Read by QxMD icon Read

Marine Radioactivity

Peng Yi, Xuegao Chen, Zixia Wang, Ala Aldahan, Xiaolin Hou, Zhongbo Yu
The radioactive isotope 129 I, with a half-life of 1.57 × 107 years, is widely used as a tracer to assess nuclear safety, to track environmental and geological events and to figure out the details of the stable iodine geochemical cycle. This work investigated the 129 I and 127 I distribution in water samples collected from the terrestrial (rivers, lakes and springs) and marine water systems (estuary and sea) in China. The measured 129 I concentrations of (1-51) × 106 atoms/L and 129 I/127 I ratios of (0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Tholkappian, Durai Ganesh, E Devanesan, N Harikrishnan, J Prince Prakash Jebakumar, R Ravisankar
This article contains data on the activity concentration of natural radionuclides in coastal sediment samples collected from Pulicat Lake to Vadanemmeli, East coast of Tamil Nadu using NaI(Tl) detector based γ-spectrometry. As marine sediments are found to be the repository of many radioactive pollutants, studied the objectives like (i) determine natural radionuclide activity concentrations in sediment samples in and around Chennai coast (ii) evaluate the radiological hazards due to natural radioactivity associated with coastal sediments and (iii) identify areas which may be radiological hazardous for the public along the study area...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Roberta L Hansman, Marc Metian, Simon Pouil, François Oberhänsli, Jean-Louis Teyssié, Peter W Swarzenski
To better understand bioaccumulation of radiocaesium in the commercially important Japanese flatfish, Paralichthys olivaceus, the uptake and depuration kinetics of caesium via both seawater and food were assessed simultaneously using controlled aquaria. The pre-conditioned fish were exposed to radionuclides via the two different pathways (aqueous versus dietary) concurrently using two isotopes of caesium, 137 Cs and 134 Cs, respectively. Dissolved caesium uptake was linear and did not reach a steady state over the course of the 8-day exposure period...
October 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R Periáñez, I Brovchenko, K T Jung, K O Kim, V Maderich
The behavior of marine distribution coefficients is analyzed with the help of numerical experiments and analytical solutions of equations describing kinetic models for uptake/release of radionuclides. The difficulties in measuring true kd in a marine environment perturbed by an external radionuclide source are highlighted. Differences between suspended matter and bed sediment kd are analyzed. The performances of different kinetic models (1-step/2step; single-layer/multi-layer) are studied in model/model and model/experiment comparisons...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sadaf Saremi, Mats Isaksson, Karin C Harding
Radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 still circulate in the Baltic marine ecosystem and activity levels in water, sediments and fish species such as herring and perch are monitored annually. However, the activity levels of radionuclides in marine mammals have only been sporadically reported. Tissue samples from a museum collection were analysed in two species of seals, and the trends over time in activity level of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) after the Chernobyl accident were reconstructed. We also performed a literature review summarizing activity levels in marine mammals world-wide...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tran Thi Van, Luu Tam Bat, Dang Duc Nhan, Nguyen Hao Quang, Bui Duy Cam, Luu Viet Hung
Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U radioactive chains and 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of 40 K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg-1 dw (tofu). The 210 Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg-1  dw (rice) to (4...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Management
Hamza Al-Qasmi, Gareth T W Law, L Keith Fifield, John A Howe, Tim Brand, Gregory L Cowie, Kathleen A Law, Francis R Livens
The nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the Sellafield site (UK) have released low-level effluents into the Irish Sea under authorisation since 1952. This has led to the labelling of nearby offshore sediments with a range of artificial radionuclides. In turn, these sediments act as a long-term secondary source of both soluble and particle-associated radionuclides to coastal areas. These radionuclides are of interest both in assessing possible environmental impacts and as tracers for marine processes. Here we present results from a study of the geochemistry of natural (234, 238 U) and artificial (137 Cs, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, and 236 U) radionuclides and their accumulation in sediments from Loch Etive, Scotland...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Constance Xhaard, Carole Rubino, Vincent Souchard, Stéphane Maillard, Yan Ren, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Geneviève Sassolas, Claire Schvartz, Marc Colonna, Brigitte Lacour, Anne Sophie Woronoff, Michel Velten, Emilie Marrer, Laurent Bailly, Eugènia Mariné Barjoan, Martin Schlumberger, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Andre Bouville, Jacques Orgiazzi, Elisabeth Adjadj, Florent de Vathaire
BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred in Ukraine on April 26th 1986. In France, the radioactive fallout and thyroid radiation doses were much lower than in highly contaminated areas. However, a number of risk projections have suggested that a small excess in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) might occur in eastern France due to this low-level fallout. In order to investigate this potential impact, a case-control study on DTC risk factors was started in 2005, focusing on cases who were less than 15 years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident...
February 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Atef El-Taher, Fatimh Alshahri, Reda Elsaman
Ras Tanura city is one of the most important cities in Saudi Arabia because of the presence of the largest and oldest oil refinery in the Middle East which was began operations in September 1945. Also its contains gas plant and two ports. The concentration of natural radionuclides, heavy metals and rare earth elements were measured in marine sediment samples collected from Ras Tanura. The specific activities of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs (Bq/kg) were measured using A hyper-pure Germanium detector (HPGe), and ranged from (20...
February 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Justin P Gwynn, Hilde Elise Heldal, Janita K Flo, Ingrid Sværen, Torbjörn Gäfvert, Hallvard Haanes, Lars Føyn, Anne Liv Rudjord
Norway has monitored the marine environment around the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets since 1990. This study presents an overview of 25 years of Norwegian monitoring data (1990-2015). Komsomolets sank in 1989 at a depth of 1680 m in the Norwegian Sea while carrying two nuclear torpedoes in its armament. Subsequent Soviet and Russian expeditions to Komsomolets have shown that releases from the reactor have occurred and that the submarine has suffered considerable damage to its hulls. Norwegian monitoring detected134 Cs in surface sediments around Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994 and elevated activity concentrations of137 Cs in bottom seawater between 1991 and 1993...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Fernando P Carvalho
The first measurements made of artificial radionuclides released into the marine environment did reveal that radionuclides are concentrated by marine biological species. The need to report radionuclide accumulation in biota in different conditions and geographical areas prompted the use of concentration factors as a convenient way to describe the accumulation of radionuclides in biota relative to radionuclide concentrations in seawater. Later, concentration factors became a tool in modelling radionuclide distribution and transfer in aquatic environments and to predicting radioactivity in organisms...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Xianming Zhao, Xiao Qiu
Thraustochytrium is a marine protist producing a specific profile of nutritionally important fatty acids, including very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), even chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid (16:0), and odd chain SFAs pentadecanoic acid (15:0). To study how these fatty acids are synthesized, a series of radiolabeled precursors were used to trace the biosynthetic process in vivo and in vitro. When Thraustochytrium was fed with long chain fatty acid intermediates such as [1-14 C]-oleic acid, [1-14 C]-linoleic acid and [1-14 C]-α-linolenic acid, no VLCPUFAs were produced, indicating that the aerobic pathway for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs was not functional in Thraustochytrium...
January 2018: Biochimie
Virginie Sanial, Ken O Buesseler, Matthew A Charette, Seiya Nagao
There are 440 operational nuclear reactors in the world, with approximately one-half situated along the coastline. This includes the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which experienced multiple reactor meltdowns in March 2011 followed by the release of radioactivity to the marine environment. While surface inputs to the ocean via atmospheric deposition and rivers are usually well monitored after a nuclear accident, no study has focused on subterranean pathways. During our study period, we found the highest cesium-137 ((137)Cs) levels (up to 23,000 Bq⋅m(-3)) outside of the FDNPP site not in the ocean, rivers, or potable groundwater, but in groundwater beneath sand beaches over tens of kilometers away from the FDNPP...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Saif Uddin, Montaha Behbehani, A Aba, Abdul Nabi Al Ghadban
This study focuses on creating baseline for 238 U, 235 U, 234 U, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 40 K concentrations in the northern Arabian Gulf. The respective concentration ranges were 0.047-0.050, 0.00186-0.00198, 0.054-0.057, 0.00085-0.00092, 0.00051-0.00062 and 18.6-19.1Bql-1 . These results suggest that the levels are generally comparable to other marine waters in the northern hemisphere. There were no hot spots observed from oil and gas industry. These data will serve as a baseline to gauge possible future inputs of TENORMs in the northern Gulf...
October 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Koji Seike, Kotaro Shirai, Naoko Murakami-Sugihara
The maximum depth of sediment biomixing is directly related to the vertical extent of post-depositional environmental alteration in the sediment; consequently, it is important to determine the maximum burrowing depth. This study examined the maximum depth of bioturbation in a natural marine environment in Funakoshi Bay, northeastern Japan, using observations of bioturbation structures developed in an event layer (tsunami deposits of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) and measurements of the radioactive cesium concentrations in this layer...
2017: PloS One
Takumi Horiike, Yuma Dotsuta, Yuriko Nakano, Asumi Ochiai, Satoshi Utsunomiya, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Mitsuo Yamashita
Radioactive strontium (90 Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of 90 Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed >99% of Sr after contact for 4 days in a saline solution (1...
October 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Elis Holm
An international conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes was held in Seville, Spain, 6-9 November 2016 at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. It was attended by 160 participants from 35 different countries. This was the 2nd conference on this item since 1966, 50 years ago. The conference covered aspects of radiological important radionuclides on terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments and has allowed obtaining a clear picture of the status of the Radioecology as a consolidated discipline in the 21st century...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
T V Rozhko, O A Guseynov, V E Guseynova, A A Bondar, A N Devyatlovskaya, N S Kudryasheva
Luminous marine bacteria are widely used in bioassays with luminescence intensity being a physiological parameter tested. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bacterial genetic alteration is responsible for bioluminescence kinetics change under low-dose radiation exposure. The alpha-emitting radionuclide (241)Am and beta-emitting radionuclide (3)H were used as the sources of low-dose ionizing radiation. Changes of bioluminescence kinetics of Photobacterium phosphoreum in solutions of (241)Am(NO3)3, 7 kBq/L, and tritiated water, 100 MBq/L, were studied; bioluminescence kinetics stages (absence of effect, activation, and inhibition) were determined...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvain Girard, Marcel Landolt, Johan Bertrand, Isabelle Planes, Aziz Boukenter, Emmanuel Marin, Georges Humbert, Stéphanie Leparmentier, Jean-Louis Auguste, Youcef Ouerdane
This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes...
June 13, 2017: Sensors
Hye Min Park, Ki Hyun Park, Sung Won Kang, Koan Sik Joo
We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"