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Sodium glucose linked transport

Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jagdeep S S Singh, Amir Fathi, Keeran Vickneson, Ify Mordi, Mohapradeep Mohan, J Graeme Houston, Ewan R Pearson, Allan D Struthers, Chim C Lang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and diabetes (DM) are a lethal combination. The current armamentarium of anti-diabetic agents has been shown to be less efficacious and sometimes even harmful in diabetic patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease, especially HF. Sodium glucose linked co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agent that has shown potentially beneficial cardiovascular effects such as pre-load and after load reduction through osmotic diuresis, blood pressure reduction, reduced arterial stiffness and weight loss...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Stefanie Klinger, Bernd Schröder, Anja Gemmer, Julia Reimers, Gerhard Breves, Jens Herrmann, Mirja R Wilkens
During lactation, mineral and nutrient requirements increase dramatically, particularly those for Ca and glucose. In contrast to monogastric species, in ruminants, it is rather unclear to which extend this physiological change due to increased demand for milk production is accompanied by functional adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Therefore, we investigated potential modulations of Ca and glucose transport mechanisms in the GIT of lactating and dried-off sheep. Ussing-chamber technique was applied to determine the ruminal and jejunal Ca flux rates...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
Terez Shea-Donohue, Alessio Fasano, Aiping Zhao, Luigi Notari, Shu Yan, Rex Sun, Jennifer A Bohl, Neemesh Desai, Greg Tudor, Motoko Morimoto, Catherine Booth, Alexander Bennett, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie
In this study, nonhuman primates (NHPs) exposed to lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI) within the gastrointestinal (GI) acute radiation syndrome range, sparing ∼5% of bone marrow (TBI-BM5), were used to evaluate the mechanisms involved in development of the chronic GI syndrome. TBI increased mucosal permeability in the jejunum (12-14 Gy) and proximal colon (13-14 Gy). TBI-BM5 also impaired mucosal barrier function at doses ranging from 10-12.5 Gy in both small intestine and colon. Timed necropsies of NHPs at 6-180 days after 10 Gy TBI-BM5 showed that changes in small intestine preceded those in the colon...
June 2016: Radiation Research
Nazanin N Abbasi, Peter P Purslow, Susan M Tosh, Marica Bakovic
Oat β-glucan consumption is linked to reduced risk factors associated with diabetes and obesity by lowering glycemic response and serum level of low-density lipoproteins. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of action of oat β-glucan at the interface between the gut wall and the lumen responsible for attenuating glucose levels. We proposed that viscous oat β-glucan acts as a physical barrier to glucose uptake in normally absorptive gut epithelial cells IEC-6 by affecting the expression of intestinal glucose transporters...
June 2016: Nutrition Research
Orquidia G Mendez-Flores, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Mustapha Najimi, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, exerts its actions through specific membrane receptors present in neurons and glial cells. Over-stimulation of glutamate receptors results in neuronal death, phenomena known as excitotoxicity. A family of sodium-dependent, glutamate uptake transporters mainly expressed in glial cells, removes the amino acid from the synaptic cleft preventing neuronal death. The sustained sodium influx associated to glutamate removal in glial cells, activates the sodium/potassium ATPase restoring the ionic balance, additionally, glutamate entrance activates glutamine synthetase, both events are energy demanding, therefore glia cells increase their ATP expenditure favouring glucose uptake, and triggering several signal transduction pathways linked to proper neuronal glutamate availability, via the glutamate/glutamine shuttle...
September 2016: Neurochemistry International
Naveed Sattar, James McLaren, Søren L Kristensen, David Preiss, John J McMurray
While the modest reduction in the primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death in the EMPA-REG Outcomes trial was welcome, the 30-40% reductions in heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) and cardiovascular and all-cause deaths in patients treated with empagliflozin were highly impressive and unexpected. In this review, we discuss briefly why cardiovascular endpoint trials for new diabetes agents are required and describe the results of the first four such trials to have reported, as a precursor to understanding why the EMPA-REG Outcomes results came as a surprise...
July 2016: Diabetologia
Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Giorgio Sesti
Clinical trials of glucose-lowering strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have shown a favorable effect of intensive glycemic control on microvascular complications but failed to show a clear benefit on cardiovascular events. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have required stringent criteria to approve new glucose-lowering drugs, demanding proof of cardiovascular safety. As a result of these regulatory requirements, a number of cardiovascular outcome trials in T2DM have been conducted examining the cardiovascular safety of novel glucose-lowering drugs...
March 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Daniel Gordin, Per-Henrik Groop
Controlling the blood glucose level is of outmost importance for the prevention of the micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications observed in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Although the pathogenesis behind the complex cascade of complications is far from solved, one possible mechanism could be a negative effect of glucose on the arteries resulting in a stiffening of the arteries and ultimately in vascular complications. Intriguingly, patients with T1D have been shown to suffer from premature arterial aging compared to nondiabetic subjects-an association that is even more evident in the presence of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy...
September 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
C Stefanello, S L Vieira, P Xue, K M Ajuwon, O Adeola
A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used...
July 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Y Wang, L Xu, L Yuan, D Li, Y Zhang, R Zheng, C Liu, X Feng, Q Li, Q Li, J Ma
AIMS: To observe changes in atrial natriuretic peptide levels after treatment with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 28 patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels of 58 -91 mmol/mol (7.5-10.5%) were randomly selected to receive sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor treatment (n=18) or placebo (n=10) for 24 weeks. We analysed atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 1, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Muhammad Furqan Bari, Sherry Ngo, Claire C Bastie, Allan M Sheppard, Manu Vatish
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the most common metabolic complication of pregnancy, is influenced by the placenta, and its prevalence directly increases with obesity. Therefore, to define the aetiology of GDM requires that the confounding influence of obesity and the heterogeneous nature of the placenta impairing accurate quantitative studies be accounted for. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM), we optimized RNA extraction from human placental trophoblast, the metabolic cellular interface between mother and foetus...
April 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
G Lozano-Ortega, S Goring, H A Bennett, K Bergenheim, C Sternhufvud, J Mukherjee
UNLABELLED: Aims The efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLT2s) plus metformin and a sulfonylurea (MET + SU) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients who fail to achieve glycemic control with MET + SU, relative to other triple therapies licensed in the EU, were estimated. Methods A systematic literature review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving anti-diabetes treatments added to MET + SU were conducted...
May 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Christian Mende
UNLABELLED: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global health problem, and new and effective strategies are needed for the management of this condition. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and CKD, and several recent trials have demonstrated a possible link between SUA and the development and/or progression of CKD in patients with and without diabetes. The identification of key urate transporters such as urate transporter 1 and glucose transporter 9 has provided not only insights into the pathophysiology of hyperuricemia, but also possible links to other processes, such as glucose homeostasis...
December 2015: Advances in Therapy
G Heim, J V O'Doherty, C J O'Shea, D N Doyle, A M Egan, K Thornton, T Sweeney
The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science
Fredrick J Rosario, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
OBJECTIVE: To identify possible mechanisms linking obesity in pregnancy to increased fetal adiposity and growth, a unique mouse model of maternal obesity associated with fetal overgrowth was developed, and the hypothesis that maternal obesity causes up-regulation of placental nutrient transporter expression and activity was tested. METHODS: C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control (C) or a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) pelleted diet supplemented by ad libitum access to sucrose (20%) solution, mated, and studied at embryonic day 18...
August 2015: Obesity
Juan F Mosley, Lillian Smith, Emily Everton, Chris Fellner
Sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitors limit the reabsorption of glucose from glomerular filtrate in the kidneys, reducing blood glucose levels in patients with type- 2 diabetes. This article is meant to evaluate this class of medications for clinicians.
July 2015: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Chirag Patel, Veronique Douard, Shiyan Yu, Nan Gao, Ronaldo P Ferraris
Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow...
September 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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