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Black holes

Qingfeng Zhang, Juanmin Li, Yunyi Zhang, Zhenzhen Hu, Cong Yu
A black-hole quencher (BHQ-2) labeled DNA (Q-DNA) with a phosphorothioate backbone was covalently conjugated to the CdTe QDs during the QDs synthesis procedure. The hairpin structure of Q-DNA shortened the distance of the CdTe QDs and the BHQ-2 group, which resulted in fluorescence quenching of the QDs. The addition of target DNA or deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) could move the BHQ-2 group away from the QDs. As a result, the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs recovered. This work provides a new way for target DNA and DNase I detection...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
K L Duggal
A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called "Evolving Null Horizons" (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time [Formula: see text] such that the metric [Formula: see text] satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in [Formula: see text]...
2016: International Scholarly Research Notices
Ue-Li Pen, Neil Turok
We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeV<T<10^{7}  GeV...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Michael Appels, Ruth Gregory, David Kubizňák
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Cesar E P Villegas, A S Rodin, Alexandra Carvalho, A R Rocha
Excitons play a key role in technological applications since they have a strong influence on determining the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Recently, it has been shown that the allotropes of phosphorus possess an optical band gap that can be tuned over a wide range of values including the near-infrared and visible spectra, which would make them promising candidates for optoelectronic applications. In this work we carry out ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations to study the excitonic effects on the optical properties of two-dimensional phosphorus allotropes: the case of blue and black monolayers...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Nature
L-P Euvé, F Michel, R Parentani, T G Philbin, G Rousseaux
We measured the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the randomly fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow with a maximum Froude number F_{max}≈0.85 reached above a localized obstacle. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the noise show a clear correlation between pairs of modes of opposite energies. We also measure the scattering coefficients by applying the same analysis of correlations to waves produced by a wave maker...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Ning Bao, Adam Bouland, Stephen P Jordan
Two of the key properties of quantum physics are the no-signaling principle and the Grover search lower bound. That is, despite admitting stronger-than-classical correlations, quantum mechanics does not imply superluminal signaling, and despite a form of exponential parallelism, quantum mechanics does not imply polynomial-time brute force solution of NP-complete problems. Here, we investigate the degree to which these two properties are connected. We examine four classes of deviations from quantum mechanics, for which we draw inspiration from the literature on the black hole information paradox...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
D Ontaneda, K Sakaie, J Lin, X-F Wang, M J Lowe, M D Phillips, R J Fox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI is an MR imaging measure of brain tissue integrity. Little is known regarding the long-term longitudinal evolution of lesional and nonlesional tissue DTI parameters in multiple sclerosis and the present study examines DTI evolution over 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with multiple sclerosis were imaged for up to 48 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline, chronic T2 lesions, and normal-appearing white matter were followed longitudinally...
September 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Emanuele Berti, Alberto Sesana, Enrico Barausse, Vitor Cardoso, Krzysztof Belczynski
We estimate the potential of present and future interferometric gravitational-wave detectors to test the Kerr nature of black holes through "gravitational spectroscopy," i.e., the measurement of multiple quasinormal mode frequencies from the remnant of a black hole merger. Using population synthesis models of the formation and evolution of stellar-mass black hole binaries, we find that Voyager-class interferometers will be necessary to perform these tests. Gravitational spectroscopy in the local Universe may become routine with the Einstein Telescope, but a 40-km facility like Cosmic Explorer is necessary to go beyond z∼3...
September 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Romuald A Janik, Jakub Jankowski, Hesam Soltanpanahi
We study the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to a first order phase transition. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We establish that near the transition, in all cases considered, the applicability of a hydrodynamic description breaks down already at lower momenta than in the conformal case...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Andrea Maselli, Stefania Marassi, Valeria Ferrari, Kostas Kokkotas, Raffaella Schneider
The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Tim Johannsen, Carlos Wang, Avery E Broderick, Sheperd S Doeleman, Vincent L Fish, Abraham Loeb, Dimitrios Psaltis
The Event Horizon Telescope is a global, very long baseline interferometer capable of probing potential deviations from the Kerr metric, which is believed to provide the unique description of astrophysical black holes. Here, we report an updated constraint on the quadrupolar deviation of Sagittarius A^{*} within the context of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow model in a quasi-Kerr background. We also simulate near-future constraints obtainable by the forthcoming eight-station array and show that in this model already a one-day observation can measure the spin magnitude to within 0...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Yi-Fu Cai, Salvatore Capozziello, Mariafelicia De Laurentis, Emmanuel N Saridakis
Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications...
October 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Douglas L Arnold, Elizabeth Fisher, Vesna V Brinar, Jeffrey A Cohen, Alasdair J Coles, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Eva Havrdova, Krzysztof W Selmaj, Miroslav Stojanovic, Howard L Weiner, Stephen L Lake, David H Margolin, David R Thomas, Michael A Panzara, D Alastair S Compston
OBJECTIVE: To describe detailed MRI results from 2 head-to-head phase III trials, Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis Study I (CARE-MS I; NCT00530348) and Study II (CARE-MS II; NCT00548405), of alemtuzumab vs subcutaneous interferon β-1a (SC IFN-β-1a) in patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: The impact of alemtuzumab 12 mg vs SC IFN-β-1a 44 μg on MRI measures was evaluated in patients with RRMS who were treatment-naive (CARE-MS I) or who had an inadequate response, defined as at least one relapse, to prior therapy (CARE-MS II)...
October 4, 2016: Neurology
Hui Li, Yaju Zhao, Zhu Chen, Danke Xu
We developed a silver decahedral nanoparticles (Ag10NPs)-enhanced ratiometric Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) nanosensor based on two adjustable FRET modes. Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa) and Cyanine3 (Cy3)-aptamer-Black hole quencher-2 (BHQ-2) were bound with Ag10NPs to form the ratiometric FRET nanosensor (Ag-Alexa/Cy3/BHQ-2). Alexa act as donor and Cy3 as acceptor in the FRET mode 1 while Cy3 was donor and BHQ-2 was acceptor in the FRET mode 2. In the absence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), the fluorescence intensity of Alexa was lowest while that of Cy3 was highest...
August 24, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ting Cao, Zhenglu Li, Diana Y Qiu, Steven G Louie
Anisotropy describes the directional dependence of a material's properties such as transport and optical response. In conventional bulk materials, anisotropy is intrinsically related to the crystal structure and thus not tunable by the gating techniques used in modern electronics. Here we show that, in bilayer black phosphorus with an interlayer twist angle of 90°, the anisotropy of its electronic structure and optical transitions is tunable by gating. Using first-principles calculations, we predict that a laboratory-accessible gate voltage can induce a hole effective mass that is 30 times larger along one Cartesian axis than along the other axis, and the two axes can be exchanged by flipping the sign of the gate voltage...
September 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Martina Roos, Ugo Pradère, Richard P Ngondo, Alok Behera, Sara Allegrini, Gianluca Civenni, Julian A Zagalak, Jean-Rémy Marchand, Mirjam Menzi, Harry Towbin, Jörg Scheuermann, Dario Neri, Amedeo Caflisch, Carlo V Catapano, Constance Ciaudo, Jonathan Hall
New discoveries in RNA biology underscore a need for chemical tools to clarify their roles in pathophysiological mechanisms. In certain cancers, synthesis of the let-7 microRNA tumor suppressor is blocked by an RNA binding protein (RBP) Lin28, which docks onto a conserved sequence in let-7 precursor RNA molecules and prevents their maturation. Thus, the Lin28/let-7 interaction might be an attractive drug target, if not for the well-known difficulty in targeting RNA-protein interactions with drugs. Here, we describe a protein/RNA FRET assay using a GFP-Lin28 donor and a black-hole quencher (BHQ)-labeled let-7 acceptor, a fluorescent protein/quencher combination which is rarely used in screening despite favorable spectral properties...
August 22, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Paul D Lasky, Eric Thrane, Yuri Levin, Jonathan Blackman, Yanbei Chen
It may soon be possible for Advanced LIGO to detect hundreds of binary black hole mergers per year. We show how the accumulation of many such measurements will allow for the detection of gravitational-wave memory: a permanent displacement of spacetime that comes from strong-field, general relativistic effects. We estimate that Advanced LIGO operating at design sensitivity may be able to make a signal-to-noise ratio 3 (5) detection of memory with ∼35 (90) events with masses and distance similar to GW150914...
August 5, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Misao Sasaki, Teruaki Suyama, Takahiro Tanaka, Shuichiro Yokoyama
We point out that the gravitational-wave event GW150914 observed by the LIGO detectors can be explained by the coalescence of primordial black holes (PBHs). It is found that the expected PBH merger rate would exceed the rate estimated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration if PBHs were the dominant component of dark matter, while it can be made compatible if PBHs constitute a fraction of dark matter. Intriguingly, the abundance of PBHs required to explain the suggested lower bound on the event rate, >2  events  Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}, roughly coincides with the existing upper limit set by the nondetection of the cosmic microwave background spectral distortion...
August 5, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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