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Valproic acid

Donovan T Maust, H Myra Kim, Claire Chiang, Helen C Kales
Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care in Nursing Homes (hereafter referred to as the partnership) was established to improve the quality of care for patients with dementia, measured by the rate of antipsychotic prescribing. Objective: To determine the association of the partnership with trends in prescribing of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medication among older adults in long-term care...
March 17, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Rodrigo Vargas, Lucas Beltrán, Rafael Lizama, Gabriela Reyes Valenzuela, Roberto Caraballo
PURPOSE: To present a retrospective study of 13 children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), also known as benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), associated with generalized spikes and waves as the only EEG manifestation at onset. METHOD: Charts of children with typical clinical criteria of BRE electroclinically followed-up between February 2000 and February 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: Among 309 patients who met the electroclinical criteria of BRE, we identified 13 children who presented with the typical clinical manifestations but who, on the EEG, only had generalized paroxysms at onset that continued along the course of the syndrome...
March 9, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Nootchanat Mairuae, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn
Iron accumulation in activated microglia has been consistently reported in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous results suggest that these cells facilitate neuroinflammation leading to neuronal cell death. Therefore, chemical compounds that alleviate the activation of iron-rich microglia may result in neuroprotection. In the present study, the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on microglial activation under iron-rich conditions was investigated. BV-2 microglial cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/ml) and iron (300 µg/ml) with or without VPA (1...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Shengdong Wang, Hengyuan Li, Chenyi Ye, Peng Lin, Binghao Li, Wei Zhang, Lingling Sun, Zhan Wang, Deting Xue, Wangsiyuan Teng, Xingzhi Zhou, Nong Lin, Zhaoming Ye
The long-term survival of osteosarcoma has remained unchanged in the last several decades. Immunotherapy is proved to be a promising therapeutic strategy against osteosarcoma, especially for those with metastasis. Our previous study explored the sensibilization of zoledronate (ZOL) in γδ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against osteosarcoma, but we have not yet elucidated the specific mechanism. Besides, high concentration is required to achieve these effects, whereas plasma ZOL concentration declines rapidly in the circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Diego Martin-Sanchez, Olga Ruiz-Andres, Jonay Poveda, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Lara Valiño-Rivas, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Alberto Ortiz, Ana Belén Sanz
Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression patterns not caused by an altered nucleotide sequence, and includes non-coding RNAs and covalent modifications of DNA and histones. This review focuses on functional evidence for the involvement of DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and the potential therapeutic implications. There is evidence of activation of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the AKI-to-CKD transition of diverse aetiologies, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, nephrotoxicity, ureteral obstruction, diabetes, glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease...
March 9, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Lili Zhang, Zhaomin Fan, Yuechen Han, Lei Xu, Wenwen Liu, Xiaohui Bai, Meijuan Zhou, Jianfeng Li, Haibo Wang
Valproic acid (VPA), a medication primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, has been applied to the repair of central and peripheral nervous system injury. The present study investigated the effect of VPA on functional recovery, survival of facial motor neurons (FMNs), and expression of proteins in rats after facial nerve trunk transection by functional measurement, Nissl staining, TUNEL, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Following facial nerve injury, all rats in group VPA showed a better functional recovery, which was significant at the given time, compared with group NS...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
J M Mercadé Cerdá, F J López Gonzalez, P Serrano Castro, M D Castro Vilanova, D M Campos Blanco, M R Querol Pascual
INTRODUCTION: The study aims to quantify the types of antiepileptic drugs (AED) prescribed in neurology consultations. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This descriptive, observational study included a sample of 559 patients older than 14 years, diagnosed with epilepsy, and receiving pharmacological treatment. Data were collected at outpatient consultations by 47 Spanish neurologists in May 2016. Epilepsy was defined based on the International League Against Epilepsy classification...
March 9, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Dilara Nemutlu Samur, Rana Arslan, Sule Aydın, Nurcan Bektas
The purpose of this study is to assess the possible anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic effect of valnoctamide, an amide derivative of valproic acid, at the doses of 40, 70 and 100mg/kg (i.p.) in neuropathic pain model induced by chronic constriction injury in rats, by using dynamic plantar test and plantar test (Hargreaves method), and to evaluate that the possible role of certain serotonin, noradrenergic, opioid and GABAergic receptors by pre-treatment with 1mg/kg (i.p.) ketanserin, yohimbine, naloxone and 0...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ding Zhou, Yi-Xuan Chen, Jun-Hui Yin, Shi-Cong Tao, Shang-Chun Guo, Zhan-Ying Wei, Yong Feng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common cause of atraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) because their effect compromises the osteogenic capability of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti‑epileptic and anti‑convulsant drug. Previous studies have reported that VPA promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and osteogenesis in vivo as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of VPA as a precautionary treatment of ONFH after GC treatment in rats...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Lichun Sun, Quanyong He, Cheguo Tsai, Jun Lei, Jing Chen, Lily Vienna Makcey, David H Coy
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant human cancer and patients have very limited benefit from traditional anticancer treatments, with a poor five-year survival rate being 10% less. In present study, we observed that Notch signalling activation induced SCLC cell growth suppression via overexpressing Notch active fragments (ICN1, ICN2, ICN3 and ICN4), implying its tumor suppressive role. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors also displayed their suppressive effects. Valproic acid (VPA) as a HDAC inhibitor was found to suppress SCLC cell growth and cell cycle arrest at phase G1, and observed to decrease HDAC4 and increase acetylation of histone H4 (AcH4) while activating Notch signalling with an increase of Notch1, Notch target gene HES1 and p21...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Rachel Meyen, Elia E Acevedo-Diaz, Sparsha S Reddy
BACKGROUND: Untangling catatonia and delirium can be challenging. Furthermore, treatment of one syndrome can potentially worsen another. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 71-year-old patient with a history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype, who developed catatonia and delirium with prominent psychotic symptoms, during a single hospitalization. Treatment of this patient's catatonia with benzodiazepines exacerbated delirium, while treatment of psychotic symptoms precipitated by delirium with antipsychotics led to catatonia...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Iohanna Deckmann, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Walquiria Nunes, Bruna Rabelo, Rudimar Riesgo, Rogerio Margis, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and language, and restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The etiology of ASD remains unknown and no clinical markers for diagnosis were identified. Environmental factors, including prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), may contribute to increased risk of developing ASD. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression and are frequently linked to biological processes affected in neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ryan Zimmerman, Raina Patel, Amanda Smith, Julio Pasos, Randy J Kulesza
Auditory dysfunction is a common occurrence in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While most cases of ASD are of unknown etiology, in utero exposure to the antiepileptic valproic acid (VPA) significantly increases risk. We have previously identified significant dysmorphology and hypoplasia in the auditory brainstem of humans with ASD and rodents exposed to VPA in utero. Further, we have identified abnormal c-Fos immunolabeling patterns after exposure to pure tone stimuli in VPA-exposed animals...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Olcay Güngör, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Fatih Temiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid function alterations in a group of epileptic children taking antiepileptic drugs. The study included a total of 183 pediatric epilepsy patients, aged 15 months-16 years, comprising 114 patients treated with valproic acid, 69 patients treated with phenobarbital, and 151 age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. Serum levels of thyroid hormones were measured before the beginning of the antiepileptic therapy and after 12 months of treatment. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in the 12th month of phenobarbital and valproic acid treatment...
March 5, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Carlo Ripoli, Anna Paola Pinna, Faustina Podda, Roberta Zanni, Maria Giada Tronci, Anna Maria Nurchi
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are used in children for the treatment of various psychiatric diseases, including pervasive developmental disorders. These drugs can cause metabolic effects as hyperglycemia and diabetes. A 16-year-old young-boy, diagnosed with autism, developed diabetes mellitus type 1 whilst he was on treatment with olanzapine (started 4 months before), clomipramine, valproic acid and lithium. The hypothesis of druginduced diabetes imposed olanzapine interruption and clozapine initiation...
December 13, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: New tuberculosis (TB) drug treatment regimens are urgently needed. We evaluated the potential of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to enhance the effects of first-line TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). METHODS: M. tb H37Rv cultures were exposed to VPA or SAHA over six days, in the presence or absence of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). The efficacy of VPA and SAHA against intracellular M...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jarno E J Wolters, Simone G J van Breda, Jonas Grossmann, Claudia Fortes, Florian Caiment, Jos C S Kleinjans
We performed a multiple 'omics study by integrating data on epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic perturbations associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human hepatocytes caused by the liver toxicant valproic acid (VPA), to deeper understand downstream events following epigenetic alterations in the mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, we investigated persistence of cross-omics changes after terminating drug treatment. Upon transient methylation changes of mitochondrial genes during VPA-treatment, increasing complexities of gene-interaction networks across time were demonstrated, which normalized during washout...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Hakan Guvenir, Emine Dibek Misirlioglu, Ersoy Civelek, Muge Toyran, Betul Buyuktiryaki, Tayfur Ginis, Murat Capanoglu, Esra Gurkas, Alev Guven, Can Naci Kocabas
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause hypersensitivity reactions during childhood. Studies report a wide clinical spectrum of reactions with AED use, ranging from a mild rash to severe cutaneous reactions. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to determine the prevalence and clinical features of AED hypersensitivity reactions during childhood. METHODS: Patients who were prescribed an AED for the first time in our hospital during November 2015 and November 2016 were followed and children who developed skin rash during this period were evaluated...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Roxanne J Wadia, Marilyn Stolar, Clarice Grens, Barbara E Ehrlich, Herta H Chao
Peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse effect in the use of chemotherapeutic drugs. In nearly 50% of patients, chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been reported as irreversible. With increasing numbers of patients surviving treatment as well as increasing duration of survival after treatment, reducing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life has become a major focus of cancer survivorship. Multiple classes of chemotherapeutic drugs including taxanes, platinum agents and vinka alkaloids list peripheral neuropathy as the main dose-limiting side effect of treatment...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Cheng Chia Lin, Tsung-Cheng Hsieh, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic events play a major role in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. A retrospective cohort study had been performed to evaluate the effects of exposure to the anticonvulsant agent valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the risk of developing cancers. METHODS: The study was based on the 1998 through 2009 National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), provided by the Taiwan National Health Research Institute. Patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (ICD-9-CM codes 296...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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