10 mGy/min; higher doses were achieved at the dose rates of 200 and 500 mGy/min (60Co)...
January 2016: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
Yusuke Urushihara, Koh Kawasumi, Satoru Endo, Kenichi Tanaka, Yasuko Hirakawa, Gohei Hayashi, Tsutomu Sekine, Yasushi Kino, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Masatoshi Suzuki, Motoi Fukumoto, Hideaki Yamashiro, Yasuyuki Abe, Tomokazu Fukuda, Hisashi Shinoda, Emiko Isogai, Toshiro Arai, Manabu Fukumoto
The effect of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on humans and the environment is a global concern. We performed biochemical analyses of plasma from 49 Japanese Black cattle that were euthanized in the ex-evacuation zone set within a 20-km radius of FNPP. Among radionuclides attributable to the FNPP accident, germanium gamma-ray spectrometry detected photopeaks only from 134Cs and 137Cs (radiocesium) commonly in the organs and in soil examined. Radioactivity concentration of radiocesium was the highest in skeletal muscles...
2016: PloS One
Neda Zaker, Mehdi Zehtabian, Sedigheh Sina, Craig Koontz, Ali S Meigooni
Monte Carlo simulations are widely used for calculation of the dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources. MCNP4C2, MCNP5, MCNPX, EGS4, EGSnrc, PTRAN, and GEANT4 are among the most commonly used codes in this field. Each of these codes utilizes a cross-sectional library for the purpose of simulating different elements and materials with complex chemical compositions. The accuracies of the final outcomes of these simulations are very sensitive to the accuracies of the cross-sectional libraries. Several investigators have shown that inaccuracies of some of the cross section files have led to errors in 125I and 103Pd parameters...
March 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mitsuko Katsukawa, Yusuke Nakajima, Akiko Fukumoto, Daisuke Doi, Jun Takahashi
Cell replacement therapy holds great promise for Parkinson's disease (PD), but residual undifferentiated cells and immature neural progenitors in the therapy may cause tumor formation. Although cell sorting could effectively exclude these proliferative cells, from the viewpoint of clinical application, there exists no adequate coping strategy in the case of their contamination. In this study, we analyzed a component of proliferative cells in the grafts of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors and investigated the effect of radiation therapy on tumor formation...
June 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
V V Deryagin, S G Levina, A A Sutyagin, N S Parfilova
Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish...
November 2015: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
Kazuma Ogawa, Tadahisa Fukuda, Jaegab Han, Yoji Kitamura, Kazuhiro Shiba, Akira Odani
BACKGROUND: Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr...
2016: PloS One
Ke Pan, Qiao-Guo Tan, Wen-Xiong Wang
Interpreting the variable concentrations of (137)Cs in the field biological samples requires mechanistic understanding of both environmental and biological behavior of (137)Cs. In this study, we used a two-compartment model to estimate and compare the (137)Cs biokinetics in three species of subtropical marine bivalves. Significant interspecific difference of (137)Cs biokinetics was observed among oysters, mussels, and scallops. There was considerable (137)Cs assimilation from phytoplankton in the bivalves, but the calculated trophic transfer factors were generally between 0...
March 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
N Patrik Brodin, Yong Chen, Ravindra Yaparpalvi, Chandan Guha, Wolfgang A Tomé
Shielded Cs irradiators are routinely used in pre-clinical radiation research to perform in vitro or in vivo investigations. Without appropriate dosimetry and irradiation protocols in place, there can be large uncertainty in the delivered dose of radiation between irradiated subjects that could lead to inaccurate and possibly misleading results. Here, a dosimetric evaluation of the JL Shepard Mark I-68A Cs irradiator and an irradiation technique for whole-body irradiation of small animals that allows one to limit the between subject variation in delivered dose to ±3% are provided...
February 2016: Health Physics
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