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Marine Radioactivity

Eugenio Rastelli, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Mathias Middelboe, Rachel T Noble, Roberto Danovaro
Viruses profoundly influence benthic marine ecosystems by infecting and subsequently killing their prokaryotic hosts, thereby impacting the cycling of carbon and nutrients. Previously conducted studies, based on different methodologies, have provided widely differing estimates of the relevance of viruses on benthic prokaryotes. There has been no attempt so far to compare these independent approaches, including contextual comparisons among different approaches for sample manipulation (i.e., dilution or not of the sediments during incubations), between methods based on epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) or radiotracers, and between the use of different radiotracers...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Villa-Alfageme, J L Mas, S Hurtado-Bermudez, P Masqué
Measurement of radionuclides in marine samples, specifically radioactive pairs disequilibrium, has gained interest lately due to their ability to trace cutting edge biogeochemical processes. In this context, we developed a fast, direct method for determining (210)Pb and (210)Po water through the use of ultra low-level liquid scintillation counting and alpha-particle spectrometry respectively and through Eichrom Sr resins for the Po-Pb separation. For (210)Pb analysis, the method uses stable lead as a yield tracer measured by a robust ICP-MS technique, and (210)Po is determined through self-deposition using the conventional (209)Po yield tracer...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Melody Maloubier, David K Shuh, Stefan G Minasian, Joseph I Pacold, Pier-Lorenzo Solari, Hervé Michel, François R Oberhaensli, Yasmine Bottein, Marguerite Monfort, Christophe Moulin, Christophe Den Auwer
In the ocean, complex interactions between natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, seawater, and diverse marine biota provide a unique window through which to examine ecosystem and trophic transfer mechanisms in cases of accidental dissemination. The nature of interaction between radionuclides, the marine environment, and marine species is therefore essential for better understanding transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. Although data pertaining to the rate of global transfer are often available, little is known regarding the mechanism of environmental transport and uptake of heavy radionuclides by marine species...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Toshihiro Wada, Tsuneo Fujita, Yoshiharu Nemoto, Shinya Shimamura, Takuji Mizuno, Tadahiro Sohtome, Kyoichi Kamiyama, Kaoru Narita, Masato Watanabe, Nobuyuki Hatta, Yasuo Ogata, Takami Morita, Satoshi Igarashi
Original data ((134)Cs and (137)Cs, and sampling location) of marine products in Fukushima Prefecture monitored during 2011-2015 (n = 32,492) were analyzed to present an updated detailed description of radiocesium contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident and to examine taxon/habitat-specific decreasing trends in different areas. Furthermore, marine species data presented by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) during 2012-2015 (n = 5458) were analyzed to evaluate the decreasing trends of (137)Cs inside and outside (within a 20 km radius) of the FDNPP port...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
E G Androulakaki, M Kokkoris, E Skordis, E Fatsea, D L Patiris, C Tsabaris, R Vlastou
The FLUKA code was implemented to simulate pulse-height spectra of a NaI(Tl) detector (excluding its resolution), considering radioactive sources of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides present in the marine environment. For this purpose, a user-defined routine was developed for the proper simulation of the emitted γ-rays. The results were compared with simulations performed using the MCNP-CP code. The comparison of the recorded counts in the full-energy peaks, for the high intensity (emission probability >15%) emitted γ-rays for each radionuclide, yielded a satisfactory agreement (calculated ratios from 0...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
F K Pappa, C Tsabaris, A Ioannidou, D L Patiris, H Kaberi, I Pashalidis, G Eleftheriou, E G Androulakaki, R Vlastou
Marine sediment samples were collected from Ierissos Gulf, N Aegean Sea, close to the coastal mining facilities. Measurements of radionuclide and metal concentrations, mineral composition and grain size distribution were performed. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (235)U and trace metals showed enhanced values in the port of Stratoni compared with those obtained near to Ierissos port. The dose rates received by marine biota were also calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool and the results indicated no significant radiological risk...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Marin Prpic, Davor Kust, Ivan Kruljac, Lora Stanka Kirigin, Tomislav Jukic, Nina Dabelic, Ante Bolanca, Zvonko Kusic
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to detect parameters that could serve as predictors of radioactive iodine (I-131) ablation failure in patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). METHODS: Our cohort study included 740 patients with DTC who received postoperative I-131 remnant ablation. Anthropometric, biochemical, and pathohistological parameters were analyzed and correlated with ablation outcome using multivariable logistic regression models...
July 26, 2016: Head & Neck
S Salmani-Ghabeshi, M R Palomo-Marín, E Bernalte, F Rueda-Holgado, C Miró-Rodríguez, F Cereceda-Balic, X Fadic, V Vidal, M Funes, E Pinilla-Gil
The Punchuncaví Valley in central Chile, heavily affected by a range of anthropogenic emissions from a localized industrial complex, has been studied as a model environment for evaluating the spatial gradient of human health risk, which are mainly caused by trace elemental pollutants in soil. Soil elemental profiles in 121 samples from five selected locations representing different degrees of impact from the industrial source were used for human risk estimation. Distance to source dependent cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard indexes above 1 for children (max 4...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jordi Vives I Batlle
In a previous commentary written in 2011 in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident in Japan, I summarized what was then understood about the effects of accidental radioactive discharges to marine life and forecasted into the future how the marine environment would likely be affected. Since that time, several studies have been conducted on the impact of the accident on marine organisms, and radiation doses arising thereof. I developed a dynamic transfer model for studying the bioaccumulation of Fukushima radionuclides in marine biota and assessed the impact and likelihood of effects to marine life...
October 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Ken Buesseler, Minhan Dai, Michio Aoyama, Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Sabine Charmasson, Kathryn Higley, Vladimir Maderich, Pere Masqué, Deborah Oughton, John N Smith
The events that followed the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, included the loss of power and overheating at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants, which led to extensive releases of radioactive gases, volatiles, and liquids, particularly to the coastal ocean. The fate of these radionuclides depends in large part on their oceanic geochemistry, physical processes, and biological uptake. Whereas radioactivity on land can be resampled and its distribution mapped, releases to the marine environment are harder to characterize owing to variability in ocean currents and the general challenges of sampling at sea...
June 30, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
Hamed Abdollahnejad, Naser Vosoughi, Mohammad Reza Zare
Simulation, design and fabrication of a sealing enclosure is carried out for a NaI(Tl) 2″×2″ detector, to be used as in situ gamma radioactivity measurement system in marine environment. Effect of sealing enclosure on performance of the system in laboratory and marine environment (distinct tank with 10m(3) volume) were studied using point sources. The marine volumetric efficiency for radiation with 1461keV energy (from (40)K) is measured with KCl volumetric liquid source diluted in distinct tank. The experimental and simulated efficiency values agreed well...
August 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
T V Rozhko, G A Badun, I A Razzhivina, O A Guseynov, V E Guseynova, N S Kudryasheva
The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented...
June 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Katsumi Hirose
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts to Japan. To document the actual environmental and socioeconomic effects of the FDNPP accident, we describe here atmospheric and marine contamination due to radionuclides released from the FDNPP accident using papers published during past five years, in which temporal and spatial variations of FDNPP-derived radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater and their mapping are recorded by local, regional and global monitoring activities...
June 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M A Hernández-Ceballos, G Cinelli, T Tollefsen, M Marín-Ferrer
The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means)...
May 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jing Chen, Michael D Rennie, Baki Sadi, Weihua Zhang, Nadereh St-Amant
To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption...
March 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Eun-Kyeong Moon, Wi-Ho Ha, Songwon Seo, Young Woo Jin, Kyu Hwan Jeong, Hae-Jung Yoon, Hyoung-Soo Kim, Myung-Sil Hwang, Hoon Choi, Won Jin Lee
The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (131)I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food)...
January 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Marin Prpic, Ivan Kruljac, Davor Kust, Lora S Kirigin, Tomislav Jukic, Nina Dabelic, Ante Bolanca, Zvonko Kusic
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different radioactive iodine (I-131) activities used for re-ablation, to compare various combinations of treatment activities, and to identify predictors of re-ablation failure in low- and intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. The study included 128 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients with DTC with ablation failure after total thyroidectomy. Patient characteristics, T status, tumor size, lymph node involvement, postoperative remnant size on whole-body scintigraphy, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-Tg antibody (TgAb), and Tg/TSH ratio were analyzed as potential predictors of the re-ablation success...
June 2016: Endocrine
Guilherme R Lotufo, Jason B Belden, Jonathon C Fisher, Shou-Feng Chen, Richard A Mowery, C Kevin Chambliss, Gunther Rosen
To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to extractable TNT and its major metabolites, organisms were exposed to water fortified with (14)C-TNT. After 24 h, nonextractable residues made up 75% (mussel) and 83% (fish) while TNT accounted for 2% of total radioactivity. Depuration half-lives for extractable TNT, aminodinitrotoluenes (ADNTs) and diaminonitrotoluenes (DANTs) were fast initially (<0...
March 2016: Environmental Pollution
Xuanqi Liu, Xiaoyong Xu, Chao Li, Hanxue Zhang, Qiuguo Fu, Xusheng Shao, Qingfu Ye, Zhong Li
Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide that has been developed for agricultural pest control. The fate of the (14)C-labeled racemic and enantio-pure CYC isomers in flooded and anaerobic soil was investigated using radioisotope tracing techniques. After 100 d of incubation, only a minor portion (<1%) of the applied CYC isomers is mineralized by each of the four tested soil types. The fraction of initially applied radioactive CYC dissipated into the bound or non-extractable residues (BR) increases with increase in the length of the incubation period, reaching up to 53...
February 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kieran M Tierney, Graham K P Muir, Gordon T Cook, Gillian MacKinnon, John A Howe, Johanna J Heymans, Sheng Xu
The nuclear energy industry produces radioactive waste at various stages of the fuel cycle. In the United Kingdom, spent fuel is reprocessed at the Sellafield facility in Cumbria on the North West coast of England. Waste generated at the site comprises a wide range of radionuclides including radiocarbon ((14)C) which is disposed of in various forms including highly soluble inorganic carbon within the low level liquid radioactive effluent, via pipelines into the Irish Sea. This (14)C is rapidly incorporated into the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir and marine calcifying organisms, e...
January 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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