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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140305/probabilistic-prognosis-of-environmental-radioactivity-concentrations-due-to-radioisotopes-discharged-to-water-bodies-from-nuclear-power-plants
#1
Juan Tomás Zerquera, Juan C Mora, Beatriz Robles
Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used...
November 15, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133826/can-129-i-track-135-cs-236-u-239-pu-and-240-pu-apart-from-131-i-in-soil-samples-from-fukushima-prefecture-japan
#2
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
In the present study, (129)I activities and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios were measured in 60 soil samples contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The (127)I concentrations, (129)I activities, and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in dry-weight were observed to be 0.121-23.6 mg kg(-1), 0.962-275 mBq kg(-1), and (0.215-79.3) × 10(-7), respectively. The maximum values of both (129)I activities and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in Japanese soil increased about three orders of magnitude due to this accident...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069486/atmospheric-particulate-and-xenon-radioisotopes-monitoring-over-canada-and-health-impact-estimation-before-and-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#3
Weihua Zhang, Kurt Ungar
This article presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring obtained by three Canadian radiation monitoring stations before, after and during Fukushima-Daiichi accident. It includes 210 Pb, 212 Pb and 7 Be (naturally occurring radionuclides) and 131 I, 132 I, 129 Te, 129 m Te, 132 Te, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs and 133 Xe (Fukushima contaminants). The maximum activity concentrations were in range of 2.3-3.7 Bq/m 3 for 133 Xe; 2.0-4.4 mBq/m 3 for 131 I in aerosol form; 0.27-0.83 mBq/m 3 for 137 Cs depending on monitoring locations...
October 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056369/cryoconites-from-alpine-glaciers-radionuclide-accumulation-and-age-estimation-with-pu-and-cs-isotopes-and-210-pb
#4
T Wilflinger, H Lettner, A Hubmer, P Bossew, B Sattler, H Slupetzky
Cryoconites ("cold dust", derived from the Greek) are aeolian sediments accumulated on glacier surfaces. In cryoconites from the surface of the Stubacher Sonnblickkees, a temperate Austrian glacier, extremely high activity concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides were found. Artificial radionuclides stem from two clearly distinguishable sources, global fallout from the nuclear weapons testing era deposited over a period of years until roughly 1966 and the fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, which was essentially deposited as a single input during one week...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024817/oceanic-dispersion-of-fukushima-derived-cs-137-simulated-by-multiple-oceanic-general-circulation-models
#5
Hideyuki Kawamura, Akiko Furuno, Takuya Kobayashi, Teiji In, Tomoharu Nakayama, Yoichi Ishikawa, Yasumasa Miyazawa, Norihisa Usui
To understand the concentration and amount of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 in the ocean, this study simulated the oceanic dispersion of Cs-137 by atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations. The oceanic dispersion simulations were carried out with an oceanic dispersion model and multiple oceanic general circulation models. The Cs-137 concentrations were sensitive to ocean currents in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans. The mean Cs-137 concentrations of the multiple models relatively well agreed with the observed concentrations in the coastal and offshore oceans during the first few months after the Fukushima disaster, and in the open ocean during the first year after the disaster...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992200/effects-of-radiation-from-contaminated-soil-and-moss-in-fukushima-on-embryogenesis-and-egg-hatching-of-the-aphid-prociphilus-oriens
#6
Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Yang Li, Tetsuji Imanaka, Hitoshi Sato, Ken Ishida
Radiation contaminated soils are widespread around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and such soils raise concerns over its harmful effect on soil-dwelling organisms. We evaluated the effects of contaminated soil and moss sampled in Fukushima on the embryogenesis and hatching of aphid eggs, along with the measurement of the egg exposure dose. Cs-137 concentration in soil and moss from Fukushima ranged from 2200 to 3300 Bq/g and from 64 to 105 Bq/g, respectively. Eggs of the eriosomatine aphid Prociphilus oriens that were collected from a non-contaminated area were directly placed on the soil and moss for four or three months during diapause and then incubated until hatching...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948388/effect-of-gold-nanoparticles-on-radiation-doses-in-tumor-treatment-a-monte-carlo-study
#7
H A Al-Musywel, A Laref
Radiotherapy is an extensively used treatment for most tumor types. However, ionizing radiation does not discriminate between cancerous and normal cells surrounding the tumor, which can be considered as a dose-limiting factor. This can lead to the reduction of the effectiveness of tumor cell eradication with this treatment. A potential solution to this problem is loading the tumor with high-Z materials prior to radiotherapy as this can induce higher toxicity in tumor cells compared to normal ones. New advances in nanotechnology have introduced the promising use of heavy metal nanoparticles to enhance tumor treatment...
December 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900637/beta-transmutations-in-apatites-with-ferric-iron-as-an-electron-acceptor-implication-for-nuclear-waste-form-development
#8
Ge Yao, Zelong Zhang, Jianwei Wang
Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series (137)Cs → (137)Ba and (90)Sr → (90)Y → (90)Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis...
September 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797796/low-134-cs-137-cs-ratio-anomaly-in-the-north-northwest-direction-from-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-station
#9
Shingo Kobayashi, Takayuki Shinomiya, Takahiro Ishikawa, Hitoshi Imaseki, Kazuki Iwaoka, Hisashi Kitamura, Satoshi Kodaira, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masakazu Oikawa, Norihiro Miyaushiro, Yoshio Takashima, Yukio Uchihori
A low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest (NNW) direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) is identified by a new analysis of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio dataset which we had obtained in 2011-2015 by a series of car-borne surveys that employed a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. We found that the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio is slightly lower (0.95, decay-corrected to March 11, 2011) in an area with a length of about 15 km and a width of about 3 km in the NNW direction from the FDNPS than in other directions from the station...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743069/the-influence-of-134-cs-on-the-137-cs-gamma-spectrometric-peak-to-valley-ratio-and-improvement-of-the-peak-to-valley-method-by-limiting-the-detector-field-of-view
#10
Karl Östlund, Christer Samuelsson, Sören Mattsson, Christopher L Rääf
The peak-to-valley method was investigated under laboratory conditions and in situ with respect to both (134)Cs perturbation of the (137)Cs valley and use of collimation. The (134)Cs perturbation is significant down to (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratios of 1:100. In these cases the full energy peaks from (134)Cs (796 and 802keV) and associated valley should be used instead of the peak and valley from the (137)Cs 662keV peak. Use of collimators in situ outside Fukushima Daiichi significantly increased PTV for (134)Cs...
July 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738591/procedures-for-precise-measurements-of-135-cs-137-cs-atom-ratios-in-environmental-samples-at-extreme-dynamic-ranges-and-ultra-trace-levels-by-thermal-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#11
James A Dunne, David A Richards, Hsin-Wei Chen
Determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios has the potential to be a powerful tool for nuclear forensics and monitoring environmental processes. We present optimized chemical separation techniques and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) protocols to obtain precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios for a range of environmental sample types. We use a combination of double AMP-PAN separation and Sr-spec resin column purification to yield excellent separation from the alkali metals (Rb separation factor > 600), which normally suppress ionization of Cs...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733117/comparison-of-intercomparison-results-of-gamma-ray-spectrometry-of-spiked-and-real-samples
#12
Denis Glavič-Cindro
The quality and comparability of results of different comparison schemes depend strongly on how the samples were prepared and how the reference values were determined. To test the influence of different approaches to preparing comparison samples and determination of reference values on the final evaluation of participants' results, analyses of S-shapes for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different comparison schemes in time period 1986-2016 were performed. This study pointed out significant improvement in the quality of performance of comparison tests of selected providers...
July 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715670/estimated-lifetime-effective-dose-to-hunters-and-their-families-in-the-three-most-contaminated-counties-in-sweden-after-the-chernobyl-nuclear-power-plant-accident-in-1986-a-pilot-study
#13
Martin Tondel, Christopher Rääf, Robert Wålinder, Afrah Mamour, Mats Isaksson
Hunters and their families were one of the most exposed subpopulations in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. In this pilot study we used existing registries and whole-body measurements to develop algorithms to calculate lifetime effective doses and collective doses to some hunters in Sweden. Ten hunters and their family members were randomly selected from each of the three most contaminated counties in Sweden (Västernorrland, Uppsala, Gävleborg) using the register for hunting weapons from the Police Authority in 1985...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692938/radioactive-impacts-on-nekton-species-in-the-northwest-pacific-and-humans-more-than-one-year-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#14
Wu Men, Fangfang Deng, Jianhua He, Wen Yu, Fenfen Wang, Yiliang Li, Feng Lin, Jing Lin, Longshan Lin, Yusheng Zhang, Xingguang Yu
This study investigated the radioactive impacts on 10 nekton species in the Northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) from the two perspectives of contamination and harm. Squids were especially used for the spatial and temporal comparisons to demonstrate the impacts from the FNA. The radiation doses to nekton species and humans were assessed to link this radioactivity contamination to possible harm. The total dose rates to nektons were lower than the ERICA ecosystem screening benchmark of 10μGy/h...
July 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686943/determination-of-plutonium-isotopes-238-239-240-pu-and-strontium-90-sr-in-seafood-using-alpha-spectrometry-and-liquid-scintillation-spectrometry
#15
Choonshik Shin, Hoon Choi, Hye-Min Kwon, Hye-Jin Jo, Hye-Jeong Kim, Hae-Jung Yoon, Dong-Sul Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
The present study was carried out to survey the levels of plutonium isotopes ((238)(,)(239)(,)(240)Pu) and strontium ((90)Sr) in domestic seafood in Korea. In current, regulatory authorities have analyzed radionuclides, such as (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (131)I, in domestic and imported food. However, people are concerned about contamination of other radionuclides, such as plutonium and strontium, in food. Furthermore, people who live in Korea have much concern about safety of seafood. Accordingly, in this study, we have investigated the activity concentrations of plutonium and strontium in seafood...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632195/towards-a-long-term-strategy-for-voluntary-based-internal-radiation-contamination-monitoring-representativeness-of-the-monitoring-results-in-fukushima-japan
#16
Shuhei Nomura, Masaharu Tsubokura, Michio Murakami, Kyoko Ono, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years) participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623812/discovery-of-non-spherical-heterogeneous-radiocesium-bearing-particles-not-derived-from-unit-1-of-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-in-residences-five-years-after-the-accident
#17
Shogo Higaki, Yuichi Kurihara, Hiroko Yoshida, Yoshio Takahashi, Naohide Shinohara
Non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles were found on masks worn during cleaning work in residences near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), from which residents had evacuated. Three slightly larger (6.6-12 μm) non-spherical radiocesium-bearing particles were found in a residence in Futaba Town, a straight distance of 2.11 km west-northwest from the FDNPP. These were collected on October 25, 2016, 5 years and 7 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster and were presumed to originate from the Plant's Unit 2 based on the measured radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575944/novel-and-facile-microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-mo-doped-hydroxyapatite-nanorods-characterization-gamma-absorption-coefficient-and-bioactivity
#18
M M Abutalib, I S Yahia
In the current work, the authors report the microwave-assisted synthesis Molybdenum-doped (from 0.05 to 5wt%) hydroxyapatite (HAp) for the first time. The morphology of Mo-doped HAp is nanorods of diameter in the range of 25-70nm and length in the range of 25nm to 200nm. The good crystalline nature was confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and also lattice parameters, grain size, strain and dislocation density were determined. The crystallite size was found to be in the range 16 to 30nm and crystallinity was found to be enhanced from 0...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551988/transparent-ultra-high-loading-quantum-dot-polymer-nanocomposite-monolith-for-gamma-scintillation
#19
Chao Liu, Zhou Li, Tibor Jacob Hajagos, David Kishpaugh, Dustin Yuan Chen, Qibing Pei
Spectroscopic gamma-photon detection has widespread applications for research, defense, and medical purposes. However, current commercial detectors are either prohibitively expensive for wide deployment or incapable of producing the characteristic gamma photopeak. Here we report the synthesis of transparent, ultra-high-loading (up to 60 wt %) CdxZn1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dot/polymer nanocomposite monoliths for gamma scintillation by in situ copolymerization of the partially methacrylate-functionalized quantum dots in a monomer solution...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390309/thirty-years-after-chernobyl-long-term-determination-of-137-cs-effective-half-life-in-the-lichen-stereocaulon-vesuvianum
#20
F Savino, M Pugliese, M Quarto, P Adamo, F Loffredo, F De Cicco, V Roca
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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