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Korean ginseng

Ji-Sang Kim
This study investigated the phenolic, flavonoid, and vitamin constituents in the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng. The total individual phenolic and flavonoid contents were the highest in the leaf, followed by the main root and root hair. Ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid were found to be the major phenolics in the main root and root hair, while p-coumaric acid and m-coumaric acid were the major phenolics in the leaf. Catechin was the major flavonoid component in the main root and root hair, while catechin and kaempferol were the major flavonoid components in the leaf...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Kwang-Soo Baek, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Sulgi Yoo, Nak Yoon Sung, Yong Kim, Sungyoul Hong, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Although Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been traditionally used for a long time, its anti-inflammatory role and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have been poorly understood. In this study, the anti-inflammatory roles of KRG-derived components, namely, water extract (KRG-WE), saponin fraction (KRG-SF), and nonsaponin fraction (KRG-NSF), were investigated. METHODS: To check saponin levels in the test fractions, KRG-WE, KRG-NSF, and KRG-SF were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jae Gwang Park, Young-Jin Son, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies of the anticancer activities of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) have been performed, the therapeutic effect of KRG on leukemia has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the antileukemia activities of KRG and its cellular and molecular mechanisms. METHODS: An established leukemia tumor model induced by xenografted T cell lymphoma (RMA cells) was used to test the therapeutic activity of KRG water extract (KRG-WE)...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong-Hak Kim, Min-Kyeoung Kim, Hongtao Wang, Hee-Nyeong Lee, Chi-Gyu Jin, Woo-Saeng Kwon, Deok-Chun Yang
BACKGROUND: Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Among nine cultivars of P. ginseng, Chunpoong commands a much greater market value and has been planted widely in Korea. Chunpoong has superior quality "Chunsam" (1(st) grade ginseng) when made into red ginseng. METHODS: A rapid and reliable method for discriminating the Chunpoong cultivar was developed by exploiting a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the auxin repressed protein gene of nine Korean ginseng cultivars using specific primers...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Dal-Sik Kim, Yunjeong Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Min-Gul Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers. METHODS: This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Mi-Kyung Jeong, Chong-Kwan Cho, Hwa-Seung Yoo
OBJECTIVES: Ginseng Rh2+ is enzyme-treated ginseng extract containing high amounts of converted ginsenosides, such as compound k, Rh2, Rg3, which have potent anticancer activity. We conducted general and genetic toxicity tests to evaluate the safety of ginseng Rh2+. METHODS: An acute oral toxicity test was performed at a high-level dose of 4,000 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A 14-day range-finding study was also conducted to set dose levels for the 90-day study...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Hye Won Lee, Jiae Choi, YoungJoo Lee, Ki-Jung Kil, Myeong Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to update, complete, and critically evaluate the evidence from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ginseng for managing menopausal women's health. METHODS: We searched the literature using 13 databases (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 6 Korean Medical, and 3 Chinese Databases) from their inception to July 2016 and included all double-blind RCTs that compared any type of ginseng with a placebo control in postmenopausal women...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jae Gwang Park, Wie-Soo Kang, Kyung Tae Park, Dong Jun Park, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Joboksansam, Korean bird wild ginseng, is an artificially cultivated wild ginseng germinated from bird feces. Although numerous pharmacologic activities of wild ginsengs have been reported, the beneficial effect of joboksansam in cancer has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro anticancer activities of joboksansam powder. METHODS: To evaluate the in vivo anticancer activity of joboksansam, we established a xenograft mouse model bearing RMA cell-derived cancer...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Kyung Hee Lee, In Young Bae, Song I Park, Jong-Dae Park, Hyeon Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rg3 and arginine-fructose (Arg-Fru) are known as the hypotensive compounds of Panax ginseng; however, their efficacy on antihypertension has not been reported yet to our best knowledge. Thus, hypotensive components-enriched fraction of red ginseng (HCEF-RG) was prepared from fine root concentrate (FR) and their antihypertensive effects were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Male SHRs were divided into six groups: control (Wistar Kyoto, SHR); FR 500; FR 1,000; HCEF-RG 500; and HCEF-RG 1,000; samples (mg/kg body weight) were orally administered every day for 8 wk...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jin Woo Lee, Eun Jin Mo, Ji Eun Choi, Yang Hee Jo, Hari Jang, Ji Yeon Jeong, Qinghao Jin, Hee Nam Chung, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
BACKGROUND: Extraction conditions greatly affect composition, as well as biological activity. Therefore, optimization is essential for maximum efficacy. METHODS: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) was extracted under different conditions and antioxidant activity, extraction yield, and ginsenoside Rg1 and phenolic content evaluated. Optimized extraction conditions were suggested using response surface methodology for maximum antioxidant activity and extraction yield. RESULTS: Analysis of KRG extraction conditions using response surface methodology showed a good fit of experimental data as demonstrated by regression analysis...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Meegun Hong, Yoon Hyeong Lee, Seungwoo Kim, Ki Tae Suk, Chang Seok Bang, Jai Hoon Yoon, Gwang Ho Baik, Dong Joon Kim, Myong Jo Kim
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a well-known natural product with anticarcinogenic and antioxidant effects. We evaluated the antifatigue effect of KRG in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Eighty patients with NAFLD were prospectively randomized to receive 3 wk of KRG or placebo in addition to counseling on healthy eating and regular exercise. Liver function test, proinflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, antioxidant activity, and fatigue score were measured and compared according to the body mass index between the KRG and placebo groups...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Seung-Hwa Choi, Keum-Jin Yang, Dong-Soo Lee
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B management is commonly targeted at reducing viral replication. However, the currently available antiviral therapies are associated with some problems, including resistance and numerous adverse effects. Ginseng has been reported to be effective for treating viral infections such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus. However, there are currently few studies on the effects of ginseng in chronic hepatitis B. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ginseng together with antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis B...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Mehdi Eskandari, Soghra Jani, Mahsa Kazemi, Habib Zeighami, Alireza Yazdinezhad, Sahar Mazloomi, Saeed Shokri
OBJECTIVE: Epididymo-orchitis (EO) potentially results in reduced fertility in up to 60% of affected patients. The anti-inflammatory effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) and its ability to act as an immunoenhancer in parallel with the beneficial effects of this ancient herbal medicine on the reproductive systems of animals and humans led us to evaluate its protective effects against acute EO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This animal experimental study was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Zanjan, Iran during 2013-2015...
2016: Cell Journal
Zhipeng Li, Hyung Jin Ahn, Nam Yeon Kim, Yu Na Lee, Geun Eog Ji
To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Nawab John Dar, Javeed Ahmad Bhat, Naresh Kumar Satti, Parduman Raj Sharma, Abid Hamid, Muzamil Ahmad
Withania somnifera has immense pharmacologic and clinical uses. Owing to its similar pharmacologic activity as that of Korean Ginseng tea, it is popularly called as Indian ginseng. In most cases, extracts of this plant have been evaluated against various diseases or models of disease. However, little efforts have been made to evaluate individual constituents of this plant for neurodegenerative disorders. Present study was carried out to evaluate Withanone, one of the active constituents of Withania somnifera against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in retinoic acid, differentiated Neuro2a cells...
August 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Il-Dong Choi, Ju-Hee Ryu, Dong-Eun Lee, Myoung-Hee Lee, Jae-Joong Shim, Young-Tae Ahn, Jae-Hun Sim, Chul-Sung Huh, Wang-Seob Shim, Sung-Vin Yim, Eun-Kyoung Chung, Kyung-Tae Lee
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of compound K after oral administration of HYFRG and RG in humans, an open-label, randomized, single-dose, fasting, and one-period pharmacokinetic study was conducted. After oral administration of a single 3 g dose of HYFRG and RG to 24 healthy Korean males, the mean (±SD) of AUC0-t and C max of compound K from HYFRG were 1466.83 ± 295.89 ng·h/mL and 254.45 ± 51.20 ng/mL, being 115.2- and 80-fold higher than those for RG (12.73 ± 7.83 ng·h/mL and 3.18 ± 1.70 ng/mL), respectively; in case of Sprague Dawley rats the mean (±SD) of AUC0-t and C max of compound K from HYFRG was 58...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Thangavelu Muthukumar, Adithan Aravinthan, Judith Sharmila, Nam Soo Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim
In this study, suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering were successfully prepared using fish scale collagen, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Porous composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method. The Korean traditional medicinal ginseng compound K, a therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that reduces inflammation and enhances production of bone morphogenetic protein-2, was incorporated into the composite scaffold. The scaffold was characterized for pore size, swelling, density, degradation, mineralization, cell viability and attachment, and its morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yüksel Olgun, Günay Kırkım, Zekiye Altun, Safiye Aktaş, Efsun Kolatan, Müge Kiray, Alper Bağrıyanık, Aybüke Olgun, Deniz Çakır Kızmazoğlu, Candan Özoğul, Hülya Ellidokuz, Pınar Erçetin, Bülent Şerbetçioğlu, Osman Yılmaz, Enis Alpin Güneri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on cisplatin (CDDP) ototoxicity in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first part of the study was conducted on the House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cell line. Cells were treated with CDDP, KRG, and their combination for 24 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression of 84 apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. In the second part of the study, 30 Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups...
August 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
So W Kim, Ravi Gupta, Seo H Lee, Cheol W Min, Ganesh K Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Jong B Kim, Ick H Jo, Soo-Yun Park, Jae K Kim, Young-Chang Kim, Kyong H Bang, Sun T Kim
Panax ginseng roots are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Korean and Chinese traditional medicines for 1000s of years. However, the medicinal value of P. ginseng fruits remain poorly characterized. In this study, we used an integrated biochemical, proteomics, and metabolomics approach to look into the medicinal properties of ginseng fruits. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assays showed higher antioxidant activities in ginseng fruits than leaves or roots...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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