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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437565/relaxed-ordered-subset-preconditioned-alternating-projection-algorithm-for-pet-reconstruction-with-automated-penalty-weight-selection
#1
C Ross Schmidtlein, Yizun Lin, Si Li, Andrzej Krol, Bradley J Beattie, John L Humm, Yuesheng Xu
PURPOSE: Performance of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) using relaxed ordered subsets (ROS) with a non-smooth penalty function was investigated in positron emission tomography (PET). A higher order total variation (HOTV) regularizer was applied and a method for unsupervised selection of penalty weights based on the measured data is introduced. METHODS: A ROS version of PAPA with HOTV penalty (ROS-HOTV-PAPA) for PET image reconstruction was developed and implemented...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433486/gallstone-ileus-an-overview-of-the-literature
#2
C F Ploneda-Valencia, M Gallo-Morales, C Rinchon, E Navarro-Muñiz, C A Bautista-López, L F de la Cerda-Trujillo, L A Rea-Azpeitia, C R López-Lizarraga
INTRODUCTION: Gallstone ileus represents 4% of the causes of bowel obstruction in the general population, but increases to 25% in patients above the age of 65 years. Gallstone ileus does not present with unique symptoms, making diagnosis difficult. Its management is surgical, but there is no consensus as to which of the different surgical techniques is the procedure of choice. At present, there is no recent review of this pathology. AIM: To conduct an up-to-date review of this disease...
April 19, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430267/3d-cost-aggregation-with-multiple-minimum-spanning-trees-for-stereo-matching
#3
Lincheng Li, Xin Yu, Shunli Zhang, Xiaolin Zhao, Li Zhang
Cost aggregation is one of the key steps in the stereo matching problem. In order to improve aggregation accuracy, we propose a cost-aggregation method that can embed minimum spanning tree (MST)-based support region filtering into PatchMatch 3D label search rather than aggregating on fixed size patches. However, directly combining PatchMatch label search and MST filtering is not straightforward, due to the extremely high complexity. Thus, we develop multiple MST structures for cost aggregation on plenty of 3D labels, and design the tree-level random search strategy to find possible 3D labels of each pixel...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427475/protocol-a-systematic-review-of-studies-developing-and-or-evaluating-search-strategies-to-identify-prognosis-studies
#4
Nadia Corp, Joanne L Jordan, Jill A Hayden, Emma Irvin, Robin Parker, Andrea Smith, Danielle A van der Windt
BACKGROUND: Prognosis research is on the rise, its importance recognised because chronic health conditions and diseases are increasingly common and costly. Prognosis systematic reviews are needed to collate and synthesise these research findings, especially to help inform effective clinical decision-making and healthcare policy. A detailed, comprehensive search strategy is central to any systematic review. However, within prognosis research, this is challenging due to poor reporting and inconsistent use of available indexing terms in electronic databases...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423844/identifying-emerging-trends-in-medical-informatics-a-synthesis-approach
#5
Yasmin Van Kasteren, Patricia A H Williams, Anthony Maeder
Medical informatics is a young and rapidly evolving field, influenced by and impacting on many different knowledge domains. Recent contributions on scoping the associated body of knowledge are confounded both by variations in popular use of terminology for established areas, and by the advent of new areas without yet established terminology. Determining the scope of a topic through online bibliographic search filters is a well-established approach in scientific research and has been developed as a human-directed task...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419509/automatic-diagnosis-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-from-pap-smear-images
#6
M Momenzadeh, M Sehhati, A Mehri Dehnavi, A Talebi, H Rabbani
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most common genital infections that are seen every day in clinics. This infection is due to excessive growth of Candida that are normally present in the vagina in small numbers. Diagnosis of VVC is routinely done by direct microscopy of Pap smear samples and searching for the Candida in the Pap smear glass slides. This manual method is subjective, time consuming, labour-intensive and tedious. This study presents a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method to improve human diagnosis of VVC...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417557/a-multitarget-approach-toward-the-development-of-a-new-series-of-8-substituted-purines-for-photoprotection-and-prevention-of-ultra-violet-uv-related-damages
#7
Ernestine Nicaise Djuidje, Valeria Dissette, Alessia Bino, Simonetta Benetti, Jan Balzarini, Sandra Liekens, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani, Anna Baldisserotto
In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other skin diseases such as early photo-aging. Among solar radiation, ultraviolet (UV) is mainly responsible for inducing skin problems. In search of novel photoprotective purines, a new series of 8-substituted purines were synthesized from commercially available 6-hydroxy-4,5-diaminopyrimidine hemisulfate or 4,5-diaminopyrimidine. All the title compounds were investigated for their UV-filter, antioxidant, antifugal and antiproliferative activities...
April 18, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411342/mesh-fixation-in-endoscopic-inguinal-hernia-repair-evaluation-of-methodology-based-on-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-clinical-trials
#8
Hans Lederhuber, Franziska Stiede, Stephan Axer, Ursula Dahlstrand
BACKGROUND: The issue of mesh fixation in endoscopic inguinal hernia repair is frequently debated and still no conclusive data exist on differences between methods regarding long-term outcome and postoperative complications. The quantity of trials and the simultaneous lack of high-quality evidence raise the question how future trials should be planned. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched, using the filters "randomised clinical trials" and "humans"...
April 14, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410179/clinical-trial-electronic-portals-for-expedited-safety-reporting-recommendations-from-the-clinical-trials-transformation-initiative-investigational-new-drug-safety-advancement-project
#9
Raymond P Perez, Shanda Finnigan, Krupa Patel, Shanell Whitney, Annemarie Forrest
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic clinical trial portals has increased in recent years to assist with sponsor-investigator communication, safety reporting, and clinical trial management. Electronic portals can help reduce time and costs associated with processing paperwork and add security measures; however, there is a lack of information on clinical trial investigative staff's perceived challenges and benefits of using portals. OBJECTIVE: The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) sought to (1) identify challenges to investigator receipt and management of investigational new drug (IND) safety reports at oncologic investigative sites and coordinating centers and (2) facilitate adoption of best practices for communicating and managing IND safety reports using electronic portals...
December 15, 2016: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405945/the-comparative-risk-of-delirium-with-different-opioids-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Lieke M Swart, Vera van der Zanden, Petra E Spies, Sophia E de Rooij, Barbara C van Munster
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence that the use of opioids increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as delirium, but whether this risk differs between the various opioids remains controversial. In this systematic review, we evaluate and discuss possible differences in the risk of delirium from the use of various types of opioids in older patients. METHODS: We performed a search in MEDLINE by combining search terms on delirium and opioids. A specific search filter for use in geriatric medicine was used...
April 12, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399512/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-of-existing-policies-on-the-prevention-and-control-of-obesity-across-countries-in-africa
#11
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: The obesity epidemic is a public health challenge for all, including low-income countries. The behavioural patterns known to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence occur in an environmental context which is not conducive for healthy choices. A policy approach to obesity prevention constitutes a form of public intervention in that it extends beyond individuals to influence entire populations and is a mechanism for creating healthier environments. Little is known about obesity prevention policies in Africa...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388960/epidemiology-and-reporting-characteristics-of-overviews-of-reviews-of-healthcare-interventions-published-2012-2016-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#12
Dawid Pieper, Michelle Pollock, Ricardo M Fernandes, Roland Brian Büchter, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Overviews of systematic reviews (overviews) attempt to systematically retrieve and summarize the results of multiple systematic reviews (SRs) for a given condition or public health problem. Two prior descriptive analyses of overviews found substantial variation in the methodological approaches used in overviews, and deficiencies in reporting of key methodological steps. Since then, new methods have been developed so it is timely to update the prior descriptive analyses. The objectives are to: (1) investigate the epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 100 overviews published from 2012 to 2016 and (2) compare these recently published overviews (2012-2016) to those published prior to 2012 (based on the prior descriptive analyses)...
April 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387730/mimilook-a-phylogenetic-workflow-for-detection-of-gene-acquisition-in-major-orthologous-groups-of-megavirales
#13
Sourabh Jain, Arup Panda, Philippe Colson, Didier Raoult, Pierre Pontarotti
With the inclusion of new members, understanding about evolutionary mechanisms and processes by which members of the proposed order, Megavirales, have evolved has become a key area of interest. The central role of gene acquisition has been shown in previous studies. However, the major drawback in gene acquisition studies is the focus on few MV families or putative families with large variation in their genetic structure. Thus, here we have tried to develop a methodology by which we can detect horizontal gene transfers (HGTs), taking into consideration orthologous groups of distantly related Megavirale families...
April 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381820/molecular-mechanisms-of-mild-and-severe-pneumonia-insights-from-rna-sequencing
#14
Sai Huang, Cong Feng, Li Chen, Zhi Huang, Xuan Zhou, Bei Li, Li-Li Wang, Wei Chen, Fa-Qin Lv, Tan-Shi Li
BACKGROUND This study aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mild and severe pneumonia by use of mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). MATERIAL AND METHODS RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with mild pneumonia, severe pneumonia, and healthy controls. Sequencing was performed on the HiSeq4000 platform. After filtering, clean reads were mapped to the human reference genome hg19. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the control group and the mild or severe group...
April 6, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380786/joint-carrier-phase-and-frequency-offset-estimation-with-parallel-implementation-for-dual-polarization-coherent-receiver
#15
Jianing Lu, Xiang Li, Songnian Fu, Ming Luo, Meng Xiang, Huibin Zhou, Ming Tang, Deming Liu
We present dual-polarization complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood algorithm with superscalar parallelization (SSP-DP-CW-DA-ML) for joint carrier phase and frequency-offset estimation (FOE) in coherent optical receivers. By pre-compensation of the phase offset between signals in dual polarizations, the performance can be substantially improved. Meanwhile, with the help of modified SSP-based parallel implementation, the acquisition time of FO and the required number of training symbols are reduced by transferring the complex weights of the filters between adjacent buffers, where differential coding/decoding is not required...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371789/a-feature-selection-and-classification-algorithm-based-on-randomized-extraction-of-model-populations
#16
Aida Brankovic, Alessandro Falsone, Maria Prandini, Luigi Piroddi
We here introduce a novel classification approach adopted from the nonlinear model identification framework, which jointly addresses the feature selection (FS) and classifier design tasks. The classifier is constructed as a polynomial expansion of the original features and a selection process is applied to find the relevant model terms. The selection method progressively refines a probability distribution defined on the model structure space, by extracting sample models from the current distribution and using the aggregate information obtained from the evaluation of the population of models to reinforce the probability of extracting the most important terms...
March 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365309/identifying-quasi-experimental-qe-studies-to-inform-systematic-reviews-dec-20-2014
#17
Julie Glanville, John Eyers, Andrew M Jones, Ian Shemilt, Grace Wang, Marit Johansen, Michelle Fiander, Hannah Rothstein
OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the available evidence and guidance on methods to identify reports of quasi-experimental (QE) studies to inform systematic reviews of health care, public health, international development, education, crime and justice, and social welfare. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Research, guidance and examples of search strategies were identified by searching a range of databases, key guidance documents, selected reviews, conference proceedings and personal communication...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365240/using-electronic-health-records-to-build-an-ophthalmological-data-warehouse-and-visualize-patients-data
#18
Karsten U Kortüm, Michael Müller, Christoph Kern, Alexander Babenko, Wolfgang J Mayer, Anselm Kampik, Thomas C Kreutzer, Siegfried Priglinger, Christoph Hirneiss
PURPOSE: To develop a near real-time data warehouse (DW) in an academic ophthalmological center to gain scientific use of increasing digital data from electronic medical records (EMR) and diagnostic devices. Design; Database development METHODS: Specific macular clinic user interfaces within the institutional hospital information system were created. Orders for imaging modalities were sent by an EMR -linked picture-archiving and communications system to the respective devices. All data of 325,767 patients since 2002 were gathered in a DW running on a SQL database...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361689/avc-selecting-discriminative-features-on-basis-of-auc-by-maximizing-variable-complementarity
#19
Lei Sun, Jun Wang, Jinmao Wei
BACKGROUND: The Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve is well-known in evaluating classification performance in biomedical field. Owing to its superiority in dealing with imbalanced and cost-sensitive data, the ROC curve has been exploited as a popular metric to evaluate and find out disease-related genes (features). The existing ROC-based feature selection approaches are simple and effective in evaluating individual features. However, these approaches may fail to find real target feature subset due to their lack of effective means to reduce the redundancy between features, which is essential in machine learning...
March 14, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361671/using-the-entrapment-sequence-method-as-a-standard-to-evaluate-key-steps-of-proteomics-data-analysis-process
#20
Xiao-Dong Feng, Li-Wei Li, Jian-Hong Zhang, Yun-Ping Zhu, Cheng Chang, Kun-Xian Shu, Jie Ma
BACKGROUND: The mass spectrometry based technical pipeline has provided a high-throughput, high-sensitivity and high-resolution platform for post-genomic biology. Varied models and algorithms are implemented by different tools to improve proteomics data analysis. The target-decoy searching strategy has become the most popular strategy to control false identification in peptide and protein identifications. While this strategy can estimate the false discovery rate (FDR) within a dataset, it cannot directly evaluate the false positive matches in target identifications...
March 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
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