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Sheng Xu, Gordon T Cook, Alan J Cresswell, Elaine Dunbar, Stewart P H T Freeman, Xiaolin Hou, Helen Kinch, Philip Naysmith, David W C Sanderson, Luyuan Zhang
Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ(14)C values reflect ambient atmospheric (14)C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated (129)I and (134,137)Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Mahsheed Sabet, David Cryer, David Waterhouse
Well type chambers are used for radioactive source calibrations in brachytherapy, but do not provide radiation shielding. Routine constancy checks on a well chamber are required between periodic secondary standard laboratory calibrations to ensure consistent device performance, and ultimately to ensure accurate patient dose delivery. In this work, a method is described to provide suitable shielding for a Cs-137 rod-type point source to enable use for constancy checks. A novel plunger-type shielded housing was designed and constructed for the Cs-137 source that when combined with a suitably shielded well-chamber container minimised user exposure during constancy checks...
September 9, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Huynh Dinh Chuong, Tran Thien Thanh, Le Thi Ngoc Trang, Vo Hoang Nguyen, Chau Van Tao
In this study, a procedure to estimate thickness of the inner dead-layer of an n-type coaxial HPGe detector is described. Experimental measurements are carried out with standard point sources: (54)Mn, (57)Co, (60)Co, (88)Y, (109)Cd, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (152)Eu at distances of 5 and 10cm from source to detector. Shape and dimensions of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector are determined by radiography to characterize the geometry accurately for Monte Carlo simulation. The role of thickness of the inner dead-layer on full energy peak efficiency is illustrated by MCNP5 code, and it is observed that slope coefficient of efficiency curve has a linear relationship with thickness of the dead-layer...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Masamichi Chino, Hiroaki Terada, Haruyasu Nagai, Genki Katata, Satoshi Mikami, Tatsuo Torii, Kimiaki Saito, Yukiyasu Nishizawa
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12-21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured (134)Cs/(137)Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of (134)Cs/(137)Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eunjoo Kim, Osamu Kurihara, Naoaki Kunishima, Takumaro Momose, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Makoto Akashi
Enormous quantities of radionuclides were released into the environment following the disastrous accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011. It is of great importance to determine the exposure doses received by the populations living in the radiologically affected areas; however, there has been significant difficulty in estimating the internal thyroid dose received through the intake of short-lived radionuclides (mainly, (131)I), because of the lack of early measurements on people...
August 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Yan Zhang, Xueqiang Lu, Xiaolong Shao, Chen Chen, Xiaojuan Li, Feng Zhao, Gang Li, Eijij Matsumoto
Fourteen sediment cores were collected from Bohai Bay, China, which is close to the fast-developing megacities such as Beijing and Tianjin, and dated using excess Pb-210 and Cs-137. Using the constant rate of supply model (CRS), the temporal variation of sedimentation rates over the last 100years in Bohai Bay was determined, and its main factors influencing sedimentation rates were discussed. The sedimentation rates before 1980 were relatively stable, ranging from 0.26±0.04g/(cm(2)·y) in 1920 to 0.39±0.08g/(cm(2)·y) in 1980...
August 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Somayeh Gholami, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Ali Jabbary Arfaee, Ramin Jaberi, Hassan Ali Nedaie, Seied Rabi Mahdavi, Eftekhar Rajab Bolookat, Ali S Meigooni
AIM: Verification of dose distributions for gynecological (GYN) brachytherapy implants using EBT Gafchromic film. BACKGROUND: One major challenge in brachytherapy is to verify the accuracy of dose distributions calculated by a treatment planning system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A new phantom was designed and fabricated using 90 slabs of 18 cm × 16 cm × 0.2 cm Perspex to accommodate a tandem and Ovoid assembly, which is normally used for GYN brachytherapy treatment...
September 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Liguo Cao, Jian Zheng, Hirofumi Tsukada, Shaoming Pan, Zhongtang Wang, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic...
October 1, 2016: Talanta
Sota Tanaka, Kaho Hatakeyama, Sentaro Takahashi, Tarô Adati
In order to understand the influence of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem in hilly and mountainous areas of Fukushima Prefecture, chronological changes in the levels of radiocesium in arthropod species were investigated. From 2012 to 2014, arthropods from different trophic levels were sampled and the air radiation dose rates at the sampling sites were analyzed. The air radiation dose rates showed a significant and constant reduction over the 2 years at the sampling sites in Fukushima...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shoichi Fuma, Yoshihisa Kubota, Sadao Ihara, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Yoshito Watanabe, Tatsuo Aono, Haruhi Soeda, Satoshi Yoshida
Analysis of radioactivity data obtained under the food monitoring campaign in Japan indicates that elevated (134)Cs+(137)Cs activity concentrations in wild boar meat remained constant or slowly decreased in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures from 2011 to 2015. The activity concentrations in some samples are still over the regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight, even in 2015. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in muscle of wild boars we captured in 2011 were higher than those in kidney, liver, spleen, heart and lung...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Airi Mori, Shogo Takahara, Azusa Ishizaki, Masashi Iijima, Yukihisa Sanada, Masahiro Munakata
Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Many inhabitants residing in the affected areas are now exposed to radiation in their daily lives. In an attempt to manage this radiation dose, an additional radiation dose of 1 mSv/y was adopted as a long-term dosimetric target. An activity level reading of 0.23 μSv/h was then determined as a guidance value to achieve the target by implementing decontamination measures...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Kikugoro Sakaihara, Shigeaki Kato, Claire Leppold, Tomoyuki Furutani, Tomohiro Morita, Tomoyoshi Oikawa, Yukio Kanazawa
OBJECTIVES: Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. METHODS: To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10-40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2-3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels...
2016: BMJ Open
Tsuyoshi Kajimoto, Satoru Endo, Kenichi Tanaka, Yasuharu Okashiro, Hiroaki Kai, Syuuji Fujii, Atsushi Mishima, Takahide Matsubara, Shinji Yoshida
We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities...
September 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Vyacheslav G Rumynin, Anton M Nikulenkov
The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Inoue, Y Shirotani, S Nagao, H Kofuji, Y N Volkov, J Nishioka
We examined lateral distributions of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, and (228)Ra in the surface seawaters around the Kuril Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean during June 2014. The sampling area included three water current areas, the Oyashio Current, the current from the Okhotsk Sea, and the coastal current along the east Kamchatka Peninsula. (226)Ra and (228)Ra distributions differed along the three currents. Low levels of (134)Cs were detected in the surface waters of the Oyashio Current (0...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Olivier Masson, Jacqueline Bieringer, Erika Brattich, Axel Dalheimer, Sybille Estier, Ilia Penev, Wolfgang Ringer, Clemens Schlosser, Thomas Steinkopff, Philipp Steinmann, Laura Tositti, Pieter Van Beek, Anne de Vismes-Ott
The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival, and later the cesium-134 ((134)Cs), cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and particulate iodine-131 (hereafter noted (131)Ip) maximum levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location. Most of those data were obtained at low-altitude sampling areas. Here, we compare the airborne levels registered at different high-altitude European locations (from 850 m to about 3500 m). The integrated (137)Cs activity concentration was not uniform with regard to the altitude even after a long travel time/distance from Japan...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
L Konovalenko, C Bradshaw, E Andersson, D Lindqvist, U Kautsky
As a result of nuclear accidents and weapons tests, the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 are common contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Concentration ratios (CR) based on concentrations of stable Cs and Sr in biota and media are used for the estimation of transfer of their radioisotopes for radiation dose calculations in environmental and human safety assessments. Available element-specific CRs vary by over an order of magnitude for similar organisms, thus affecting the dose estimates proportionally. The variation could be reduced if they were based on a better understanding of the influence of the underlying data and how that affects accumulation and potential biomagnification of stable Cs and Sr in aquatic organisms...
August 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Bitar, M Maghrabi, A W Doubal
Personal monitoring programs for workers handling radioactive materials are influenced by numerous factors as the measurements of radioactivity in tissues or/and in excreta can be carried out using different techniques. This paper summaries the basic procedures needed for accurate and fast measurement of different radionuclides like (235)U, (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Po, (131)I, (99m)Tc, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (57)Co, (58)Co, and (60)Co. Overviews of in vitro and in vivo monitoring methods are provided as well as methods used to calculate detection limits and internal radiation dose...
July 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
(135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Stuart Gilmour, Shoji Miyagawa, Fumiko Kasuga, Kenji Shibuya
BACKGROUND: The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network...
2016: PloS One
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