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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157020/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-mepolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma-associated-with-persistent-eosinophilic-inflammation-in-adults
#1
Lakshmi Kallur, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada, Frank Eidelman, Ves Dimov
Mepolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to and inactivates IL-5. It is available as a subcutaneous preparation. The practical application of mepolizumab is as an add-on therapy in the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Areas covered: This article was created from a comprehensive literature search with information taken from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical trials of adults. The articles that have been selected evaluate the use of mepolizumab and its role in eosinophilic asthma...
November 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152899/lung-function-after-extremely-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study-express
#2
Per Thunqvist, Ellen Tufvesson, Leif Bjermer, Anna Winberg, Vineta Fellman, Magnus Domellöf, Erik Melén, Mikael Norman, Jenny Hallberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Follow-up studies of children and young adults born very-to-moderately preterm show persistent and significant lung function deficits. The aim of the study was to determine lung function and airway mechanics in school-aged children born in 2004 to 2007 and extremely preterm (after 22-26 weeks of gestation). METHODS: In a population-based cohort of children born extremely preterm and controls born at term (n = 350), follow-up at 6½-years-of-age was performed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149273/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-bronchial-thermoplasty-in-severe-persistent-asthma-on-extended-follow-up
#3
A O'Reilly, I Browne, D Watchorn, J J Egan, S Lane
Background: Asthma is a common condition and there remains a subset of patients who are poorly controlled on maximal therapy. Bronchial thermoplasty is a bronchoscopic therapy using radio frequency energy to reduce airway smooth muscle which has been shown to improve asthma control although further evidence regarding long term efficacy and safety is required. Aim: We aimed to demonstrate safety and efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty on extended follow up. Our initial experience with this group was previously reported in 2016 where patients were shown to have a significant improvement in Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores 1 year post treatment8...
November 15, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135514/prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-local-allergic-rhinitis-to-house-dust-mites
#4
Yoo Seob Shin, Chang-Gyu Jung, Hae-Sim Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a recently classified subtype of rhinitis defined by a nasal allergic response in patients without systemic evidence of atopy. Recent studies have reported the prevalence, clinical course, culprit allergens, diagnostic methods and treatment outcomes of LAR. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most relevant and updated scientific evidence for LAR, especially focusing on its prevalence and clinical characteristics. RECENT FINDINGS: LAR is found in a significant proportion (3...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135394/real-life-profile-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-in-turkey
#5
Zeynep Mısırlıgil, Arif Çımrın, Hakan Günen, Tevfik Özlü, Aykut Çilli, Levent Akyıldız, Hasan Bayram, Bilun Gemicioğlu, Esra Uzaslan, Öznur Abadoğlu, Mecit Suerdem
Introduction: Despite the presentation of similar symptoms, the airway diseases have different underlying pathophysiological processes and must be distinguished to enable the administration of appropriate treatment. In several studies the clinician- and patient-related causes of poor compliance to treatment in asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been evaluated. This study aimed to determine the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of newly diagnosed treatment-naïve asthma and COPD patients in Turkey...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133218/cluster-analysis-identifies-3-phenotypes-within-allergic-asthma
#6
María Paz Sendín-Hernández, Carmelo Ávila-Zarza, Catalina Sanz, Asunción García-Sánchez, Elena Marcos-Vadillo, Francisco J Muñoz-Bellido, Elena Laffond, Christian Domingo, María Isidoro-García, Ignacio Dávila
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic disease with different clinical expressions and responses to treatment. In recent years, several unbiased approaches based on clinical, physiological, and molecular features have described several phenotypes of asthma. Some phenotypes are allergic, but little is known about whether these phenotypes can be further subdivided. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to phenotype patients with allergic asthma using an unbiased approach based on multivariate classification techniques (unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129332/aerosol-deposition-predictions-in-computed-tomography-derived-skeletons-from-severe-asthmatics-a-feasibility-study
#7
REVIEW
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Eric A Hoffman, Sally E Wenzel, Ching-Long Lin
BACKGROUND: The authors numerically investigated the correlation between airway skeletons of severe asthmatic human subjects and predicted aerosol deposition to shed light on the effect of environmental factors on asthma risk. We hypothesized that there are asthmatic subjects whose airway skeletal structure can expose the subject to a risk of higher local aerosol deposition compared to subjects with a more common/normal branching pattern. METHODS: From a population of severe asthmatics studied at total lung capacity via computed tomography we randomly selected 8 subjects whose Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s, percent predicted fell below 45% predicted...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122797/association-between-respiratory-syncytial-viral-disease-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-the-first-episode-of-severe-asthma-in-different-subgroups-of-high-risk-australian-children-a-whole-of-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Nusrat Homaira, Nancy Briggs, Christopher Pardy, Mark Hanly, Ju-Lee Oei, Lisa Hilder, Barbara Bajuk, Kei Lui, William Rawlinson, Tom Snelling, Adam Jaffe
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) to the subsequent development of severe asthma in different subgroups of children at risk of severe RSV disease. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised all children born in NSW between 2000 and 2010 with complete follow-up till 31 December 2011. The cohort was divided into three subgroups: (1) non-Indigenous high-risk children: non-Indigenous children born preterm or born with a low birth weight; (2) Indigenous children: children of mothers whose Indigenous status was recorded as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and (3) non-Indigenous standard risk children: all other non-Indigenous term children...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110335/correlation-between-fungal-sensitization-in-childhood-persistent-asthma-and-disease-severity
#9
Aman Gupta, Meenu Singh, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Joseph L Mathew, Amit Rawat
BACKGROUND: Fungal sensitization in adults is associated with severe asthma but prevalence and clinical significance of fungal sensitization remains unclear in paediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To study association of fungal sensitization with disease severity in children with persistent asthma PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred children with persistent asthma in age group 7-15 years, symptom duration >2 years and forced expiratory volume in first second >50% of expected were enrolled...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103801/guiding-principles-for-use-of-newer-biologics-and-bronchial-thermoplasty-for-patients-with-severe-asthma
#10
Michael S Blaiss, Mario Castro, Bradley E Chipps, Myron Zitt, Reynold A Panettieri, Michael B Foggs
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma poses significant disease-related and economic burdens in the United States. Challenges in practice include how to define "severe asthma" for a given patient, knowing which are the right tests to perform and when, and having a better understanding of a patient's asthma phenotype. Furthermore, current guidelines do not address a clear, practical approach to treatment that is based on a patient's asthma phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus on the definition of severe asthma, the role of biomarkers and phenotyping severe asthma, and the use of newer biologic therapies and bronchial thermoplasty to help guide practicing clinicians...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097103/the-allergen-specificity-of-early-peanut-consumption-and-the-impact-on-the-development-of-allergic-disease-in-the-leap-study-cohort
#11
George du Toit, Peter H Sayre, Graham Roberts, Kaitie Lawson, Michelle L Sever, Henry T Bahnson, Helen R Fisher, Mary Feeney, Suzana Radulovic, Monica Basting, Marshall Plaut, Gideon Lack
BACKGROUND: Early introduction of dietary peanut in high-risk infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy prevented peanut allergy at 5 years of age in the LEAP Study; the protective effect persisted after 12 months of avoiding peanuts in the LEAP-On Study. It is unclear whether this benefit is allergen and allergic-disease specific. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of early introduction of peanut on the development of allergic disease, food sensitization and aeroallergen sensitization...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079610/duration-of-the-efficacy-of-omalizumab-after-treatment-discontinuation-in-real-life-severe-asthma
#12
Maria Del Carmen Vennera, Carlos Sabadell, Cesar Picado
Efficacy of omalizumab in severe asthma is well documented; however, the optimal duration of the treatment remains unclear. In an open prospective study, we sought to assess the persistence of response in subjects withdrawing from omalizumab treatment. We evaluated 49 patients who voluntarily accepted to discontinue omalizumab treatment after 6 years of therapy. Asthma relapse was defined as any severe asthma exacerbation associated with loss of asthma control. Twelve patients relapsed in the first year of follow-up, and 7 within 13 and 48 months...
October 27, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068539/eosinophil-persistence-in-vivo-and-sustained-viability-ex-vivo-in-response-to-respiratory-challenge-with-fungal-allergens
#13
Wendy E Geslewitz, Caroline M Percopo, Helene F Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are immunomodulatory leukocytes that contribute to the pathogenesis of Th2 driven asthma and allergic lung diseases. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify unique properties of eosinophils recruited to the lungs and airways of mice in response to challenge with asthma-associated fungal allergens. METHODS: Mice were challenged intranasally on days 0, 3 and 6 with a filtrate of Alternaria alternata. Recruited eosinophils were enumerated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
October 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066918/asthma-with-bronchial-hypersecretion-expression-of-mucins-and-toll-like-receptors-in-sputum-and-blood
#14
Astrid Crespo-Lessmann, Eder Mateus, Montserrat Torrejón, Alicia Belda, Jordi Giner, Silvia Vidal, Oriol Sibila, Vicente Plaza
Asthma with bronchial hypersecretion is a type of asthma that is poorly studied. Its pathogenesis is not well understood, but is probably related to innate impaired immunity, particularly with toll-like receptors (TLRs) and secretory mucins (MUC). OBJECTIVES: 1) Define the clinical and inflammatory phenotype of asthma with bronchial hypersecretion of mucus. 2) Compare the type of mucin present in induced sputum (IS) of patients with and without bronchial hypersecretion. 3) Determine the expression of TLRs in IS and blood of asthmatics with and without bronchial hypersecretion...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057669/patient-reported-outcomes-in-moderate-to-severe-allergic-asthmatics-treated-with-omalizumab-a-systematic-literature-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Jonathan Corren, Abhishek Kavati, Benjamin Ortiz, Ashok Vegesna, Jennifer A Colby, Kimberly Ruiz, Reynold A Panettieri
OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have established the safety and efficacy of omalizumab on clinical parameters, and have also evaluated its impact on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The purpose of this systematic literature review was to review published data based on PRO endpoints in order to determine the benefit of omalizumab as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted of reference databases and recent conferences...
October 23, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055500/long-term-systemic-corticosteroid-exposure-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
J Bradford Rice, Alan G White, Lauren M Scarpati, George Wan, Winnie W Nelson
PURPOSE: While corticosteroids are relatively inexpensive and commonly used as treatment for a variety of conditions, long-term use is known to be associated with certain toxicities. Prior systematic reviews have revealed an increased risk for costly adverse events (AEs), including bone fracture, infection, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of recent publications on the burden of long-term corticosteroid exposure, specifically, to summarize the AEs and economic impact of long-term corticosteroid use and to reveal data gaps for additional research...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053714/atopic-asthmatic-immune-phenotypes-associated-with-airway-microbiota-and-airway-obstruction
#17
Benjamin A Turturice, Halvor S McGee, Brian Oliver, Melissa Baraket, Brian T Nguyen, Christian Ascoli, Ravi Ranjan, Asha Rani, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
BACKGROUND: Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics. METHODS: A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13) were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046734/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-asthma-and-wheeze-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#18
Ryan Arathimos, Matthew Suderman, Gemma C Sharp, Kimberley Burrows, Raquel Granell, Kate Tilling, Tom R Gaunt, John Henderson, Susan Ring, Rebecca C Richmond, Caroline L Relton
BACKGROUND: Asthma heritability has only been partially explained by genetic variants and is known to be sensitive to environmental factors, implicating epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Using data collected in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we assessed associations of asthma and wheeze with DNA methylation at 7.5 and 16.5 years, at over 450,000 CpG sites in DNA from the peripheral blood of approx...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034999/home-supply-of-emergency-oral-steroids-and-reduction-in-asthma-healthcare-utilization
#19
Lisa M Sarzynski, Tiffany Turner, David R Stukus, Elizabeth Allen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if children with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma have decreased healthcare utilization after receiving a prescription and instructions to use an at home emergency supply of oral steroids during asthma exacerbations. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design study with a historical control from retrospective chart review was performed for patients aged 2-18 years seen in a tertiary care pediatric pulmonary clinic for moderate to severe persistent asthma...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029580/uncovering-longitudinal-health-care-behaviors-for-millions-of-medicaid-enrollees-a-multistate-comparison-of-pediatric-asthma-utilization
#20
Ross Hilton, Yuchen Zheng, Anne Fitzpatrick, Nicoleta Serban
BACKGROUND: This study introduces a framework for analyzing and visualizing health care utilization for millions of children, with a focus on pediatric asthma, one of the major chronic respiratory conditions. METHODS: The data source is the 2005 to 2012 Medicaid Analytic Extract claims for 10 Southeast states. The study population consists of Medicaid-enrolled children with persistent asthma. We translate multiyear, individual-level medical claims into sequences of discrete utilization events, which are modeled using Markov renewal processes and model-based clustering...
October 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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