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Silvia Monteiro, Ricardo Santos
Sensitive detection of water- and foodborne enteric viruses is extremely relevant, especially due to the low concentrations in which they are found. Accurate and sensitive detection of Norovirus, the primary responsible for water- and foodborne outbreaks, is of particular importance. Quantification of Norovirus is commonly performed by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). In recent years a new platform was developed, digital PCR, that quantifies without the need for a standard curve thus decreasing the errors associated with its utilization...
2017: PloS One
Rafael Maniglia, Kenneth J Reed, John Texter
We investigate surface modification by organo-trimethoxysilanes of nano-ceria and if such surface-modified nano-ceria can be transformed into solvent-free nanofluids. We also examine whether simultaneous modification with ionic liquid salts and with acrylate groups yields nanofluids suitable for forming UV-protective films and clear coatings by UV-initiated polymerization. Nominally 3nm diameter CeO2 was successfully synthesized and surface decorated with an ionic liquid salt and with acrylate groups to produce a core/shell structured solvent-free nanofluid after ion exchange of chloride for a soft polyoxyethylene sulfonate anion...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Tania Sierra, Agustin G Crevillen, Alberto Escarpa
In proteomics and clinical analysis, LIF and MS are the most used detectors coupled to separation techniques. MS offers good sensitivity and analyte identification ability but, as counterbalance, it is expensive and it needed background electrolytes compatible with mass spectrometers. LIF detection offers the highest sensitivity but, in general, proteins, peptides and amino acids are not fluorescents so it is necessary the use of fluorescence tags. This fact hindered the potential sensitivity of LIF detection due to the difficulty of labeling analytes at extremely low concentrations...
July 25, 2017: Electrophoresis
Xianglei Liu, Yimin Xuan
Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i...
July 24, 2017: Nanoscale
Heejun Jang, Il-Suk Kang, Jihye Kim, Jonghyun Kim, Yun Jeong Cha, Dong Ki Yoon, Wonhee Lee
Despite the importance of nanofluidic TEM chips, a simple fabrication method has yet to be developed due to the difficulty of wafer bonding techniques using a nanoscale thick bonding layer. We present a simple and robust wafer scale bonding technique using parylene as a bonding layer. A nanoscale thick parylene layer was deposited on a SiN wafer and patterned to construct nanofluidic channels. The patterned parylene layer was directly bonded to another SiN wafer by thermal surface activation and bonding, with a bonding strength of ~3 MPa...
July 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
Daniel H Wiseman, Tim C P Somervaille
Precise quantitation of allelic burden for a pathogenic mutation has diverse clinical and research applications but can be difficult to achieve with conventional qPCR-based techniques, especially at lower mutant allele frequencies. Digital PCR overcomes many of the limitations of qPCR and can be highly quantitative even for single-nucleotide variants, with distinct advantages over next-generation sequencing approaches. Here we describe a method combining the principles of TaqMan(®)-chemistry SNP genotyping with microfluidic digital PCR to generate a highly sensitive, quantitative allele-specific digital PCR assay for the six most common IDH1 and IDH2 mutations encountered in myeloid malignancy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ramanujam Lenin, Pattayil Alias Joy
To study the role of unsaturation in the surfactant molecule on the thermal conductivity of magnetite nanofluids, four different fatty acid (stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids with different degree of unsaturation) coated magnetite nanoparticles of comparable size are prepared and dispersed in toluene. It is found that the nanofluid with the saturated fatty acid coated nanoparticles show larger viscosity than the fluid with the unsaturated fatty acid coated particles at all concentrations. Thermal conductivity studies show enhancement only above a critical concentration for all fluids...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bo Bao, Jason Riordon, Farshid Mostowfi, David Sinton
Microfluidic systems that leverage unique micro-scale phenomena have been developed to provide rapid, accurate and robust analysis, predominantly for biomedical applications. These attributes, in addition to the ability to access high temperatures and pressures, have motivated recent expanded applications in phase measurements relevant to industrial CO2, oil and gas applications. We here present a comprehensive review of this exciting new field, separating microfluidic and nanofluidic approaches. Microfluidics is practical, and provides similar phase properties analysis to established bulk methods with advantages in speed, control and sample size...
July 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Muhammad Amjad, Yang Yang, Ghulam Raza, Hui Gao, Jun Zhang, Leping Zhou, Xiaoze Du, Dongsheng Wen
The understanding of near-wall motion, evaporation behavior and dry pattern of sessile nanofluid droplets is fundamental to a wide range of applications such as painting, spray drying, thin film coating, fuel injection and inkjet printing. However, a deep insight into the heat transfer, fluid flow, near-wall particle velocity and their effects on the resulting dry patterns is still much needed to take the full advantage of these nano-sized particles in the droplet. This work investigates the effect of direct absorptive silicon/silver (Si/Ag) hybrid nanofluids via two experiments...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jun Gao, Yaping Feng, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jason R Dwyer, Maher Harb
We present a review of the use of selected nanofabricated thin films to deliver a host of capabilities and insights spanning bioanalytical and biophysical chemistry, materials science, and fundamental molecular-level research. We discuss approaches where thin films have been vital, enabling experimental studies using a variety of optical spectroscopies across the visible and infrared spectral range, electron microscopies, and related techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and single molecule sensing...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Christopher D Wiley, James M Flynn, Christapher Morrissey, Ronald Lebofsky, Joe Shuga, Xiao Dong, Marc A Unger, Jan Vijg, Simon Melov, Judith Campisi
Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations...
July 11, 2017: Aging Cell
Junsuk Kim, Inhee Cho, Hyomin Lee, Sung Jae Kim
Ion concentration polarization (ICP) is a fundamental electrokinetic process that occurs near a perm-selective membrane under dc bias. Overall process highly depends on the current transportation mechanisms such as electro-convection, surface conduction and diffusioosmosis and the fundamental characteristics can be significantly altered by external parameters, once the permselectivity was fixed. In this work, a new ICP device with a bifurcated current path as for the enhancement of the surface conduction was fabricated using a polymeric nanoporous material...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Noreen Sher Akbar, Adil Wahid Butt, Dharmendra Tripathi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to investigate the unsteady flow of two types of nanofluids i.e Copper water nanofluids and Silver water nanofluids) through finite length non-uniform channel driven by peristaltic sinusoidal wave propagations. METHODS: The governing equations are reduced in linear form using dimensional analysis and considering the low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations. The time dependent temperature field, axial velocity, transverse velocity and pressure difference are obtained analytically in closed form solution...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Liu Yang, Yuhan Hu
The research about nanofluids has been explosively increasing due to their fascinating properties in heat or mass transportation, fluidity, and dispersion stability for energy system applications (e.g., solar collectors, refrigeration, heat pipes, and energy storage). This second part of the review summarizes recent research on application of TiO2 nanofluids and identifies the challenges and opportunities for the further exploration of TiO2 nanofluids. It is expected that the two exhaustive reviews could be a helpful reference guide for researchers to update the knowledge on research status of TiO2 nanofluids, and the critical comments, challenges, and recommendations could be useful for future study directions...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Tasawar Hayat, Farwa Haider, Taseer Muhammad, Ahmed Alsaedi
Here we are concerned with the Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of carbon nanotubes in a rotating frame. Flow is generated by stretching of the surface. Xue model is adopted for nanofluid transport mechanism. Results for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi wall carbon nanotubes are achieved and compared. Flow saturating porous space obeys Darcy-Forchheimer expression. Boundary layer approximations are invoked to simplify governing partial differential system. Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is utilized for solutions of governing model...
2017: PloS One
Carlos Angulo Barrios, Víctor Canalejas-Tejero
We report on a top-down method for the controlled fabrication of three-dimensional (3D), closed, thin-shelled, hollow nanostructures (nanocages) on planar supports. The presented approach is based on conventional microelectronic fabrication processes and exploits the permeability of thin metal films to hollow-out polymer-filled metal nanocages through an oxygen-plasma process. The technique is used for fabricating arrays of cylindrical nanocages made of thin Al shells on silicon substrates. This hollow metal configuration features optical resonance as revealed by spectral reflectance measurements and numerical simulations...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Martin Bazant, Roland Bennewitz, Lydéric Bocquet, Nikolay Brilliantov, Ranabir Dey, Carlos Drummond, Robert Dryfe, Hubert Girault, Kelsey Hatzell, Konstantin Kornev, Alexei A Kornyshev, Irena Kratochvilova, Anthony Kucernak, Mohit Kulkarni, Sunny Kumar, Alpha Lee, Serge Lemay, Himani Medhi, Andrew Mount, Frieder Mugele, Susan Perkin, Mark Rutland, George Schatz, David Schiffrin, Elisabeth Smela, Evgeny Smirnov, Michael Urbakh, Andriy Yaroshchuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Faraday Discussions
N Zhelev, T S Abhilash, E N Smith, R G Bennett, X Rojas, L Levitin, J Saunders, J M Parpia
The influence of confinement on the phases of superfluid helium-3 is studied using the torsional pendulum method. We focus on the transition between the A and B phases, where the A phase is stabilized by confinement and a spatially modulated stripe phase is predicted at the A-B phase boundary. Here we discuss results from superfluid helium-3 contained in a single 1.08-μm-thick nanofluidic cavity incorporated into a high-precision torsion pendulum, and map the phase diagram between 0.1 and 5.6 bar. We observe only small supercooling of the A phase, in comparison to bulk or when confined in aerogel, with evidence for a non-monotonic pressure dependence...
July 3, 2017: Nature Communications
M Morciano, M Fasano, A Nold, C Braga, P Yatsyshin, D N Sibley, B D Goddard, E Chiavazzo, P Asinari, S Kalliadasis
We investigate the hydrodynamic properties of a Lennard-Jones fluid confined to a nanochannel using molecular dynamics simulations. For channels of different widths and hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface wetting properties, profiles of the fluid density, stress, and viscosity across the channel are obtained and analysed. In particular, we propose a linear relationship between the density and viscosity in confined and strongly inhomogeneous nanofluidic flows. The range of validity of this relationship is explored in the context of coarse grained models such as dynamic density functional-theory...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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