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Valproic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330412/high-expression-of-endogenous-retroviruses-from-intrauterine-life-to-adulthood-in-two-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Chiara Cipriani, Laura Ricceri, Claudia Matteucci, Alessia De Felice, Anna Maria Tartaglione, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Francesca Pica, Sandro Grelli, Gemma Calamandrei, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Emanuela Balestrieri
Retroelements, such as Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), have been implicated in many complex diseases, including neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously, we demonstrated a distinctive expression profile of specific HERV families in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) patients, suggesting their involvement in ASD. Here we used two distinct ASD mouse models: inbred BTBR T+tf/J mice and CD-1 outbred mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid. Whole embryos, blood and brain samples from the offspring were collected at different ages and the expression of several ERV families (ETnI, ETnII-α, ETnII-β, ETnII-γ, MusD and IAP), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR4) was assessed...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329119/effects-of-valproic-acid-on-morphology-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-human-gingival-tissue
#2
Hyunjin Lee, Jong Young Lee, Dong-Ho Ha, Jee-Heon Jeong, Jun-Beom Park
PURPOSE: Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been shown to affect cell growth and differentiation in various in vitro and in vivo models. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of VPA on viability and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the human gingival tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of VPA at concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 8 mM. Cell morphology was assessed on days 3, 5, and 7, and cell proliferation was analyzed on the same days using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)...
January 11, 2018: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328514/a-systematic-review-of-population-pharmacokinetics-of-valproic-acid
#3
Janthima Methaneethorn
AIMS: Population pharmacokinetics is an essential tool that helps guiding individualized dosing regimens. The aims of this systematic review are to provide knowledge concerning population pharmacokinetics of valproic acid (VPA) and to identify factors influencing VPA pharmacokinetic variability. METHODS: Pubmed and Embase databases were systematically searched from inception to June, 2017. Relevant articles from reference lists were also included. All population pharmacokinetic studies of VPA conducted in human and employed nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach were included in this review...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328434/chemical-conversion-of-human-lung-fibroblasts-into-neuronal-cells
#4
Xiao-Yu Wan, Li-Yun Xu, Bing Li, Qiu-Hong Sun, Qiu-Liang Ji, Dong-Dong Huang, Lan Zhao, Yong-Tao Xiao
It has been previously reported that human embryonic fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts can be converted into neuronal cells using chemical agents, along with forced expression specific transcriptional factors. However, the materials required for reprogramming in these approaches presents major technical difficulties and safety concerns. The current study investigated whether a cocktail of small molecules can convert human lung fibroblast cells into neurons. The small molecules valproic acid, CHIR99021, DMH1, Repsox, forskolin, Y‑27632 and SP600125 (VCHRFYS) were used to induce MRC‑5 cells into neuronal cells in vitro...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320364/cardiometabolic-effects-of-psychotropic-medications
#5
REVIEW
Oluchi Abosi, Sneha Lopes, Samantha Schmitz, Jess G Fiedorowicz
Background Many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression convey an excess burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The medications used to treat these conditions may further adversely affect cardiovascular risk and exacerbate health disparities for vulnerable populations. There is a clinical need to appreciate the cardiometabolic adverse effects of psychotropic medications. Methods This paper reviews the most relevant cardiometabolic effects of psychotropic medications, organized around the components of metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315614/defining-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-slc6a1-mutations
#6
Katrine M Johannesen, Elena Gardella, Tarja Linnankivi, Carolina Courage, Anne de Saint Martin, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Cyril Mignot, Alexandra Afenjar, Gaetan Lesca, Marie-Thérèse Abi-Warde, Jamel Chelly, Amélie Piton, J Lawrence Merritt, Lance H Rodan, Wen-Hann Tan, Lynne M Bird, Mark Nespeca, Joseph G Gleeson, Yongjin Yoo, Murim Choi, Jong-Hee Chae, Desiree Czapansky-Beilman, Sara Chadwick Reichert, Manuela Pendziwiat, Judith S Verhoeven, Helenius J Schelhaas, Orrin Devinsky, Jakob Christensen, Nicola Specchio, Marina Trivisano, Yvonne G Weber, Caroline Nava, Boris Keren, Diane Doummar, Elise Schaefer, Sarah Hopkins, Holly Dubbs, Jessica E Shaw, Laura Pisani, Candace T Myers, Sha Tang, Shan Tang, Deb K Pal, John J Millichap, Gemma L Carvill, Kathrine L Helbig, Oriano Mecarelli, Pasquale Striano, Ingo Helbig, Guido Rubboli, Heather C Mefford, Rikke S Møller
OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature...
January 8, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314463/prevalence-and-patterns-of-anti-epileptic-medication-prescribing-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-older-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities
#7
M O'Dwyer, J Peklar, N Mulryan, P McCallion, M McCarron, M C Henman
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in people with intellectual disability (ID) and increases with the degree of ID. Although life expectancy for people with ID is increasing, people with ID coexisting with epilepsy have a higher mortality rate, particularly those who had recent seizures. There have been few observational studies of the prevalence and patterns of anti-epileptic prescribing among older people with ID and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-epileptic prescribing in the treatment of epilepsy in a representative population of older people with ID and epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309833/development-and-behavior-alterations-in-zebrafish-embryonically-exposed-to-valproic-acid-vpa-animal-model-of-autism
#8
Jiangfei Chen, Linjie Tian, Lei Lei, Fei Hou, Courtney Roper, Xiaoqing Ge, Yuxin Zhao, Robert L Tanguay, Changjiang Huang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has complex neurodevelopmental impairments and origins that are linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, there is an urgency to establish animal models with ASD-like characteristics to understand the underlying mechanisms of ASD. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to cause ASD-like symptoms in humans, rats, and recently zebrafish. The present study investigated the use of VPA exposure to create an ASD model in zebrafish that was verified through observation of ASD-like phenotypes in brain development and behavioral changes in embryonic and larval zebrafish...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309796/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-alters-the-development-of-excitability-in-the-postnatal-rat-hippocampus
#9
Yukiko Fueta, Yuko Sekino, Sachiko Yoshida, Yasunari Kanda, Susumu Ueno
Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure is a well-known animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that produces alterations in embryonic and adult neurogenesis as well as adolescent/adulthood neurobehavioral phenotypes. However, the effects of prenatal VPA exposure on neural network excitability, especially during the synaptogenic period around eye opening, are not fully understood. In this study, we orally administered VPA (300 mg/kg) to pregnant Wistar rats on gestation day 15 and subsequently performed field potential recording in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from control (saline-exposed) and VPA-exposed rat pups between postnatal day (PND) 13 and PND18...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307599/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-mediated-neuronal-differentiation-via-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Sujeong Jang, Han-Seong Jeong
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which have an effect on cell homeostasis, cell cycle progression, and terminal differentiation, can act to promote self-renewal and enhance directed differentiation of several lineages of stem cells. However, the roles of HDAC inhibitors on neurogenic differentiation and the mechanisms of Wnt signaling following treatment with HDAC inhibitors remain unclear in stem cells. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibitors regulate downstream Wnt signaling and neurogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells...
January 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304031/the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid-exerts-a-synergistic-cytotoxicity-with-the-dna-damaging-drug-ellipticine-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#11
Tereza Cerna, Jan Hrabeta, Tomas Eckschlager, Eva Frei, Heinz H Schmeiser, Volker M Arlt, Marie Stiborová
Neuroblastoma (NBL) originates from undifferentiated cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Chemotherapy is judged to be suitable for successful treatment of this disease. Here, the influence of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproate (VPA) combined with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic, ellipticine, on UKF-NB-4 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells was investigated. Treatment of these cells with ellipticine in combination with VPA led to the synergism of their anticancer efficacy. The effect is more pronounced in the UKF-NB-4 cell line, the line with N-myc amplification, than in SH-SY5Y cells...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303801/intravenous-valproic-acid-add-on-therapy-in-acute-agitation-adolescents-with-suspected-substance-abuse-a-report-of-six-cases
#12
Claudia Battaglia, Roberto Averna, Milena Labonia, Assia Riccioni, Stefano Vicari
The aim of this study was to test efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) valproate for aggression in children and adolescents with mood or conduct disorder and concomitant substance abuse. Six patients received a 20 mg/kg dose of IV valproic acid as an add-on therapy to their standard therapy with second-generation antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Agitation and general psychopathology were measured at baseline and after the first injection using the Modified Overt Aggression Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303157/erratum-valproic-acid-induces-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-during-cortical-development
#13
Ki Chan Kim, Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Sung Hoon Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Ram Hwangbo, Minha Hong, Jong Hoon Ryu, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
[This corrects the article on p. 252 in vol. 26, PMID: 29093634.].
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302857/combination-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-valproic-acid-in-treatment-of-borderline-personality-disorder-a-follow-up-study
#14
Paola Bozzatello, Paola Rocca, Silvio Bellino
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some evidence of efficacy has been found for omega-3 fatty acids in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In a previous 12-week randomized trial we assessed the efficacy of the combination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with valproic acid, in comparison with valproic acid monotherapy, in 43 BPD outpatients. Combined therapy was superior to valproic acid monotherapy (the control group) in the treatment of some BPD symptoms: impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol, outbursts of anger, and self-harm...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299126/hdac-inhibition-as-a-treatment-concept-to-combat-temsirolimus-resistant-bladder-cancer-cells
#15
Eva Juengel, Ramin Najafi, Jochen Rutz, Sebastian Maxeiner, Jasmina Makarevic, Frederik Roos, Igor Tsaur, Axel Haferkamp, Roman A Blaheta
Introduction: Although the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) might be a promising molecular target to treat advanced bladder cancer, resistance develops under chronic exposure to an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus, temsirolimus). Based on earlier studies, we proposed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) blockade might circumvent resistance and investigated whether HDAC inhibition has an impact on growth of bladder cancer cells with acquired resistance towards temsirolimus. Results: The HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) significantly inhibited growth, proliferation and caused G0/G1 phase arrest in RT112res and UMUC-3res...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283003/a-particular-case-of-accidental-asphyxiation
#16
Cristian D'Ovidio, Enrica Rosato, Martina Bonelli, Aldo Carnevale, Luigi T Marsella
The case reported involved a 60-year-old man with psychiatric illness who was found dead at his home. He was almost naked and showed signs of death by violent asphyxiation, which led to the suspicion of homicide. Autopsy findings showed foreign material in the trachea and larynx. However, the partially digested content in his stomach, the study of the gastric content and the microscopic analysis the airways made it possible to define this as accidental death due to inhalation of material from a diaper. Toxicological analysis detected the presence of phenytoin, valproic acid, and phenobarbital in his blood, with values within the therapeutic ranges...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277783/up-regulation-of-uvrag-by-hdac1-inhibition-attenuates-5fu-induced-cell-death-in-hct116-colorectal-cancer-cells
#17
Yoon Kyung Jo, Na Yeon Park, Ji Hyun Shin, Doo Sin Jo, Ji-Eun Bae, Eun Sun Choi, Sungho Maeng, Hong Bae Jeon, Seon Ae Roh, Jong Wook Chang, Jin Cheon Kim, Dong-Hyung Cho
The ultraviolent irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), a component of the Beclin 1/autophagy-related 6 complex, regulates the autophagy initiation step and functions in the DNA-damage response. UVRAG is frequently mutated in various cancer types, and mutations of UVRAG increase sensitivity to chemotherapy by impairing DNA-damage repair. In this study, we addressed the epigenetic regulation of UVRAG in colorectal cancer cells. UVRAG expression was increased in cells treated with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274335/cd36-mediates-lipid-accumulation-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-under-the-duress-of-glucolipotoxic-conditions-novel-roles-of-lysine-deacetylases
#18
Sabbir Khan, Anjaneyulu Kowluru
The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is implicated in the intake of long-chain fatty acids and fat storage in various cell types including the pancreatic beta cell, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic stress and diabetes. Recent evidence indicates that CD36 undergoes post-translational modifications such as acetylation-deacetylation. However, putative roles of such modifications in its functional activation and onset of beta cell dysregulation under the duress of glucolipotoxicity (GLT) remain largely unknown...
December 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261810/whole-genome-microarray-analysis-of-neural-progenitor-c17-2-cells-during-differentiation-and-validation-of-30-neural-mrna-biomarkers-for-estimation-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#19
Kristina Attoff, Anda Gliga, Jessica Lundqvist, Ulf Norinder, Anna Forsby
Despite its high relevance, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is one of the least studied forms of toxicity. Current guidelines for DNT testing are based on in vivo testing and they require extensive resources. Transcriptomic approaches using relevant in vitro models have been suggested as a useful tool for identifying possible DNT-generating compounds. In this study, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on the murine progenitor cell line C17.2 following 5 and 10 days of differentiation. We identified 30 genes that are strongly associated with neural differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260458/the-risk-of-thrombocytopenia-during-valproic-acid-therapy-a-critical-summary-of-available-clinical-data
#20
Massimiliano Buoli, Marta Serati, Andrea Botturi, A Carlo Altamura
Valproate is an effective anti-epileptic and mood stabilizer drug, but its prescription may be complicated by the development of thrombocytopenia. The purpose of the present manuscript is to provide a critical overview about the risk of thrombocytopenia during treatment with valproate. A search of the main database sources has been conducted to identify relevant papers about the topic. In the studies with a larger sample size (> 150 subjects), thrombocytopenia occurred in 12-18% of subjects receiving treatment with valproate...
December 19, 2017: Drugs in R&D
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