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Marine Radioactivity

Kuria Ndungu, Björnar A Beylich, André Staalstrøm, Sigurd Øxnevad, John A Berge, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg Braaten, Morten Schaanning, Rune Bergstrøm
Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje...
March 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M Muñoz, A Reul, M Vargas-Yáñez, F Plaza, B Bautista, M C García-Martínez, F Moya, M-L Gómez-Moreno, J A Fernandes, V Rodríguez
Marine Spatial Planning is usually based on benthic georeferenced information or GPS tracked human activities, whereas the pelagic ecosystem is often ignored because of scarce and limited surface information. However, the 3-D pelagic ecosystem plays a key role connecting all the other ecosystems by physical (currents) and biological (migration) processes. According to remote sensing the Garrucha Canyon is oligotrophic, but 3-D sampling reveals subsurface upwelling, and converts it into the richest area around the Cape of Gata...
May 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Bruno Fiévet, Pascal Bailly-du-Bois, Philippe Laguionie, Mehdi Morillon, Mireille Arnaud, Pascal Cunin
The Fukushima Daï-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in radioactive Cs being discharged into the local marine environment. While Cs bioaccumulates in biota and slowly depurates, the Cs concentrated in biota constitutes a source of Cs for animals feeding on each other. The marine biota therefore serves as a pool that recycles Cs, and this recycling process delays depuration in the fish feeding on this biota pool. Because the continental shelf is squeezed between the coast and very deep sea, the demersal marine species are confined to a narrow strip along the coast, close to the source of the radioactive input...
2017: PloS One
Isabelle Planes, Sylvain Girard, Aziz Boukenter, Emmanuel Marin, Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Claude Marcandella, Youcef Ouerdane
We investigated the evolution of the performances of Pulse Pre Pump-Brillouin Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA) and Tunable Wavelength Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (TW-COTDR) fiber-based temperature and strain sensors when the sensing optical fiber is exposed to two γ-ray irradiation conditions: (i) at room temperature and a dose rate of 370 Gy(SiO2)/h up to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 56 kGy; (ii) at room temperature and a dose rate of 25 kGy(SiO2)/h up to a TID of 10 MGy. Two main different classes of single-mode optical fibers have been tested in situ, radiation-tolerant ones: fluorine-doped or nitrogen-doped core fibers, as well as Telecom-grade germanosilicate ones...
February 17, 2017: Sensors
P Strand, S Sundell-Bergman, J E Brown, M Dowdall
The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Karcher, A Hosseini, R Schnur, F Kauker, J E Brown, M Dowdall, P Strand
Of the wide variety of dumped objects containing radioactive materials in the Arctic seas, the submarine K-27 constitutes a major risk due to the large amount of highly enriched uranium onboard and its location in shallow waters. As the matter of potential operations involving raising of the submarine have entered the public arena, a priori assessment of the contamination in the Arctic marine environment that could result after a possible accident during such operations is a matter of some interest. The dispersion of contaminants within the Arctic has been assessed using a large scale hydrodynamic model for a series of plausible accident scenarios and locations under different oceanographic regimes...
January 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
L van Andel, S Fudio, H Rosing, S Munt, B Miguel-Lillo, I González, M M Tibben, N de Vries, A H M de Vries Schultink, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
Plitidepsin (Aplidin®) is a marine-derived anticancer compound currently investigated in phase III clinical trials. This article describes the distribution, metabolism and excretion of this novel agent and it mainly aims to identify the major routes of elimination. Six subjects were enrolled in a mass balance study during which radiolabelled plitidepsin was administered as a 3-h intravenous infusion. Blood samples were taken and urine and faeces were collected. Total radioactivity (TRA) analysis using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) was done to determine the amount of radioactivity excreted from the body and plitidepsin concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine were determined by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays...
January 23, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
Zhi Zeng, Yu-Hao Mi, Jian-Hua He, Hao Ma, Jian-Ping Cheng
To investigate the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident's radiological effect on marine ecosystem, ash samples of squids from the western Pacific Ocean were collected in May 2014 and measured using an underground gamma-ray spectrometer in the underground laboratory JinPing. Low levels of (108m)Ag, (110m)Ag, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected, which indicates that the influence of the FDNPP accident on marine ecosystem is lasting but decreasing.
January 16, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Zhi Zeng, Xingyu Pan, Hao Ma, Jianhua He, Jirong Cang, Ming Zeng, Yuhao Mi, Jianping Cheng
An underwater in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer based on LaBr3:Ce was developed and optimized to monitor marine radioactivity. The intrinsic background mainly from (138)La and (227)Ac of LaBr3:Ce was well determined by low background measurement and pulse shape discrimination method. A method of self-calibration using three internal contaminant peaks was proposed to eliminate the peak shift during long-term monitoring. With experiments under different temperatures, the method was proved to be helpful for maintaining long-term stability...
March 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Maud Naulier, Frédérique Eyrolle-Boyer, Patrick Boyer, Jean-Michel Métivier, Yuichi Onda
The role of particulate organic matter in radiocesium transfers from soils to rivers was investigated in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Suspended and deposited sediments, filtered water, macro organic debris and dead leaves were sampled along the six most contaminated coastal river catchments of the Fukushima prefecture in the early autumns 2013 and 2014. Radiocesium concentrations of river samples and total organic carbon concentrations in suspended and deposited sediments were measured...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mohammed Hssaisoune, Lhoussaine Bouchaou, Baudelaire N'da, Mouna Malki, Houria Abahous, Alan E Fryar
Groundwater depletion and changes in isotopic and chemical contents constitute the main indicators of overexploitation, recharge, and flow paths in the Souss-Massa aquifer. These indicators highlight processes concerning sustainability of water resources in the aquifer (e.g. surface/groundwater interaction, recharge processes, and marine intrusion). The spatial variation of stable and radioactive isotopic contents indicates a mixing of modern and old water within the system. Recent recharge was observed mainly along the Souss River (the major surface-water drainage in the study area) and in the irrigated areas...
December 5, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
O El Samad, R Baydoun, M Aoun, W Zaidan, H El Jeaid
In the framework of a National Environmental Radiation Survey Program, a total of 950 samples were collected and analyzed over 7 years. The program covers different compartment of Lebanese environment, rivers, wells, marine samples, soil, and foodstuff. Air was monitored continuously through a radiation early warning network system. Data collected from 2009 to 2015 are presented in this work. Gross alpha/gross beta values in well samples were below the guidance levels stated by the WHO. Cesium-137 was detected in milk samples, whey, and jam...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eugenio Rastelli, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Mathias Middelboe, Rachel T Noble, Roberto Danovaro
Viruses profoundly influence benthic marine ecosystems by infecting and subsequently killing their prokaryotic hosts, thereby impacting the cycling of carbon and nutrients. Previously conducted studies, based on different methodologies, have provided widely differing estimates of the relevance of viruses on benthic prokaryotes. There has been no attempt so far to compare these independent approaches, including contextual comparisons among different approaches for sample manipulation (i.e., dilution or not of the sediments during incubations), between methods based on epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) or radiotracers, and between the use of different radiotracers...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Villa-Alfageme, J L Mas, S Hurtado-Bermudez, P Masqué
Measurement of radionuclides in marine samples, specifically radioactive pairs disequilibrium, has gained interest lately due to their ability to trace cutting edge biogeochemical processes. In this context, we developed a fast, direct method for determining (210)Pb and (210)Po water through the use of ultra low-level liquid scintillation counting and alpha-particle spectrometry respectively and through Eichrom Sr resins for the Po-Pb separation. For (210)Pb analysis, the method uses stable lead as a yield tracer measured by a robust ICP-MS technique, and (210)Po is determined through self-deposition using the conventional (209)Po yield tracer...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Melody Maloubier, David K Shuh, Stefan G Minasian, Joseph I Pacold, Pier-Lorenzo Solari, Hervé Michel, François R Oberhaensli, Yasmine Bottein, Marguerite Monfort, Christophe Moulin, Christophe Den Auwer
In the ocean, complex interactions between natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, seawater, and diverse marine biota provide a unique window through which to examine ecosystem and trophic transfer mechanisms in cases of accidental dissemination. The nature of interaction between radionuclides, the marine environment, and marine species is therefore essential for better understanding transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. Although data pertaining to the rate of global transfer are often available, little is known regarding the mechanism of environmental transport and uptake of heavy radionuclides by marine species...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Toshihiro Wada, Tsuneo Fujita, Yoshiharu Nemoto, Shinya Shimamura, Takuji Mizuno, Tadahiro Sohtome, Kyoichi Kamiyama, Kaoru Narita, Masato Watanabe, Nobuyuki Hatta, Yasuo Ogata, Takami Morita, Satoshi Igarashi
Original data ((134)Cs and (137)Cs, and sampling location) of marine products in Fukushima Prefecture monitored during 2011-2015 (n = 32,492) were analyzed to present an updated detailed description of radiocesium contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident and to examine taxon/habitat-specific decreasing trends in different areas. Furthermore, marine species data presented by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) during 2012-2015 (n = 5458) were analyzed to evaluate the decreasing trends of (137)Cs inside and outside (within a 20 km radius) of the FDNPP port...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
E G Androulakaki, M Kokkoris, E Skordis, E Fatsea, D L Patiris, C Tsabaris, R Vlastou
The FLUKA code was implemented to simulate pulse-height spectra of a NaI(Tl) detector (excluding its resolution), considering radioactive sources of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides present in the marine environment. For this purpose, a user-defined routine was developed for the proper simulation of the emitted γ-rays. The results were compared with simulations performed using the MCNP-CP code. The comparison of the recorded counts in the full-energy peaks, for the high intensity (emission probability >15%) emitted γ-rays for each radionuclide, yielded a satisfactory agreement (calculated ratios from 0...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
F K Pappa, C Tsabaris, A Ioannidou, D L Patiris, H Kaberi, I Pashalidis, G Eleftheriou, E G Androulakaki, R Vlastou
Marine sediment samples were collected from Ierissos Gulf, N Aegean Sea, close to the coastal mining facilities. Measurements of radionuclide and metal concentrations, mineral composition and grain size distribution were performed. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (235)U and trace metals showed enhanced values in the port of Stratoni compared with those obtained near to Ierissos port. The dose rates received by marine biota were also calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool and the results indicated no significant radiological risk...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Marin Prpic, Davor Kust, Ivan Kruljac, Lora Stanka Kirigin, Tomislav Jukic, Nina Dabelic, Ante Bolanca, Zvonko Kusic
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to detect parameters that could serve as predictors of radioactive iodine (I-131) ablation failure in patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). METHODS: Our cohort study included 740 patients with DTC who received postoperative I-131 remnant ablation. Anthropometric, biochemical, and pathohistological parameters were analyzed and correlated with ablation outcome using multivariable logistic regression models...
January 2017: Head & Neck
S Salmani-Ghabeshi, M R Palomo-Marín, E Bernalte, F Rueda-Holgado, C Miró-Rodríguez, F Cereceda-Balic, X Fadic, V Vidal, M Funes, E Pinilla-Gil
The Punchuncaví Valley in central Chile, heavily affected by a range of anthropogenic emissions from a localized industrial complex, has been studied as a model environment for evaluating the spatial gradient of human health risk, which are mainly caused by trace elemental pollutants in soil. Soil elemental profiles in 121 samples from five selected locations representing different degrees of impact from the industrial source were used for human risk estimation. Distance to source dependent cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard indexes above 1 for children (max 4...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
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