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Ge Yao, Zelong Zhang, Jianwei Wang
Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series (137)Cs → (137)Ba and (90)Sr → (90)Y → (90)Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis...
September 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shingo Kobayashi, Takayuki Shinomiya, Takahiro Ishikawa, Hitoshi Imaseki, Kazuki Iwaoka, Hisashi Kitamura, Satoshi Kodaira, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masakazu Oikawa, Norihiro Miyaushiro, Yoshio Takashima, Yukio Uchihori
A low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest (NNW) direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) is identified by a new analysis of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio dataset which we had obtained in 2011-2015 by a series of car-borne surveys that employed a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. We found that the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio is slightly lower (0.95, decay-corrected to March 11, 2011) in an area with a length of about 15 km and a width of about 3 km in the NNW direction from the FDNPS than in other directions from the station...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Karl Östlund, Christer Samuelsson, Sören Mattsson, Christopher L Rääf
The peak-to-valley method was investigated under laboratory conditions and in situ with respect to both (134)Cs perturbation of the (137)Cs valley and use of collimation. The (134)Cs perturbation is significant down to (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratios of 1:100. In these cases the full energy peaks from (134)Cs (796 and 802keV) and associated valley should be used instead of the peak and valley from the (137)Cs 662keV peak. Use of collimators in situ outside Fukushima Daiichi significantly increased PTV for (134)Cs...
July 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
James A Dunne, David A Richards, Hsin-Wei Chen
Determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios has the potential to be a powerful tool for nuclear forensics and monitoring environmental processes. We present optimized chemical separation techniques and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) protocols to obtain precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios for a range of environmental sample types. We use a combination of double AMP-PAN separation and Sr-spec resin column purification to yield excellent separation from the alkali metals (Rb separation factor > 600), which normally suppress ionization of Cs...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
Denis Glavič-Cindro
The quality and comparability of results of different comparison schemes depend strongly on how the samples were prepared and how the reference values were determined. To test the influence of different approaches to preparing comparison samples and determination of reference values on the final evaluation of participants' results, analyses of S-shapes for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different comparison schemes in time period 1986-2016 were performed. This study pointed out significant improvement in the quality of performance of comparison tests of selected providers...
July 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Martin Tondel, Christopher Rääf, Robert Wålinder, Afrah Mamour, Mats Isaksson
Hunters and their families were one of the most exposed subpopulations in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. In this pilot study we used existing registries and whole-body measurements to develop algorithms to calculate lifetime effective doses and collective doses to some hunters in Sweden. Ten hunters and their family members were randomly selected from each of the three most contaminated counties in Sweden (Västernorrland, Uppsala, Gävleborg) using the register for hunting weapons from the Police Authority in 1985...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Wu Men, Fangfang Deng, Jianhua He, Wen Yu, Fenfen Wang, Yiliang Li, Feng Lin, Jing Lin, Longshan Lin, Yusheng Zhang, Xingguang Yu
This study investigated the radioactive impacts on 10 nekton species in the Northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) from the two perspectives of contamination and harm. Squids were especially used for the spatial and temporal comparisons to demonstrate the impacts from the FNA. The radiation doses to nekton species and humans were assessed to link this radioactivity contamination to possible harm. The total dose rates to nektons were lower than the ERICA ecosystem screening benchmark of 10μGy/h...
July 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Choonshik Shin, Hoon Choi, Hye-Min Kwon, Hye-Jin Jo, Hye-Jeong Kim, Hae-Jung Yoon, Dong-Sul Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
The present study was carried out to survey the levels of plutonium isotopes ((238)(,)(239)(,)(240)Pu) and strontium ((90)Sr) in domestic seafood in Korea. In current, regulatory authorities have analyzed radionuclides, such as (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (131)I, in domestic and imported food. However, people are concerned about contamination of other radionuclides, such as plutonium and strontium, in food. Furthermore, people who live in Korea have much concern about safety of seafood. Accordingly, in this study, we have investigated the activity concentrations of plutonium and strontium in seafood...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shuhei Nomura, Masaharu Tsubokura, Michio Murakami, Kyoko Ono, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years) participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shogo Higaki, Yuichi Kurihara, Hiroko Yoshida, Yoshio Takahashi, Naohide Shinohara
Non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles were found on masks worn during cleaning work in residences near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), from which residents had evacuated. Three slightly larger (6.6-12 μm) non-spherical radiocesium-bearing particles were found in a residence in Futaba Town, a straight distance of 2.11 km west-northwest from the FDNPP. These were collected on October 25, 2016, 5 years and 7 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster and were presumed to originate from the Plant's Unit 2 based on the measured radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M M Abutalib, I S Yahia
In the current work, the authors report the microwave-assisted synthesis Molybdenum-doped (from 0.05 to 5wt%) hydroxyapatite (HAp) for the first time. The morphology of Mo-doped HAp is nanorods of diameter in the range of 25-70nm and length in the range of 25nm to 200nm. The good crystalline nature was confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and also lattice parameters, grain size, strain and dislocation density were determined. The crystallite size was found to be in the range 16 to 30nm and crystallinity was found to be enhanced from 0...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Chao Liu, Zhou Li, Tibor Jacob Hajagos, David Kishpaugh, Dustin Yuan Chen, Qibing Pei
Spectroscopic gamma-photon detection has widespread applications for research, defense, and medical purposes. However, current commercial detectors are either prohibitively expensive for wide deployment or incapable of producing the characteristic gamma photopeak. Here we report the synthesis of transparent, ultra-high-loading (up to 60 wt %) CdxZn1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dot/polymer nanocomposite monoliths for gamma scintillation by in situ copolymerization of the partially methacrylate-functionalized quantum dots in a monomer solution...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
F Savino, M Pugliese, M Quarto, P Adamo, F Loffredo, F De Cicco, V Roca
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yoichiro Hosokawa, Kazuki Nomura, Eiki Tsushima, Kohsei Kudo, Yuka Noto, Yoshiko Nishizawa
PURPOSE: This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. METHODS: The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied...
2017: PloS One
G N Papadakos, D J Karangelos, N P Petropoulos, M J Anagnostakis, E P Hinis, S E Simopoulos
Within the presented study, soil samples were collected in year 2007 at 20 different locations of the Greek terrain, both from the surface and also from depths down to 26 cm. Sampling locations were selected primarily from areas where high levels of (137)Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident had already been identified by the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens during and after the year of 1986. At one location of relatively higher deposition, soil core samples were collected following a 60 m by 60 m Cartesian grid with a 20 m node-to-node distance...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shoichi Fuma, Sadao Ihara, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Osamu Inaba, Youji Sato, Yoshihisa Kubota, Yoshito Watanabe, Isao Kawaguchi, Tatsuo Aono, Haruhi Soeda, Satoshi Yoshida
To characterise the radioactive contamination of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, biological samples, namely, fungi, mosses, plants, amphibians, reptiles, insects, molluscs, and earthworms, were collected mainly from the forests of the exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture from 2011 to 2012. Caesium-134 and (137)Cs were detected by gamma spectrometry in almost all the samples. Fungi, ferns, and mosses accumulated high amounts of radiocaesium, as they did in Chernobyl, with (134)Cs + (137)Cs activity concentrations of 10(4)-10(6) Bq kg(-1) fresh mass (FM)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Georg Steinhauser
After the Fukushima nuclear accident, beef proved to be a problematic food item with several exceedances entering the market. The reason was contaminated rice straw that was fed to cattle. Japanese authorities responded quickly to the exceedances and made beef one of the most-monitored food items after the Fukushima accident with more than a million samples within 5 years. Activity levels dropped quickly and are now considerably below the regulatory limit. No exceedance of the regulatory limit was observed after October 2012...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Michael Dion, Greg Eiden, Orville Farmer, Zach Finch, Martin Liezers
A technique that uses the intrinsic mass-based separation capability of a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used to resolve spectral radiometric interference of two isotopes of the same element. In this work the starting sample was a mixture of (137) Cs and (134) Cs and was (activity) dominated by (137) Cs. This methodology separated and 'implanted' (134) Cs that was later quantified for spectral features and activity with traditional radiometric techniques. This work demonstrated a (134) Cs/(137) Cs activity ratio enhancement of >4 orders of magnitude and complete removal of (137) Cs spectral features from the implanted target mass (i...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Xiao Wu, Meng-Yao Wu, Min Jiang, Qiaoming Zhi, Xiaojie Bian, Meng-Dan Xu, Fei-Ran Gong, Juan Hou, Min Tao, Liu-Mei Shou, Weiming Duan, Kai Chen, Meng Shen, Wei Li
PURPOSE: Despite new developments in cancer therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain the cornerstone of breast cancer treatment. Therefore, finding ways to reduce the toxicity and increase sensitivity is particularly important. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) exerts multiple functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether TNF-α could enhance the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy against breast cancer cells...
2017: Cancer Cell International
S Seltzer
The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding "fundamental" data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee's work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV x-rays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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