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Akira Matsumoto, Hiroshi Myouse, Hisayuki Arakawa, Ken Higuchi, Naoto Hirakawa, Yoshiaki Morioka, Takuji Mizuno
We studied the very shallow coastal water off Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, and investigated: (1) temporal variation in 137Cs concentrations; (2) particle-size distribution of sediments; and (3) the effect on variation by waves, component-fractionated concentration of radiocesium and mineral composition at three sampling stations (Yotsukura, Ena rocky reef and Ena sandy station). There was a decline in 137Cs concentrations in sediment samples at all sampling stations between 425 and 1173 days after the accident...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Immediately after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, a team of 40-50 researchers at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo began to analyze the behavior of radioactive materials in the fallout regions. The fallout has remained in situ and become strongly adsorbed within the soil over time. 137Cs was found to bind strongly to the fine clay, weathered biotite, and organic matter in the soil; therefore, it has not mobilized from mountainous regions, even after heavy rainfall...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Siyu Huang, Junbing Pu, Jianhua Cao, Jianhong Li, Tao Zhang, Feng Jiang, Li Li, Feihong Wu, Moucheng Pan, Bing Bai
Reservoirs are commonly recharged by groundwater that is rich in bicarbonate ions in karst regions of South China, and the recharge of this groundwater to the reservoir can affect the biogeochemical processes of carbon sedimentation at the reservoir bottom. In this study, Dalongdong Reservoir, which is mainly recharged by two subterranean streams, was investigated based on a 42-cm-thick sedimentary core and the 210Pb/137Cs dating technique and isotope analyses to understand the sedimentary history and identify the carbon sources...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P Bouisset, M Nohl, A Bouville, G Leclerc
Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out by the United States, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China between 1945 and 1980 resulted in radioactive fallout over the earth's surface of long-lived radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu that could be detected more than 50 years after their production. In addition, the burnup in the upper atmosphere of a thermoelectric generator fueled by 238Pu, SNAP-9A, contributed to the inventory of 238Pu deposited on the ground. In order to estimate the deposition densities of 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu in French Polynesia, we collected undisturbed soil samples up to 30 cm deep at eight sites in two islands (Hiva Oa, 139°W - 10°S and Raivavae, 148°W - 24°S) in 2015-2016...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hyuncheol Kim, Minsun Kim, Wanno Lee, Soonhyun Kim
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster in Japan in 2011, the demand drastically increased for efficient technology for the removal of radioactive cesium. Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles have shown excellent adsorption ability toward Cs. In this study, we synthesized PB nanoparticles incorporated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber (PB/PAN). PB/PAN has the porous structure of nanofibers, with diameters of several hundred nanometers. PB nanoparticles can be incorporated successfully into the PAN matrix without any change to their intrinsic crystallinity and structure...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mohammad Mehdi Firoozabadi, Elaheh Jimabadi, Mahdi Ghorbani, Marziyeh Behmadi
The CSM40 137Cs source model is currently being used in clinical brachytherapy. According to the recommendations of task group No. 43 (TG-43) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, dosimetry parameters of brachytherapy sources should be determined by two independent investigators before their clinical use. The aim of this study was to determine the TG-43 dosimetry parameters for a medium-dose-rate CSM40 137Cs source. The determined dosimetric parameters included the air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function...
January 3, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Alexis M Korotasz, Albert L Bryan
Plants are an important mode of transfer of contaminants from sediments into food webs. In aquatic ecosystems, contaminant uptake by macrophytes can vary by path of nutrient uptake (roots vs. absorption from water column). Carnivorous plants likely have additional exposure through consumption of small aquatic organisms. This study expanded on previous research suggesting that bladderworts (Genus Utricularia) accumulate radiocesium (137Cs) and examined for (1) a potential association between sediment and plant concentrations and (2) differences in 137Cs accumulation among rooted and free floating Utricularia species...
January 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
O M Ivanova, S V Masiuk, Z N Boiko, M I Chepurny, V B Gerasymenko, G V Fedosenko, V V Vasylenko, L O Lytvynets, V O Pikta, L M Kovgan, N S Zhadan, S O Tereshchenko, I G Kravchenko, G I Коrtushin, O D Marcenjuk, A G Kukush
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To elaborate an ecological dosimetric model of reconstruction individualized exposure doses of subjects from the State Register of Ukraine (SRU) - of persons, affected due to Chornobyl accident and reside at the radioactive contaminated territory of Korosten raion of Zhytomyr Oblast, and to calculate exposure doses for those persons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the paper, an ecological dosimetric model is presented which is elaborated in order to individualize exposure doses of people who reside in Korosten raion of Zhytomyr Oblast and are registered in SRU...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Toru Sasaki, Katsumi Aoki, Ryosuke Yamashita, Kensuke Hori, Taiga Kato, Misaki Saito, Kazuhiro Niisawa, Kotaro Nagatsu, Tadashi Nozaki
An externally controllable sealed isotope generator has been proposed for radiation education activities. Column (68Ge-68Ga and 137Cs-137mBa) and solvent extraction (68Ge-68Ga)-based isotope generators were applied as radioactive sources. These generators showed high milking efficiencies and low breakthrough after repeated uses, and are expected to promote the use of isotope generators without radioactive contamination or the emission of radioactive waste. This isotope generator provides a new concept for sealed radioisotope sources...
December 18, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
H Velasco, R Torres Astorga, D Joseph, J S Antoine, L Mabit, A Toloza, G Dercon, Des E Walling
Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Keiko Matsunaga, Masahiro Yanagawa, Tomoyuki Otsuka, Haruhiko Hirata, Takashi Kijima, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Noriyuki Tomiyama, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa
BACKGROUND: Physiological measures per lung parenchyma, rather than per lung volume, sometimes reflect the disease status. PET images of the lung, which are usually expressed per lung volume, could confound the interpretation of the disease status, especially in cases with a prominent heterogeneity in aeration. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for measuring pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with aeration correction using 15O-H2O PET and to compare the results with those obtained using a conventional method...
December 22, 2017: EJNMMI Research
Karan Kumar Gupta, R M Kadam, N S Dhoble, S P Lochab, S J Dhoble
The present paper reports on the γ-ray and C6+ ion beam induced effect on the structural and luminescence properties of Eu doped LiNaSO4 phosphors synthesized via wet the chemical method. The material was irradiated by 60Co and 137Cs γ-rays and 75 MeV C6+ ions in a fluence range varying from 2 × 1010 to 1 × 1012 ion per cm2. The ion induced modified properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies...
December 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Junko Takahashi, Shokichi Wakabayashi, Kenji Tamura, Yuichi Onda
After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, continuous monitoring of the detailed vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil is required to evaluate the fate of radiocesium and establish strategies for remediation and management of the contaminated land. It is especially important to investigate paddy soil because little knowledge has been accumulated for paddy soil and wetland rice is a major staple in Japan. Therefore, we monitored the vertical distribution of 137Cs in abandoned paddy soil in a planned evacuation zone from June 2011 to March 2016...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Tyler L Fowler, Michael M Fisher, Alison M Bailey, Bryan P Bednarz, Randall J Kimple
To evaluate the overall robustness of a novel cellular irradiator we performed a series of well-characterized, dose-responsive assays to assess the consequences of DNA damage. We used a previously described novel irradiation system and a traditional 137Cs source to irradiate a cell line. The generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed using chloromethyl-H2DCFDA dye, the induction of DNA DSBs was observed using the comet assay, and the initiation of DNA break repair was assessed through γH2AX image cytometry...
2017: PloS One
M Inoue, Y Shirotani, S Nagao, T Aramaki, Y I Kim, K Hayakawa
We examined the spatial distributions of 226Ra, 228Ra, 134Cs, and 137Cs concentrations (activities) in seawater off the western and southern Korean Peninsula in July 2014. Radium-228 (and 226Ra) concentrations in water samples varied widely from 5 to 14 mBq/L (2-4 mBq/L), showing a negative correlation with salinity, particularly at the surface off the western Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the seawaters in this area are fundamentally comprised of 228Ra-poor and high-saline Kuroshio Current water and 228Ra-rich and low-saline water (e...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Inoue, Y Shirotani, S Yamashita, H Takata, H Kofuji, D Ambe, N Honda, Y Yagi, S Nagao
To investigate the dispersion of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived radiocesium in the Sea of Japan and western Pacific coastal region and determine the sources of radiocesium in these areas, we examined the temporal and spatial variations of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations (activities) during 2011-2016 in seawaters around the western Japanese Archipelago, particularly in the Sea of Japan. In May 2013, the surface concentration of 134Cs was ∼0.5 mBq/L (decay-corrected to March 11, 2011), and that of 137Cs exceeded the pre-accident level in this study area, where the effects of radiocesium depositions just after the FDNPP accident disappeared in surface waters in October 2011...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
T G Ebrahimian, L Beugnies, J Surette, N Priest, Y Gueguen, C Gloaguen, M Benderitter, J R Jourdain, K Tack
Populations living in radiation-contaminated territories, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, are chronically exposed to external gamma radiation and internal radionuclide contamination due to the large amount of 137Cs released in the environment. The effect of chronic low-dose exposure on the development of cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. Previously reported studies have shown that low-dose radiation exposure could lead to discrepancies according to dose rate. In this study, we examined the effect of very low-dose and dose-rate chronic external exposure on atherosclerosis development...
December 11, 2017: Radiation Research
Julie Bensimon Etzol, Marco Valente, Sandrine Altmeyer, Caroline Bettencourt, Samuel Bouvet, Guillaume Cosler, François Desangles, Michel Drouet, Fabrice Entine, Francis Hérodin, Flora Jourquin, Yannick Lecompte, Patrick Martigne, Xavier Michel, Jérôme Pateux, Nicolas Ugolin, Sylvie Chevillard
DosiKit is a new field-radiation biodosimetry immunoassay for rapid triage of individuals exposed to external total-body radiation. Here, we report on the validation of this immunoassay in human blood cell extracts 0.5 h after in vitro exposure to 137Cs gamma rays, using γ-H2AX analysis. First, calibration curves were established for five donors at doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy and dose rates ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼3 Gy/min. The calibration curves, together with a γ-H2AX peptide scale, enabled the definition of inter-experimental correction factors...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
Johannes Abraham, Katrin Meusburger, Judith Kobler Waldis, Michael E Ketterer, Markus Zehringer
An important process in the production of drinking water is the recharge of the withdrawn ground water with river water at protected recharge fields. While it is well known that undisturbed soils are efficiently filtering and adsorbing radionuclides, the goal of this study was to investigate their behaviour in an artificial recharge site that may receive rapid and additional input of radionuclides by river water (particularly when draining a catchment including nuclear power plants (NPP)). Soil profiles of recharge sites were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, specifically radiocesium (137Cs), radiostrontium (90Sr) and plutonium (239+240Pu)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Eduard Hanslík, Diana Marešová, Eva Juranová, Barbora Sedlářová
The paper presents results and interpretation of long-term monitoring of occurrence and behaviour of radioisotopes 3H, 90Sr, and 137Cs in the vicinity of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant. 3H, 90Sr, and 137Cs originate predominantly from residual contamination due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl disaster in the last century. Monitoring of radionuclides comprised surface waters, river sediments, aquatic plants, and fish. This enables an up-to-date appraisal of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant impact on the hydrosphere in all indicators at standard power plant operation, as well as at critical situations...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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