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Adam Varley, Andrew Tyler, Yuri Bondar, Ali Hosseini, Viachaslau Zabrotski, Mark Dowdall
Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mayumi Hachinohe, Naoto Nihei, Shinichi Kawamoto, Shioka Hamamatsu
To clarify the behavior of radioactive cesium (Cs) in buckwheat grains during milling and cooking processes, parameters such as processing factor (Pf) and food processing retention factor (Fr) were evaluated in two lots of buckwheat grains, R1 and R2, with different concentrations of radioactive Cs. Three milling fractions, the husk, bran, and flour fractions, were obtained using a mill and electric sieve. The radioactive Cs (134 Cs + 137 Cs) concentrations in husk and bran were higher than that in grain, whereas the concentration in flour was lower than that in grain...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Cristiane Ps Andrade, Cláudio J Souza, Eduardo Sn Camerini, Isabela S Alves, Hélio C Vital, Matthew Jf Healy, Edson Ramos De Andrade
A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Laila Omar-Nazir, Xiaopei Shi, Anders Moller, Timothy Mousseau, Soohyun Byun, Samuel Hancock, Colin Seymour, Carmel Mothersill
The impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the environment is documented to be greater than expected, with higher mutation rates than expected at the current, chronic low dose rate. In this paper we suggest that the historic acute exposure and resulting non-targeted effects (NTE) such as delayed mutations and genomic instability could account at least in part for currently measured mutation rates and provide an initial test of this concept. Data from Møller and Mousseau on the phenotypic mutation rates of Chernobyl birds 9-11 generations post the Chernobyl accident were used and the reconstructed dose response for mutations was compared with delayed reproductive death dose responses (as a measure of genomic instability) in cell cultures exposed to a similar range of doses...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Michio Aoyama, Yasunori Hamajima, Yayoi Inomata, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Eitarou Oka, Takaki Tsubono, Daisuke Tsumune
We report temporal variations of137 Cs activity concentrations in surface waters of six regions of the western and central North Pacific Ocean during 2011-2017 using a combination of 1264 previously published data and 42 new data. In the western and central North Pacific Ocean at latitudes of 30-42°N and longitudes of 140°E to 160°W, eastward transport of radiocaesium was clearly apparent.137 Cs activity concentrations in surface water decreased rapidly to ∼2-3 Bq m-3 in 2015/2016, still a bit higher than137 Cs activity concentrations before the FNPP1 accident (1...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Eduardo Duque-Redondo, Yamada Kazuo, Iñigo López-Arbeloa, Hegoi Manzano
Cementation is a widespread technique to immobilize nuclear waste due to the low leachability of cementitious materials. The capacity of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the main component of cement, to retain radionuclide Cs has been empirically studied at the macroscale, yet the specific molecular scale mechanisms that govern the retention have not been determined. In this work, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the adsorption and diffusivity of Cs into a C-S-H gel nanopore. From the simulations, it was possible to distinguish three types of Cs adsorption configurations on the C-S-H: an inner-sphere surface site where Cs is strongly bound, an outer-sphere surface site where Cs is loosely bound, and Cs free in the nanopore...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Emiko Oguri, Hironori Deguchi
We investigated134 Cs and137 Cs activity concentrations in the common Japanese moss species Hypnum plumaeforme collected from 32 sites within ca. 100 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 32 samples of H. plumaeforme were collected during the field surveys from November 2013 to September 2014. The maximum radiocesium activity concentrations in H. plumaeforme were 60.9 ± 1.8 kBq kg-1 for134 Cs and 123 ± 2.3 kBq kg-1 for137 Cs. The mean value for the134 Cs/137 Cs was 1...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sadaf Saremi, Mats Isaksson, Karin C Harding
Radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 still circulate in the Baltic marine ecosystem and activity levels in water, sediments and fish species such as herring and perch are monitored annually. However, the activity levels of radionuclides in marine mammals have only been sporadically reported. Tissue samples from a museum collection were analysed in two species of seals, and the trends over time in activity level of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) after the Chernobyl accident were reconstructed. We also performed a literature review summarizing activity levels in marine mammals world-wide...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Faezeh Forouzan, Anthony J Waker
The use of a custom-made cylindrical graphite proportional counter (Cy-GPC) along with a cylindrical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) for neutron-gamma mixed-field dosimetry has been studied in the following steps: first, the consistency of the gamma dose measurement between the Cy-TEPC and the Cy-GPC was investigated over a range of 20 keV (X-ray) to 0.661 MeV (Cs-137 gamma ray). Then, with both the counters used simultaneously, the neutron and gamma ray doses produced by a P385 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific) together with a Cs-137 gamma source were determined...
January 10, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
W H Leung, W M Ma, Philip K Y Chan
The JRODOS (Java-based Real-time Online DecisiOn Support) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management for releases of radioactive material into the environment. This paper documents the application of JRODOS by the Hong Kong Observatory in accident consequence assessment and emergency preparedness studies. For operational considerations, the most computational efficient dispersion model in JRODOS, ATSTEP, is adopted. Verification studies for JRODOS's ATSTEP model have been conducted. Comparison with tracer experiment results showed that under neutral atmospheric conditions and distances up to 50 km, the JRODOS simulation outputs were in general of the same order of magnitude with the tracer data...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Xiaobing Geng, Zhenghui Xie, Lijun Zhang, Mei Xu, Binghao Jia
An inverse source estimation method is proposed to reconstruct emission rates using local air concentration sampling data. It involves the nonlinear least squares-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation (NLS-4DVar) algorithm and a transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) created using FLEXPART, a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model. The method was tested by twin experiments and experiments with actual Cs-137 concentrations measured around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Juan Tomás Zerquera, Juan C Mora, Beatriz Robles
Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used...
November 15, 2017: Toxics
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
In the present study,129 I activities and129 I/127 I atom ratios were measured in 60 soil samples contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The127 I concentrations,129 I activities, and129 I/127 I atom ratios in dry-weight were observed to be 0.121-23.6 mg kg-1 , 0.962-275 mBq kg-1 , and (0.215-79.3) × 10-7 , respectively. The maximum values of both129 I activities and129 I/127 I atom ratios in Japanese soil increased about three orders of magnitude due to this accident...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weihua Zhang, Kurt Ungar
This article presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring obtained by three Canadian radiation monitoring stations before, after and during Fukushima-Daiichi accident. It includes 210 Pb, 212 Pb and 7 Be (naturally occurring radionuclides) and 131 I, 132 I, 129 Te, 129 m Te, 132 Te, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs and 133 Xe (Fukushima contaminants). The maximum activity concentrations were in range of 2.3-3.7 Bq/m 3 for 133 Xe; 2.0-4.4 mBq/m 3 for 131 I in aerosol form; 0.27-0.83 mBq/m 3 for 137 Cs depending on monitoring locations...
October 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
T Wilflinger, H Lettner, A Hubmer, P Bossew, B Sattler, H Slupetzky
Cryoconites ("cold dust", derived from the Greek) are aeolian sediments accumulated on glacier surfaces. In cryoconites from the surface of the Stubacher Sonnblickkees, a temperate Austrian glacier, extremely high activity concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides were found. Artificial radionuclides stem from two clearly distinguishable sources, global fallout from the nuclear weapons testing era deposited over a period of years until roughly 1966 and the fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, which was essentially deposited as a single input during one week...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hideyuki Kawamura, Akiko Furuno, Takuya Kobayashi, Teiji In, Tomoharu Nakayama, Yoichi Ishikawa, Yasumasa Miyazawa, Norihisa Usui
To understand the concentration and amount of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 in the ocean, this study simulated the oceanic dispersion of Cs-137 by atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations. The oceanic dispersion simulations were carried out with an oceanic dispersion model and multiple oceanic general circulation models. The Cs-137 concentrations were sensitive to ocean currents in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans. The mean Cs-137 concentrations of the multiple models relatively well agreed with the observed concentrations in the coastal and offshore oceans during the first few months after the Fukushima disaster, and in the open ocean during the first year after the disaster...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Yang Li, Tetsuji Imanaka, Hitoshi Sato, Ken Ishida
Radiation-contaminated soils are widespread around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and such soils raise concerns over its harmful effect on soil-dwelling organisms. We evaluated the effects of contaminated soil and moss sampled in Fukushima on the embryogenesis and hatching of aphid eggs, along with the measurement of the egg exposure dose. Cs-137 concentration in soil and moss from Fukushima ranged from 2200 to 3300 Bq/g and from 64 to 105 Bq/g, respectively. Eggs of the eriosomatine aphid Prociphilus oriens that were collected from a non-contaminated area were directly placed on the soil and moss for 4 or 3 months during diapause and then incubated until hatching...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Heredity
H A Al-Musywel, A Laref
Radiotherapy is an extensively used treatment for most tumor types. However, ionizing radiation does not discriminate between cancerous and normal cells surrounding the tumor, which can be considered as a dose-limiting factor. This can lead to the reduction of the effectiveness of tumor cell eradication with this treatment. A potential solution to this problem is loading the tumor with high-Z materials prior to radiotherapy as this can induce higher toxicity in tumor cells compared to normal ones. New advances in nanotechnology have introduced the promising use of heavy metal nanoparticles to enhance tumor treatment...
December 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Ge Yao, Zelong Zhang, Jianwei Wang
Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series137 Cs →137 Ba and90 Sr →90 Y →90 Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis...
September 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shingo Kobayashi, Takayuki Shinomiya, Takahiro Ishikawa, Hitoshi Imaseki, Kazuki Iwaoka, Hisashi Kitamura, Satoshi Kodaira, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masakazu Oikawa, Norihiro Miyaushiro, Yoshio Takashima, Yukio Uchihori
A low134 Cs/137 Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest (NNW) direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) is identified by a new analysis of the134 Cs/137 Cs ratio dataset which we had obtained in 2011-2015 by a series of car-borne surveys that employed a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. We found that the134 Cs/137 Cs ratio is slightly lower (0.95, decay-corrected to March 11, 2011) in an area with a length of about 15 km and a width of about 3 km in the NNW direction from the FDNPS than in other directions from the station...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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