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Marine Radioactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195163/environmental-impacts-of-heavy-metals-rare-earth-elements-and-natural-radionuclides-in-marine-sediment-from-ras-tanura-saudi-arabia-along-the-arabian-gulf
#1
Atef El-Taher, Fatimh Alshahri, Reda Elsaman
Ras Tanura city is one of the most important cities in Saudi Arabia because of the presence of the largest and oldest oil refinery in the Middle East which was began operations in September 1945. Also its contains gas plant and two ports. The concentration of natural radionuclides, heavy metals and rare earth elements were measured in marine sediment samples collected from Ras Tanura. The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs (Bq/kg) were measured using A hyper-pure Germanium detector (HPGe), and ranged from (20...
November 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195122/norwegian-monitoring-1990-2015-of-the-marine-environment-around-the-sunken-nuclear-submarine-komsomolets
#2
Justin P Gwynn, Hilde Elise Heldal, Janita K Flo, Ingrid Sværen, Torbjörn Gäfvert, Hallvard Haanes, Lars Føyn, Anne Liv Rudjord
Norway has monitored the marine environment around the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets since 1990. This study presents an overview of 25 years of Norwegian monitoring data (1990-2015). Komsomolets sank in 1989 at a depth of 1680 m in the Norwegian Sea while carrying two nuclear torpedoes in its armament. Subsequent Soviet and Russian expeditions to Komsomolets have shown that releases from the reactor have occurred and that the submarine has suffered considerable damage to its hulls. Norwegian monitoring detected 134Cs in surface sediments around Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994 and elevated activity concentrations of 137Cs in bottom seawater between 1991 and 1993...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126644/radionuclide-concentration-processes-in-marine-organisms-a-comprehensive-review
#3
Fernando P Carvalho
The first measurements made of artificial radionuclides released into the marine environment did reveal that radionuclides are concentrated by marine biological species. The need to report radionuclide accumulation in biota in different conditions and geographical areas prompted the use of concentration factors as a convenient way to describe the accumulation of radionuclides in biota relative to radionuclide concentrations in seawater. Later, concentration factors became a tool in modelling radionuclide distribution and transfer in aquatic environments and to predicting radioactivity in organisms...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097280/analysis-of-the-biosynthetic-process-of-fatty-acids-in-thraustochytrium
#4
Xianming Zhao, Xiao Qiu
Thraustochytrium is a marine protist producing a specific profile of nutritionally important fatty acids, including very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), even chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid (16:0), and odd chain SFAs pentadecanoic acid (15:0). To study how these fatty acids are synthesized, a series of radiolabeled precursors were used to trace the biosynthetic process in vivo and in vitro. When Thraustochytrium was fed with long chain fatty acid intermediates such as [1-(14)C]-oleic acid, [1-(14)C]-linoleic acid and [1-(14)C]-α-linolenic acid, no VLCPUFAs were produced, indicating that the aerobic pathway for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs was not functional in Thraustochytrium...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973919/unexpected-source-of-fukushima-derived-radiocesium-to-the-coastal-ocean-of-japan
#5
Virginie Sanial, Ken O Buesseler, Matthew A Charette, Seiya Nagao
There are 440 operational nuclear reactors in the world, with approximately one-half situated along the coastline. This includes the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which experienced multiple reactor meltdowns in March 2011 followed by the release of radioactivity to the marine environment. While surface inputs to the ocean via atmospheric deposition and rivers are usually well monitored after a nuclear accident, no study has focused on subterranean pathways. During our study period, we found the highest cesium-137 ((137)Cs) levels (up to 23,000 Bq⋅m(-3)) outside of the FDNPP site not in the ocean, rivers, or potable groundwater, but in groundwater beneath sand beaches over tens of kilometers away from the FDNPP...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899599/naturally-occurring-radioactive-material-norm-in-seawater-of-the-northern-arabian-gulf-baseline-measurements
#6
Saif Uddin, Montaha Behbehani, A Aba, Abdul Nabi Al Ghadban
This study focuses on creating baseline for (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (210)Pb, (210)Po and (40)K concentrations in the northern Arabian Gulf. The respective concentration ranges were 0.047-0.050, 0.00186-0.00198, 0.054-0.057, 0.00085-0.00092, 0.00051-0.00062 and 18.6-19.1Bql(-1). These results suggest that the levels are generally comparable to other marine waters in the northern hemisphere. There were no hot spots observed from oil and gas industry. These data will serve as a baseline to gauge possible future inputs of TENORMs in the northern Gulf...
September 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854254/using-tsunami-deposits-to-determine-the-maximum-depth-of-benthic-burrowing
#7
Koji Seike, Kotaro Shirai, Naoko Murakami-Sugihara
The maximum depth of sediment biomixing is directly related to the vertical extent of post-depositional environmental alteration in the sediment; consequently, it is important to determine the maximum burrowing depth. This study examined the maximum depth of bioturbation in a natural marine environment in Funakoshi Bay, northeastern Japan, using observations of bioturbation structures developed in an event layer (tsunami deposits of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) and measurements of the radioactive cesium concentrations in this layer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802269/removal-of-soluble-strontium-via-incorporation-into-biogenic-carbonate-minerals-by-halophilic-bacterium-bacillus-sp-strain-tk2d-in-a-highly-saline-solution
#8
Takumi Horiike, Yuma Dotsuta, Yuriko Nakano, Asumi Ochiai, Satoshi Utsunomiya, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Mitsuo Yamashita
Radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of (90)Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed >99% of Sr after contact for 4 days in a saline solution (1...
October 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801188/journal-of-environmental-radioactivity-special-issue-ii-international-conference-on-radioecological-concentration-processes-50-years-later
#9
EDITORIAL
Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Elis Holm
An international conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes was held in Seville, Spain, 6-9 November 2016 at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. It was attended by 160 participants from 35 different countries. This was the 2nd conference on this item since 1966, 50 years ago. The conference covered aspects of radiological important radionuclides on terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments and has allowed obtaining a clear picture of the status of the Radioecology as a consolidated discipline in the 21st century...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728127/is-bacterial-luminescence-response-to-low-dose-radiation-associated-with-mutagenicity
#10
T V Rozhko, O A Guseynov, V E Guseynova, A A Bondar, A N Devyatlovskaya, N S Kudryasheva
Luminous marine bacteria are widely used in bioassays with luminescence intensity being a physiological parameter tested. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bacterial genetic alteration is responsible for bioluminescence kinetics change under low-dose radiation exposure. The alpha-emitting radionuclide (241)Am and beta-emitting radionuclide (3)H were used as the sources of low-dose ionizing radiation. Changes of bioluminescence kinetics of Photobacterium phosphoreum in solutions of (241)Am(NO3)3, 7 kBq/L, and tritiated water, 100 MBq/L, were studied; bioluminescence kinetics stages (absence of effect, activation, and inhibition) were determined...
October 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608831/france-s-state-of-the-art-distributed-optical-fibre-sensors-qualified-for-the-monitoring-of-the-french-underground-repository-for-high-level-and-intermediate-level-long-lived-radioactive-wastes
#11
REVIEW
Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvain Girard, Marcel Landolt, Johan Bertrand, Isabelle Planes, Aziz Boukenter, Emmanuel Marin, Georges Humbert, Stéphanie Leparmentier, Jean-Louis Auguste, Youcef Ouerdane
This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes...
June 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521153/feasibility-of-in-situ-beta-ray-measurements-in-underwater-environment
#12
Hye Min Park, Ki Hyun Park, Sung Won Kang, Koan Sik Joo
We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363177/petroleum-oil-and-mercury-pollution-from-shipwrecks-in-norwegian-coastal-waters
#13
Kuria Ndungu, Björnar A Beylich, André Staalstrøm, Sigurd Øxnevad, John A Berge, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg Braaten, Morten Schaanning, Rune Bergstrøm
Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje...
March 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249173/fertilization-and-connectivity-in-the-garrucha-canyon-se-spain-implications-for-marine-spatial-planning
#14
M Muñoz, A Reul, M Vargas-Yáñez, F Plaza, B Bautista, M C García-Martínez, F Moya, M-L Gómez-Moreno, J A Fernandes, V Rodríguez
Marine Spatial Planning is usually based on benthic georeferenced information or GPS tracked human activities, whereas the pelagic ecosystem is often ignored because of scarce and limited surface information. However, the 3-D pelagic ecosystem plays a key role connecting all the other ecosystems by physical (currents) and biological (migration) processes. According to remote sensing the Garrucha Canyon is oligotrophic, but 3-D sampling reveals subsurface upwelling, and converts it into the richest area around the Cape of Gata...
May 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248982/a-dual-pathways-transfer-model-to-account-for-changes-in-the-radioactive-caesium-level-in-demersal-and-pelagic-fish-after-the-fukushima-da%C3%A3-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#15
Bruno Fiévet, Pascal Bailly-du-Bois, Philippe Laguionie, Mehdi Morillon, Mireille Arnaud, Pascal Cunin
The Fukushima Daï-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in radioactive Cs being discharged into the local marine environment. While Cs bioaccumulates in biota and slowly depurates, the Cs concentrated in biota constitutes a source of Cs for animals feeding on each other. The marine biota therefore serves as a pool that recycles Cs, and this recycling process delays depuration in the fish feeding on this biota pool. Because the continental shelf is squeezed between the coast and very deep sea, the demersal marine species are confined to a narrow strip along the coast, close to the source of the radioactive input...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218652/steady-%C3%AE-ray-effects-on-the-performance-of-ppp-botda-and-tw-cotdr-fiber-sensing
#16
Isabelle Planes, Sylvain Girard, Aziz Boukenter, Emmanuel Marin, Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Claude Marcandella, Youcef Ouerdane
We investigated the evolution of the performances of Pulse Pre Pump-Brillouin Time Domain Analysis (PPP-BOTDA) and Tunable Wavelength Coherent Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (TW-COTDR) fiber-based temperature and strain sensors when the sensing optical fiber is exposed to two γ-ray irradiation conditions: (i) at room temperature and a dose rate of 370 Gy(SiO2)/h up to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 56 kGy; (ii) at room temperature and a dose rate of 25 kGy(SiO2)/h up to a TID of 10 MGy. Two main different classes of single-mode optical fibers have been tested in situ, radiation-tolerant ones: fluorine-doped or nitrogen-doped core fibers, as well as Telecom-grade germanosilicate ones...
February 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119209/on-the-divergences-in-assessment-of-environmental-impacts-from-ionising-radiation-following-the-fukushima-accident
#17
REVIEW
P Strand, S Sundell-Bergman, J E Brown, M Dowdall
The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118968/modelling-dispersal-of-radioactive-contaminants-in-arctic-waters-as-a-result-of-potential-recovery-operations-on-the-dumped-submarine-k-27
#18
M Karcher, A Hosseini, R Schnur, F Kauker, J E Brown, M Dowdall, P Strand
Of the wide variety of dumped objects containing radioactive materials in the Arctic seas, the submarine K-27 constitutes a major risk due to the large amount of highly enriched uranium onboard and its location in shallow waters. As the matter of potential operations involving raising of the submarine have entered the public arena, a priori assessment of the contamination in the Arctic marine environment that could result after a possible accident during such operations is a matter of some interest. The dispersion of contaminants within the Arctic has been assessed using a large scale hydrodynamic model for a series of plausible accident scenarios and locations under different oceanographic regimes...
March 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111728/pharmacokinetics-and-excretion-of-14-c-plitidepsin-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#19
L van Andel, S Fudio, H Rosing, S Munt, B Miguel-Lillo, I González, M M Tibben, N de Vries, A H M de Vries Schultink, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
Plitidepsin (Aplidin®) is a marine-derived anticancer compound currently investigated in phase III clinical trials. This article describes the distribution, metabolism and excretion of this novel agent and it mainly aims to identify the major routes of elimination. Six subjects were enrolled in a mass balance study during which radiolabelled plitidepsin was administered as a 3-h intravenous infusion. Blood samples were taken and urine and faeces were collected. Total radioactivity (TRA) analysis using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) was done to determine the amount of radioactivity excreted from the body and plitidepsin concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine were determined by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays...
January 23, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110828/underground-measurements-of-artificial-radioactivity-in-squids-from-the-western-pacific-ocean
#20
Zhi Zeng, Yu-Hao Mi, Jian-Hua He, Hao Ma, Jian-Ping Cheng
To investigate the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident's radiological effect on marine ecosystem, ash samples of squids from the western Pacific Ocean were collected in May 2014 and measured using an underground gamma-ray spectrometer in the underground laboratory JinPing. Low levels of (108m)Ag, (110m)Ag, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected, which indicates that the influence of the FDNPP accident on marine ecosystem is lasting but decreasing.
January 16, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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