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Elizabeth Chang Reissig, Adriana R Massone, Beatriz Iovanitti, Eduardo J Gimeno, Francisco A Uzal
In Argentina there is little information about diseases that affect exotic ungulates and the health risks that they pose to native wildlife, livestock, and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in the Nahuel Huapi National Park and surrounding areas in Patagonia, Argentina. During three consecutive hunting seasons, necropsies were performed on 101 red deer, and tissues were examined histologically. The most common lesions were those associated with hepatic and pulmonary parasites...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
John Graham-Brown, Catherine Hartley, Helen Clough, Aras Kadioglu, Matthew Baylis, Diana J L Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Infection and Immunity
Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani, Tina Cheng, Christine Green, Patrick Hughes, Emily Kwan, Elizabeth Maher, Russell David Bush, Jan Šlapeta
Commonly employed diagnostic methods for Fasciola spp., such as a traditional sedimentation and faecal egg count, or a commercially available coprological ELISA, have limitations in their sensitivity or ability to differentiate species. A reliable DNA isolation method coupled with real-time PCR addresses these issues by providing highly sensitive and quantitative molecular diagnosis from faecal samples. The current study evaluated a standard benchtop vortex for F. hepatica egg disruption in sheep and cattle faecal samples and determined the minimum faecal egg load required for a positive result from un-concentrated (raw) faecal samples...
May 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ishmael Festus Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
South Africa's livestock population is rapidly evolving and consequently will require sustained epidemiological surveillance to detect and prevent diseases which contribute to a decrease in livestock productivity, public health risk and food wastage. Fasciola infection is one of the commonest diseases affecting livestock health and a significant portion of meat and offal's are declared unfit for human consumption. This study assessed the prevalence and monetary losses associated with Fasciola infection at three abattoirs in Eastern Cape Province...
November 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Basałaj, Luke J Norbury, Alicja Sielicka, Halina Wędrychowicz, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak
Most animal research is less evidence-based for females, with the majority of studies conducted on males. Since immune responses vary between males and females, sexual dimorphism in immunity contributes, among other things, to sex-based differences post-vaccination. However, the issue of sex effects in animal vaccine research is rarely considered in vaccine study design. Previously, we have evaluated the efficacy of cathepsin L3 (FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2) and B3 proteases (FhCB3) from juvenile Fasciola hepatica as vaccines against fasciolosis in male rats...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Amalia Naranjo Lucena, María Pía Munita Corbalán, Ana María Martínez-Ibeas, Guy McGrath, Riona Sayers, Grace Mulcahy, Annetta Zintl
Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a global disease of a wide range of mammals, particularly sheep and cattle. Liver fluke infection causes annual losses estimated at around €2.5 billion to livestock and food industries worldwide. Various models have been developed to define risk factors and predict exposure to this liver fluke in ruminants in European countries, most of them based exclusively on data from dairy herds. The aim of this study was to validate a published theoretical baseline risk map of liver fluke exposure and cluster maps in Ireland, by including further explanatory variables and additional herd types that are spatially more widespread...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
Claudia Machicado, Stéphane Bertani, Patricia Herrera-Velit, Jose Espinoza, Eloy Ruiz, Luis Marcos
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases remains largely unknown. Although Fasciola hepatica has been associated with liver fibrosis in Latin America, it has not yet been associated with HCC. This study aimed to determine the existence of specific IgG antibodies against F. hepatica in the serum samples of HCC patients. METHODS: In total, 13 serum samples from 13 HCC patients were screened using Fas2-ELISA. RESULTS: Fas2-ELISA demonstrated negative results in all HCC patients included in this study...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Hakim Azizi, Hadi Mirzaeei, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Ali Bazi, Aliyar Mirzapour, Mehrdad Khatami, Kareem Hatam Nahavandi, Ako Azimi, Hajar Yaghoobi
Toxic effects of available therapeutics are major drawbacks for conventional management approaches in parasitic infections. Vaccines have provided a promising opportunity to obviate such unwanted complications. In present study, we examined immune augmenting capacities of an emerging adjuvant, Naltrexone, against Fasciola hepatica infection in BALB/c mice. Seventy BALB/c mice were divided into five experimental groups (14 mice per group) including 1- control (received PBS), 2- vaccine (immunized with F. hepatica E/S antigens), 3- Alum-vaccine (immunized with Alum adjuvant and E/S antigens), 4- NLT-vaccine (immunized with NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens), and 5- Alum-NLT-vaccine (immunized with mixed Alum-NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens)...
April 27, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ileana Corvo, Florencia Ferraro, Alicia Merlino, Kathrin Zuberbühler, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Lucía Pastro, Natalia Pi-Denis, Tatiana Basika, Leda Roche, James H McKerrow, Charles S Craik, Conor R Caffrey, José F Tort
Cysteine proteases are widespread in all life kingdoms, being central to diverse physiological processes based on a broad range of substrate specificity. Paralogous Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L proteases are essential to parasite invasion, tissue migration and reproduction. In spite of similarities in their overall sequence and structure, these enzymes often exhibit different substrate specificity. These preferences are principally determined by the amino acid composition of the active site's S2 subsite (pocket) of the enzyme that interacts with the substrate P2 residue (Schetcher and Berger nomenclature)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Joshua Duncan, David Cutress, Russell M Morphew, Peter M Brophy
Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of grazing livestock and a threat to global food security by significantly reducing the production value of sheep, goats and cattle. Moreover, the zoonotic parasite is also a re-emerging food borne threat to human populations. Driven by climate change, the prevalence of fascioliasis is set to increase. Efforts to control the main causative agent, Fasciola hepatica, are hampered by short lived chemotherapy approaches that are becoming increasingly obsolete due to therapeutic failure and resistance...
April 27, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Gabriel Atwoki Kagenda, Harriet Angwech
The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasite infections and associated risk factors was studied in traditionally reared East African short-horned zebu cattle in Lira District, Uganda. Fecal samples were collected from 205 cattle and coprologically examined for the presence of helminth parasites using the simple salt flotation method complemented with the sedimentation method. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites (GITPs) in cattle in Adekokwok, Lira District, was 32.2%. Of these, 12 (18...
April 27, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Bulut Hamali, Sandra Pichler, Elisabeth Wischnitzki, Klaus Schicker, Melanie Burger, Marion Holy, Kathrin Jaentsch, Martina Molin, Eva Maria Sehr, Oliver Kudlacek, Michael Freissmuth
The parasitic liver fluke Fasciola hepatica infests mainly ruminants, but it can also cause fasciolosis in people, who ingest the metacercariae encysted on plants. The drug of choice to treat fasciolosis is triclabendazole (TBZ), which has been on the market for several decades. This is also true for the other available drugs. Accordingly, drug-resistant flukes have been emerging at an increasing rate making it desirable to identify alternative drug targets. Here, we focused on the fact that adult F. hepatica persists in the hostile environment of the bile ducts of infected organisms...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M Ernest Mochankana, Ian D Robertson
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of Fasciola gigantica infections in communally grazed and ranch-grazed beef cattle through coprological examination. A total of 8646 cattle (4618 adults, 2843 weaners and 1185 calves) faecal samples were collected during the 24 months of study. Results from this study indicated that only 64 (0.74%; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94%) of the samples were positive for F. gigantica eggs. The positive samples were detected in one (Central) of the six study districts and was restricted to the Tuli Block (commercial) farms in Machaneng village in eastern Botswana...
April 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Alessandra Crusco, Cinzia Bordoni, Anand Chakroborty, Kezia C L Whatley, Helen Whiteland, Andrew D Westwell, Karl F Hoffmann
The plant-derived, diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol was recently reported to display moderate activity against larval stages of Schistosoma mansoni (IC50  = 19.1 μM) and Fasciola hepatica (IC50  = 17.7 μM), two related parasitic blood and liver flukes responsible for the neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. Here, we aimed to increase the potency of 7-keto-sempervirol by total synthesis of 30 structural analogues. Subsequent screening of these new diterpenoids against juvenile and adult lifecycle stages of both parasites as well as the human HepG2 liver cell line and the bovine MDBK kidney cell line revealed structure-activity relationship trends...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zeynab Askari, Santiago Mas-Coma, Abigail S Bouwman, Nicole Boenke, Thomas Stöllner, Abolfazl Aali, Mostafa Rezaiian, Gholamreza Mowlavi
Fascioliasis is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the liver trematodes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Within the multidisciplinary initiative against this disease, there is the aim of understanding how this disease reached a worldwide distribution, with important veterinary and medical repercussions, by elucidating the spreading steps followed by the two fasciolids from their paleobiogeograhical origins. Fasciola eggs were detected in paleofaeces of a donkey, probably the present-day endangered Persian onager Equus hemionus onager, found in the Chehrabad salt mine archaeological site, Zanjan province, northwestern Iran...
April 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Behnam Meshgi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Saeid Fathi, Zahra Jahani
Fascioliasis is a global parasitic disease that affects domestic animals and causes considerable economic losses in the process of domestic animal breeding in endemic regions. The cause of the disease involves a liver trematode of the genus Fasciola, which secretes materials into a host's body (mainly proteins) in order to protect it from the host's immune system. These materials can be involved in the migration, growth, and nutrition of the parasite. Among the expressive proteins of Fasciola, proteases have been introduced as the appropriate targets for diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination against parasites...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
M K Kouam, R Meningue, D E Fon
An abattoir study was carried out between May and October 2016 to determine the parasitic causes of organ condemnation during meat inspection and to evaluate the attendant financial losses in Fako abattoirs, in the South-West region of Cameroon. Organs (liver, lungs, heart, tongue, kidney, spleen and intestine) were examined at meat inspection following standard procedures and the financial loss was estimated by considering the total weight of condemned organs and the price per kilogram of marketable organs, obtained from the local market...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Sławomir J Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Tomasz Nalbert, Andrzej Bereznowski, Jarosław Kaba
BACKGROUND: Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi infections are widespread in cattle population of Europe, however data on their prevalence in Poland are only fragmentary. Therefore, the cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the herd-level seroprevalence of F. hepatica and O. ostertagi infection in dairy cattle population in the central and north-eastern provinces Poland, and to identify basic local risk factors for these infections. In total, 598 herds were enrolled, 394 (65...
April 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Ahmed G Hegazi, Kadria N Abdel Megeed, Soad E Hassan, M M Abdelaziz, Nagwa I Toaleb, Eman E El Shanawany, Dina Aboelsoued
Background: Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease affecting the productive performance of farm animals in Egypt. Aim: The aim of the present study was comparing the ovicidal effect of different extracts as an alcoholic (Methanolic and Ethanolic) and aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs. Materials and Methods: Tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 12.5 to 800 mg/ml. Nitroxynil was used as reference drug with a dose of 100 mg/ml...
February 2018: Veterinary World
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