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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632195/towards-a-long-term-strategy-for-voluntary-based-internal-radiation-contamination-monitoring-representativeness-of-the-monitoring-results-in-fukushima-japan
#1
Shuhei Nomura, Masaharu Tsubokura, Michio Murakami, Kyoko Ono, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years) participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623812/discovery-of-non-spherical-heterogeneous-radiocesium-bearing-particles-not-derived-from-unit-1-of-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-in-residences-five-years-after-the-accident
#2
Shogo Higaki, Yuichi Kurihara, Hiroko Yoshida, Yoshio Takahashi, Naohide Shinohara
Non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles were found on masks worn during cleaning work in residences near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), from which residents had evacuated. Three slightly larger (6.6-12 μm) non-spherical radiocesium-bearing particles were found in a residence in Futaba Town, a straight distance of 2.11 km west-northwest from the FDNPP. These were collected on October 25, 2016, 5 years and 7 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster and were presumed to originate from the Plant's Unit 2 based on the measured radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575944/novel-and-facile-microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-mo-doped-hydroxyapatite-nanorods-characterization-gamma-absorption-coefficient-and-bioactivity
#3
M M Abutalib, I S Yahia
In the current work, the authors report the microwave-assisted synthesis Molybdenum-doped (from 0.05 to 5wt%) hydroxyapatite (HAp) for the first time. The morphology of Mo-doped HAp is nanorods of diameter in the range of 25-70nm and length in the range of 25nm to 200nm. The good crystalline nature was confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and also lattice parameters, grain size, strain and dislocation density were determined. The crystallite size was found to be in the range 16 to 30nm and crystallinity was found to be enhanced from 0...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551988/transparent-ultra-high-loading-quantum-dot-polymer-nanocomposite-monolith-for-gamma-scintillation
#4
Chao Liu, Zhou Li, Tibor Jacob Hajagos, David Kishpaugh, Dustin Yuan Chen, Qibing Pei
Spectroscopic gamma-photon detection has widespread applications for research, defense, and medical purposes. However, current commercial detectors are either prohibitively expensive for wide deployment or incapable of producing the characteristic gamma photopeak. Here we report the synthesis of transparent, ultra-high-loading (up to 60 wt%) CdxZn1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dot/polymer nanocomposite monoliths for gamma scintillation by in situ copolymerization of the partially mathacrylate-functionalized quantum dots in a monomer solution...
May 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390309/thirty-years-after-chernobyl-long-term-determination-of-137-cs-effective-half-life-in-the-lichen-stereocaulon-vesuvianum
#5
F Savino, M Pugliese, M Quarto, P Adamo, F Loffredo, F De Cicco, V Roca
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334042/whole-body-counter-wbc-and-food-radiocesium-contamination-surveys-in-namie-fukushima-prefecture
#6
Yoichiro Hosokawa, Kazuki Nomura, Eiki Tsushima, Kohsei Kudo, Yuka Noto, Yoshiko Nishizawa
PURPOSE: This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. METHODS: The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286303/uncertainty-assessment-method-for-the-cs-137-fallout-inventory-and-penetration-depth
#7
G N Papadakos, D J Karangelos, N P Petropoulos, M J Anagnostakis, E P Hinis, S E Simopoulos
Within the presented study, soil samples were collected in year 2007 at 20 different locations of the Greek terrain, both from the surface and also from depths down to 26 cm. Sampling locations were selected primarily from areas where high levels of (137)Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident had already been identified by the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens during and after the year of 1986. At one location of relatively higher deposition, soil core samples were collected following a 60 m by 60 m Cartesian grid with a 20 m node-to-node distance...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262604/radiocaesium-contamination-and-dose-rate-estimation-of-terrestrial-and-freshwater-wildlife-in-the-exclusion-zone-of-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#8
Shoichi Fuma, Sadao Ihara, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Osamu Inaba, Youji Sato, Yoshihisa Kubota, Yoshito Watanabe, Isao Kawaguchi, Tatsuo Aono, Haruhi Soeda, Satoshi Yoshida
To characterise the radioactive contamination of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, biological samples, namely, fungi, mosses, plants, amphibians, reptiles, insects, molluscs, and earthworms, were collected mainly from the forests of the exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture from 2011 to 2012. Caesium-134 and (137)Cs were detected by gamma spectrometry in almost all the samples. Fungi, ferns, and mosses accumulated high amounts of radiocaesium, as they did in Chernobyl, with (134)Cs + (137)Cs activity concentrations of 10(4)-10(6) Bq kg(-1) fresh mass (FM)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250549/monitoring-and-radioecological-characteristics-of-radiocesium-in-japanese-beef-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#9
Georg Steinhauser
After the Fukushima nuclear accident, beef proved to be a problematic food item with several exceedances entering the market. The reason was contaminated rice straw that was fed to cattle. Japanese authorities responded quickly to the exceedances and made beef one of the most-monitored food items after the Fukushima accident with more than a million samples within 5 years. Activity levels dropped quickly and are now considerably below the regulatory limit. No exceedance of the regulatory limit was observed after October 2012...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239967/mass-selective-separation-applied-to-radioisotopes-of-cesium
#10
Michael Dion, Greg Eiden, Orville Farmer, Zach Finch, Martin Liezers
A technique that uses the intrinsic mass-based separation capability of a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used to resolve spectral radiometric interference of two isotopes of the same element. In this work the starting sample was a mixture of (137) Cs and (134) Cs and was (activity) dominated by (137) Cs. This methodology separated and 'implanted' (134) Cs that was later quantified for spectral features and activity with traditional radiometric techniques. This work demonstrated a (134) Cs/(137) Cs activity ratio enhancement of >4 orders of magnitude and complete removal of (137) Cs spectral features from the implanted target mass (i...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127258/tnf-%C3%AE-sensitizes-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-against-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Xiao Wu, Meng-Yao Wu, Min Jiang, Qiaoming Zhi, Xiaojie Bian, Meng-Dan Xu, Fei-Ran Gong, Juan Hou, Min Tao, Liu-Mei Shou, Weiming Duan, Kai Chen, Meng Shen, Wei Li
PURPOSE: Despite new developments in cancer therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain the cornerstone of breast cancer treatment. Therefore, finding ways to reduce the toxicity and increase sensitivity is particularly important. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) exerts multiple functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether TNF-α could enhance the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy against breast cancer cells...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048549/th-a-204-01-part-i-key-data-for-ionizing-radiation-dosimetry
#12
S Seltzer
The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding "fundamental" data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee's work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV x-rays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047887/th-a-204-02-part-ii-worldwide-radiation-metrology
#13
M McEwen
The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding "fundamental" data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee's work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV x-rays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046487/th-a-204-00-key-dosimetry-data-impact-of-new-icru-recommendations
#14
Ronald Tosh
The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding "fundamental" data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee's work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV xrays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046369/su-g-201-05-comparison-of-different-methods-for-output-verification-of-eleckta-nucletron-s-valencia-skin-applicators
#15
J Barrett, M Yudelev
PURPOSE: The provided output factors for Elekta Nucletron's skin applicators are based on Monte Carlo simulations. These outputs have not been independently verified, and there is no recognized method for output verification of the vendor's applicators. The purpose of this work is to validate the outputs provided by the vendor experimentally. METHODS: Using a Flexitron Ir-192 HDR unit, three experimental methods were employed to determine dose with the 30 mm diameter Valencia applicator: first a gradient method using extrapolation ionization chamber (Far West Technology, EIC-1) measurements in solid water phantom at 3 mm SCD was used...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930922/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-cesium-adsorption-on-illite-nanoparticles
#16
Laura N Lammers, Ian C Bourg, Masahiko Okumura, Kedarnath Kolluri, Garrison Sposito, Masahiko Machida
The charged surfaces of micaceous minerals, especially illite, regulate the mobility of the major radioisotopes of Cs ((134)Cs, (135)Cs, (137)Cs) in the geosphere. Despite the long history of Cs adsorption studies, the nature of the illite surface sites remains incompletely understood. To address this problem, we present atomistic simulations of Cs competition with Na for three candidate illite adsorption sites - edge, basal plane, and interlayer. Our simulation results are broadly consistent with affinities and selectivities that have been inferred from surface complexation models...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885075/suitability-of-portable-radionuclide-identifiers-for-emergency-incorporation-monitoring
#17
Roman Galeev, Gernot Butterweck, Markus Boschung, Bénédicte Hofstetter-Boillat, Eike Hohmann, Sabine Mayer
The suitability of portable nuclide inspectors for incorporation measurements were tested with three probes (LaBr3(Ce), NaI(Tl) and HPGe) differing in sensitive volume and energy resolution. The efficiencies for the measurement of whole-body and lung radionuclide burden were calibrated using a whole-body block phantom with traceable radionuclide sources of 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu and 40K. A standing geometry was chosen as it allows rapid positioning of persons for the measurements. Decision and detection limits were determined for the unshielded detector in a normal laboratory radiation environment according to ISO 11929 for 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co...
April 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878901/radioactive-cesium-and-potassium-in-cattle-living-in-the-zone-in-preparation-for-the-lifting-of-the-evacuation-order-of-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#18
Itaru Sato, Jun Sasaki, Hiroshi Satoh, Takahisa Murata, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada
To contribute to the reconstruction of livestock industry in Fukushima, radioactive cesium ((134) Cs, (137) Cs) and potassium ((4) °K) were measured in various tissues of beef cattle living in an area where the evacuation order will be lifted in the near future. Radioactive cesium concentration was less than 100 Bq/kg in most of the samples. Skeletal muscles and kidney had the highest concentrations of radioactive cesium, whereas the liver was lowest among samples, excepting blood. Radioactive cesium concentration in the sirloin, tenderloin and top round was significantly higher than that in the neck muscle...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746518/carbon-cesium-and-iodine-isotopes-in-japanese-cedar-leaves-from-iwaki-fukushima
#19
Sheng Xu, Gordon T Cook, Alan J Cresswell, Elaine Dunbar, Stewart P H T Freeman, Xiaolin Hou, Helen Kinch, Philip Naysmith, David W C Sanderson, Luyuan Zhang
Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ(14)C values reflect ambient atmospheric (14)C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated (129)I and (134,137)Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613705/shielding-design-for-a-cs-137-rod-type-standard-point-source-for-well-chamber-constancy-checks
#20
Mahsheed Sabet, David Cryer, David Waterhouse
Well type chambers are used for radioactive source calibrations in brachytherapy, but do not provide radiation shielding. Routine constancy checks on a well chamber are required between periodic secondary standard laboratory calibrations to ensure consistent device performance, and ultimately to ensure accurate patient dose delivery. In this work, a method is described to provide suitable shielding for a Cs-137 rod-type point source to enable use for constancy checks. A novel plunger-type shielded housing was designed and constructed for the Cs-137 source that when combined with a suitably shielded well-chamber container minimised user exposure during constancy checks...
December 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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