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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228581/spaceflight-induced-synaptic-modifications-within-hair-cells-of-the-mammalian-utricle
#1
David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228504/the-dynamics-of-gastric-emptying-and-self-reported-feelings-of-satiation-are-better-predictors-than-gastrointestinal-hormones-of-the-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-structure-on-fat-digestion-in-healthy-adults-a-bayesian-inference-approach
#2
Andreas Steingoetter, Simon Buetikofer, Jelena Curcic, Dieter Menne, Jens F Rehfeld, Michael Fried, Werner Schwizer, Tim J Wooster
Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228058/enteric-coated-extended-release-and-sustained-release-formulations-of-nsaids
#3
Lamia AlHajri
The scaffold of this commentary is oriented to gravitate toward shedding light on the misconception regarding the use of enteric-coated, extended-release or sustained-release forms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the reduction in gastrointestinal (GI) risks. Although evidence is sufficiently available with regard to the inability of these forms to ameliorate GI risks, it has been widely neglected by health care professionals. This dilemma will be approached and elaborated by uncovering historical evidence about the topic of interest followed by theoretical pharmacological explanations...
April 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218298/horizontal-sliding-of-kilometre-scale-hot-spring-area-during-the-2016-kumamoto-earthquake
#4
Takeshi Tsuji, Jun'ichiro Ishibashi, Kazuya Ishitsuka, Ryuichi Kamata
We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214462/the-arthroscopic-latarjet-a-bony-solution-for-a-bony-injury
#5
David Ding, Robert Meislin
Treatment of shoulder instability has greatly evolved over the past century. Open capsulolabral repairs and bony augmentation procedures have slowly been replaced with arthroscopy. As arthroscopy and arthroscopic instruments have improved, surgeons have gravitated toward more minimally invasive procedures. The open Latarjet procedure has been historically very successful in preventing recurrent shoulder dislocation. While there is a steep learning curve, the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure as developed by Lafosse in 2007 can be effective in preventing shoulder instability in patients with significant bone loss of up to 30%...
January 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211727/analytic-gravitational-waveforms-for-generic-precessing-binary-inspirals
#6
Katerina Chatziioannou, Antoine Klein, Neil Cornish, Nicolás Yunes
Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211718/gravitational-smoothing-of-kinks-on-cosmic-string-loops
#7
Jeremy M Wachter, Ken D Olum
We analyze the effect of gravitational backreaction on cosmic string loops with kinks, which is an important determinant of the shape, and thus the potential observability, of string loops which may exist in the Universe today. Kinks are not rounded off, but may be straightened out. This means that backreaction will only cause loops with kinks to develop cusps after some potentially large fraction of their lifetimes. In some loops, symmetries prevent even this process, so that the loop evaporates in a self-similar fashion and the kinks are unchanged...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211707/relativistic-magnetic-reconnection-in-kerr-spacetime
#8
Felipe A Asenjo, Luca Comisso
The magnetic reconnection process is analyzed for relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas around rotating black holes. A simple generalization of the Sweet-Parker model is used as a first approximation to the problem. The reconnection rate, as well as other important properties of the reconnection layer, has been calculated taking into account the effect of spacetime curvature. Azimuthal and radial current sheet configurations in the equatorial plane of the black hole have been studied, and the case of small black hole rotation rate has been analyzed...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211459/gravitational-body-forces-focus-north-american-intraplate-earthquakes
#9
Will Levandowski, Mark Zellman, Rich Briggs
Earthquakes far from tectonic plate boundaries generally exploit ancient faults, but not all intraplate faults are equally active. The North American Great Plains exemplify such intraplate earthquake localization, with both natural and induced seismicity generally clustered in discrete zones. Here we use seismic velocity, gravity and topography to generate a 3D lithospheric density model of the region; subsequent finite-element modelling shows that seismicity focuses in regions of high-gravity-derived deviatoric stress...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209846/european-gravitational-wave-detector-falters
#10
Daniel Clery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205656/an-autonomous-lab-on-a-chip-for-space-flight-calibration-of-gravity-induced-transcellular-calcium-polarization-in-single-cell-fern-spores
#11
J Park, M L Salmi, W W A Wan Salim, A Rademacher, B Wickizer, A Schooley, J Benton, A Cantero, P F Argote, M Ren, M Zhang, D M Porterfield, A J Ricco, S J Roux, J L Rickus
This report describes the development of lab-on-a-chip device designed to measure changes in cellular ion gradients that are induced by changes in gravitational (g) forces. The bioCD presented here detects differential calcium ion concentrations outside of individual cells. The device includes sufficient replicates for statistical analysis of the gradients around multiple single cells and around control wells that are empty or include dead cells. In the data presented, the degree of the cellular response correlates with the magnitude of the g-force applied via rotation of the bioCD...
February 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205642/evaporation-of-inclined-water-droplets
#12
Jin Young Kim, In Gyu Hwang, Byung Mook Weon
When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198864/shot-noise-limited-laser-power-stabilization-for-the-aei-10%C3%A2-%C3%A2-m-prototype-interferometer
#13
Jonas Junker, Patrick Oppermann, Benno Willke
The AEI 10 m Prototype interferometer is an experiment to investigate the standard quantum limit of interferometry and, in particular, its relevance in gravitational-wave detection. As such it has stringent requirements on the power stability of its high-power light source. In this Letter we present the power stabilization concept of the 35 W Nd:YAG laser system used in the AEI 10 m Prototype. With a shot-noise-limited multiphotodetector sensing scheme we achieved a relative power noise level of 1.8×10<sup>-9</sup>  Hz<sup>-1/2</sup> in a frequency band of 100 Hz to 1 kHz...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198863/higher-order-laguerre-gauss-modes-in-non-planar-four-mirror-cavities-for-future-gravitational-wave-detectors
#14
Andreas Noack, Christina Bogan, Benno Willke
One of the limiting noise sources in the current generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as the advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (aLIGO), is the thermal noise in the interferometer's test mass coatings. One proposed method to reduce the coupling of this noise source to the gravitational wave readout is using a laser beam in the higher-order spatial LG<sub>33</sub> mode within the interferometer. Here we show that the current four-mirror cavities of aLIGO are not compatible with Laguerre-Gauss modes due to astigmatism...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194160/highlights-in-the-knowledge-of-brown-spider-toxins
#15
REVIEW
Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Martins Wille, Luiza Helena Gremski, Olga Meiri Chaim, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186817/velocity-field-in-a-vertical-foam-film
#16
Jacopo Seiwert, Ronan Kervil, Soniraks Nou, Isabelle Cantat
The drainage of vertical foam films governs their lifetime. For a foam film supported on a rectangular solid frame, when the interface presents a low resistance to shear, the drainage dynamics involves a complex flow pattern at the film scale, leading to a drainage time proportional to the frame width. Using an original velocimetry technique, based on fluorescent foam films and photobleaching, we measure the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity in a draining film, thus providing the first quantitative experimental evidence of this flow pattern...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179682/ligo-s-underdog-cousin-ready-to-enhance-gravitational-wave-hunt
#17
Davide Castelvecchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166894/the-influence-of-a-semi-reclined-seated-posture-on-head-and-neck-kinematics-and-muscle-activity-while-reading-a-tablet-computer
#18
Ethan C Douglas, Kaitlin M Gallagher
Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p < 0...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166699/planhab-study-assessment-of-psycho-neuroendocrine-function-in-male-subjects-during-21-days-of-normobaric-hypoxia-and-bed-rest
#19
C Strewe, R Zeller, M Feuerecker, M Hoerl, I Kumprej, A Crispin, B Johannes, T Debevec, I Mekjavic, G Schelling, A Choukèr
Immobilization and hypoxemia are conditions often seen in patients suffering from severe heart insufficiency or primary pulmonary diseases (e.g. fibrosis, emphysema). In future planned long-duration and exploration class space missions (including habitats on the moon and Mars), healthy individuals will encounter such a combination of reduced physical activity and oxygen tension by way of technical reasons and the reduced gravitational forces. These overall unconventional extraterrestrial conditions can result in yet unknown consequences for the regulation of stress-permissive, psycho-neuroendocrine responses, which warrant appropriate measures in order to mitigate foreseeable risks...
February 6, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163689/spontaneous-movements-of-a-computer-mouse-reveal-egoism-and-in-group-favoritism
#20
Norbert Maliszewski, Łukasz Wojciechowski, Hubert Suszek
The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent's implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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