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Korean ginseng

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348716/cylindrocarpon-destructans-ilyonectria-radicicola-species-complex-%C3%A2-causative-agent-of-ginseng-root-rot-disease-and%C3%A2-rusty%C3%A2-symptoms
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316736/ginsenoside-rb2and-20-s-ginsenoside-rg3-from-koreanred-ginseng-prevent-rotavirus-infection-in-newborn-mice
#2
Hui Yang, Kwang-Hoon Oh, Hyun Jin Kim, Young Ho Cho, Yung Choon Yoo
It is well known that Korean red ginseng has various biological activities. However, there is little knowledge about antiviral activity of Korean red ginseng and its ginsenosides. In this study, we addressed whether oral administration of ginsenoside-Rb2 and -Rg3 were able to protect against rotavirus (RV) infection. Protective effect of ginsenosides against RV infection was examined using an in vivo experiment model in which newborn mice (10-day-old) were inoculated perorally (p.o.) with 1.5X106 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mouse of RV strain SA11...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228955/high-efficiency-generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-foreskin-fibroblast-cells-using-the-sagunja-tang-herbal-formula
#3
Ki Mo Kim, Deok Rim Heo, Joo Young Lee, Chang-Seob Seo, Sun-Ku Chung
BACKGROUND: Sagunja-Tang (SGT-4) is a traditional herbal formula in Korean medicine that is used to treat anti-metabolic syndrome, and has antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SGT-4 on the formation efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) by four reprogramming transcription factors: Oct4, Sox2, KIf4, and c-Myc (OSKM). METHODS: SGT-4 contained four different herbal medicines that are composed of Ginseng Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, and Poria Sclerotium...
December 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215592/natural-korean-medicine-dang-gui-biosynthesis-effective-extraction-and-formulations-of-major-active-pyranocoumarins-their-molecular-action-mechanism-in-cancer-and-other-biological-activities
#4
REVIEW
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong Cheol Kim, Mok Hur, Yeon Bok Kim, Chun Geon Park, Woo Moon Lee, Jae Ki Jang, Sung Cheol Koo
Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a crucial oriental medicinal herb that grows especially in Korea and the Far-East countries. It contains chemically active compounds like pyranocoumarins, polyacetylenes and essential oils, which might be useful for treatment of several chronic diseases. It has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, but in Western countries is used as a functional food and a major ingredient of several herbal products. The genus Angelica is also known as 'female ginseng' due to its critical therapeutic role in female afflictions, such as gynecological problems...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195948/effects-of-soil-type-and-organic-fertilizers-on-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-e-in-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#5
Ill-Min Chung, Jae-Kwang Kim, Jin-Hee Yang, Ji-Hee Lee, Sung-Kyu Park, Na-Young Son, Seung-Hyun Kim
This study examined the effects of soil type and fertilizer regimes on variations in fatty acids (FAs) and vitamin E (Vit-E) in 6-year-old ginseng roots. We observed significant variation in both FA and Vit-E contents owing to the type and quantity of organic fertilizer used in each soil type during cultivation. Unsaturated FAs were approximately 2.7-fold higher in ginseng than in saturated FAs. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant FAs detected in ginseng roots. Additionally, α-tocopherol was the major Vit-E detected...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169227/korean-red-ginseng-excitation-of-paraventricular-nucleus-neurons-via-non-nmda-glutamate-receptor-activation-in-mice
#6
Yiming Shen, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Soo Joung Park, Gyu Seung Lee, Pan Dong Ryu, Seong Kyu Han
It has been reported that Korean red ginseng (KRG) as a valuable and important traditional medicine has various effects on central nervous system suggesting its complicated actions. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons of hypothalamus play a critical role for stress responses and hormone secretions. Although many studies have reported the action mechanisms of KRG on various cell and systems, the direct membrane effects of KRG on the PVN neurons which are involved in stress response are still poorly understood...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155077/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-a-4-week-recovery-period
#7
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100799/two-new-dammarane-type-triterpene-saponins-from-korean-red-ginseng-and-their-anti-inflammatory-effects
#8
Le Ba Vinh, Yunjeong Lee, Yoo Kyong Han, Jong Seong Kang, Jung Up Park, Young Ran Kim, Seo Young Yang, Young Ho Kim
Panax ginseng has been the subject of extensive research on potential medicinal materials. The goal of this study was search the chemical constituents and biological activities of processed Panax ginseng, Korean red ginseng. Our efforts led to the isolation eleven compounds (1-11) including two new compounds 1 and 2 from Korean red ginseng using various chromatographic techniques. Chemical structures of isolated compounds were demonstrated by spectroscopic methods (1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS). The anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were investigated by inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α secretion in LPS-activated RAW264...
October 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090563/-comparative-analysis-on-industrial-standardization-degree-of-chinese-and-korean-ginseng
#9
Qiao Chu, Xing-Jun Xi, He-Yan Wang, Ding-Hua Si, Fei Tang, Tao Lan
Panax ginseng is a well-known medicinal plant all over the world. It has high nutritional value and medicinal value. China and South Korea are the major countries in the world for ginseng cultivation, production and exportation. China's ginseng production accounts for more than half of the world, but the output value is less than that of Korea. The standardization process of ginseng industry plays an important role. This paper makes a detailed analysis of the Chinese and Korean ginseng national standards and the standardization process, and makes a detailed comparative analysis of the categories, standard contents, index selection, age, implementation and promotion status of the Chinese and Korean ginseng standards...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082711/-research-on-ginseng-trade-competitiveness-between-china-and-korea
#10
Min-Tong Xin, Guang Yang, Xiao-Jing Tang
Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021709/subacute-oral-toxicity-and-bacterial-mutagenicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-oil
#11
Hwi Won Seo, Jae Hyun Suh, Seung-Ho So, Jong-Soo Kyung, Yong-Soon Kim, Chang-Kyun Han
BACKGROUND: Red ginseng oil (RGO) is produced by supercritical CO2 extraction of secondary products derived from Korean Red Ginseng extract. As the use of RGO has increased, product safety concerns have become more important. METHODS: In the present study, the subacute oral toxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity of RGO were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with RGO for 28 d by gavage. Daily RGO dose concentrations were 0 mg/kg body weight (bw), 500 mg/kg bw, 1,000 mg/kg bw, or 2,000 mg/kg bw per day...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021703/ginsenoside-rg3-enriched-red-ginseng-extract-inhibits-platelet-activation-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-thrombus-formation
#12
Dahye Jeong, Muhammad Irfan, Sung-Dae Kim, Suk Kim, Jun-Hwan Oh, Chae-Kyu Park, Hyun-Kyoung Kim, Man Hee Rhee
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng has been used for several decades to treat many diseases, enhancing both immunity and physical strength. Previous studies have documented the therapeutic effects of ginseng, including its anticancer, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities are mediated by ginsenosides present in the ginseng plant. Ginsenoside Rg3, an effective compound from red ginseng, has been shown to have antiplatelet activity in addition to its anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021700/ginsenoside-rg12-a-new-dammarane-type-triterpene-saponin-from-panax-ginseng-root
#13
Dong Gu Lee, Jaemin Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Young-Ock Kim, Chun-Gun Park, Sanghyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng has been used as Korean medicine for various diseases. It has antioxidant, hypotensive, sedative, analgesic, and endocrine activities. Dammarane-type triterpenes from the plant have various beneficial effects. METHODS: A dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from P. ginseng root through chromatography such as repeated column chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: New dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated for the first time from nature...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021698/nonsaponin-fractions-of-korean-red-ginseng-extracts-prime-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome
#14
Byung-Cheol Han, Huijeong Ahn, Jiseon Lee, Eunsaem Jeon, Sanghoon Seo, Kyoung Hwa Jang, Seung-Ho Lee, Cheon Ho Kim, Geun-Shik Lee
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) have been suggested as effective immune modulators, and we reported that ginsenosides possess anti-inflammasome properties. However, the properties of nonsaponin components of RGE have not been well studied. METHODS: To assess the roles of nonsaponin fractions (NS) in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we treated murine macrophages with or without first or second inflammasome activation signals with RGE, NS, or saponin fractions (SF)...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021694/korean-red-ginseng-extract-induces-angiogenesis-through-activation-of-glucocorticoid-receptor
#15
Wai-Nam Sung, Hoi-Hin Kwok, Man-Hee Rhee, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1 can promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling has shown that Rg1 can modulate the expression of a subset of miRNAs to induce angiogenesis. Moreover, Rb1 was shown to be antiangiogenic through activation of a different pathway. These studies highlight the important functions of miRNAs on ginseng-regulated physiological processes...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021690/effect-of-korean-red-ginseng-in-chronic-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Tae Young Park, Meegun Hong, Hotaik Sung, Sangyeol Kim, Ki Tae Suk
Chronic liver disease, one of the most common diseases, typically arises from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, there is a pressing need for improved treatment strategies. Korean Red Ginseng has been known to have positive effects on liver disease and liver function. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the beneficial effects of Korean Red Ginseng on chronic liver disease, a condition encompassing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as supported by experimental evaluation and clinical investigation...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021689/applications-of-molecular-markers-in-the-discrimination-of-panax-species-and-korean-ginseng-cultivars-panax-ginseng
#17
REVIEW
Ick Hyun Jo, Young Chang Kim, Dong Hwi Kim, Kee Hong Kim, Tae Kyung Hyun, Hojin Ryu, Kyong Hwan Bang
The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018312/diffusible-and-volatile-antifungal-compounds-produced-by-an-antagonistic-bacillus-velezensis-g341-against-various-phytopathogenic-fungi
#18
Seong Mi Lim, Mi-Young Yoon, Gyung Ja Choi, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Teak Soo Shin, Hae Woong Park, Nan Hee Yu, Young Ho Kim, Jin-Cheol Kim
The aim of this study was to identify volatile and agar-diffusible antifungal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. G341 with strong antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi. Strain G341 isolated from four-year-old roots of Korean ginseng with rot symptoms was identified as Bacillus velezensis based on 16S rDNA and gyrA sequences. Strain G341 inhibited mycelial growth of all phytopathogenic fungi tested. In vivo experiment results revealed that n-butanol extract of fermentation broth effectively controlled the development of rice sheath blight, tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew, and red pepper anthracnose...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989572/effects-of-ingredients-of-korean-brown-rice-cookies-on-attenuation-of-cholesterol-level-and-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#19
Sun Hee Hong, Mijeong Kim, Minji Woo, Yeong Ok Song
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981384/the-effects-of-a-korean-ginseng-ginst15-on-hypo-pituitary-adrenal-and-oxidative-activity-induced-by-intense-work-stress
#20
Shawn D Flanagan, William H DuPont, Lydia K Caldwell, Vincent H Hardesty, Emily C Barnhart, Matthew K Beeler, Emily M Post, Jeff S Volek, William J Kraemer
The effect of GINST15, an enzyme fermented ginseng supplement, on hormonal and inflammatory responses to physical stress in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the constitutive and stress-induced effects of GINST15 supplement on hypo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and antioxidant activity in addition to muscle damage. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 163.81 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 177.4 ± 5...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
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