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"Temporal pole" hub

Martin J Chadwick, Raeesa S Anjum, Dharshan Kumaran, Daniel L Schacter, Hugo J Spiers, Demis Hassabis
Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gabriele Bellucci, Sergey Chernyak, Morris Hoffman, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Olga Dal Monte, Kristine M Knutson, Jordan Grafman, Frank Krueger
Third-party punishment (TPP) for norm violations is an essential deterrent in large-scale human societies, and builds on two essential cognitive functions: evaluating legal responsibility and determining appropriate punishment. Despite converging evidence that TPP is mediated by a specific set of brain regions, little is known about their effective connectivity (direction and strength of connections). Applying parametric event-related functional MRI in conjunction with multivariate Granger causality analysis, we asked healthy participants to estimate how much punishment a hypothetical perpetrator deserves for intentionally committing criminal offenses varying in levels of harm...
March 4, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Raffaella Migliaccio, Claire Boutet, Romain Valabregue, Sophie Ferrieux, Marie Nogues, Stéphane Lehéricy, Didier Dormont, Richard Levy, Bruno Dubois, Marc Teichmann
OBJECTIVE: Word finding depends on the processing of semantic and lexical information, and it involves an intermediate level for mapping semantic-to-lexical information which also subserves lexical-to-semantic mapping during word comprehension. However, the brain regions implementing these components are still controversial and have not been clarified via a comprehensive lesion model encompassing the whole range of language-related cortices. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), for which anomia is thought to be the most common sign, provides such a model, but the exploration of cortical areas impacting naming in its three main variants and the underlying processing mechanisms is still lacking...
2016: PloS One
Sonya Mehta, Kayo Inoue, David Rudrauf, Hanna Damasio, Daniel Tranel, Thomas Grabowski
Lesion-deficit studies support the hypothesis that the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a critical role in retrieving names of concrete entities. They further suggest that different regions of the left ATL process different conceptual categories. Here we test the specificity of these relationships and whether the anatomical segregation is related to the underlying organization of white matter connections. We reanalyzed data from a previous lesion study of naming and recognition across five categories of concrete entities...
February 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Corinna Pehrs, Jamil Zaki, Lorna H Schlochtermeier, Arthur M Jacobs, Lars Kuchinke, Stefan Koelsch
The temporal pole (TP) has been associated with diverse functions of social cognition and emotion processing. Although the underlying mechanism remains elusive, one possibility is that TP acts as domain-general hub integrating socioemotional information. To test this, 26 participants were presented with 60 empathy-evoking film clips during fMRI scanning. The film clips were preceded by a linguistic sad or neutral context and half of the clips were accompanied by sad music. In line with its hypothesized role, TP was involved in the processing of sad context and furthermore tracked participants' empathic concern...
November 24, 2015: Cerebral Cortex
Hao Yan, Lin Tian, Qifeng Wang, Qiang Zhao, Weihua Yue, Jun Yan, Bing Liu, Dai Zhang
Several lines of evidence suggest that efficient information integration between brain regions is disrupted in schizophrenia. Abnormalities in white matter tracts that interconnect brain regions may be directly relevant to this pathophysiological process. As a complex mental disorder with high heritability, mapping abnormalities in patients and their first-degree relatives may help to disentangle the risk factors for schizophrenia. We established a weighted network model of white matter connections using diffusion tensor imaging in 25 nuclear families with schizophrenic probands (19 patients and 41 unaffected parents) and two unrelated groups of normal controls (24 controls matched with patients and 26 controls matched with relatives)...
June 2015: Neuroscience Bulletin
A L Jouen, T M Ellmore, C J Madden, C Pallier, P F Dominey, J Ventre-Dominey
This research tests the hypothesis that comprehension of human events will engage an extended semantic representation system, independent of the input modality (sentence vs. picture). To investigate this, we examined brain activation and connectivity in 19 subjects who read sentences and viewed pictures depicting everyday events, in a combined fMRI and DTI study. Conjunction of activity in understanding sentences and pictures revealed a common fronto-temporo-parietal network that included the middle and inferior frontal gyri, the parahippocampal-retrosplenial complex, the anterior and middle temporal gyri, the inferior parietal lobe in particular the temporo-parietal cortex...
February 1, 2015: NeuroImage
Maria A Rocca, Paola Valsasina, Alessandro Meani, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
Aim of this study was to explore the topological organization of functional brain network connectivity in a large cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to assess whether its disruption contributes to disease clinical manifestations. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting state fMRI data from 246 MS patients and 55 matched healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity between 116 cortical and subcortical brain regions was estimated using a bivariate correlation analysis. Global network properties (network degree, global efficiency, hierarchy, path length and assortativity) were abnormal in MS patients vs HC, and contributed to distinguish cognitively impaired MS patients (34%) from HC, but not the main MS clinical phenotypes...
January 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Brielle M Paolini, Paul J Laurienti, James Norris, W Jack Rejeski
There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to "hot states" which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) that exists after a brief period of food restraint followed either by the consumption of a meal replacement (MR) or water...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Jubin Abutalebi, Matteo Canini, Pasquale A Della Rosa, Lo Ping Sheung, David W Green, Brendan S Weekes
Cerebral gray-matter volume (GMV) decreases in normal aging but the extent of the decrease may be experience-dependent. Bilingualism may be one protective factor and in this article we examine its potential protective effect on GMV in a region that shows strong age-related decreases-the left anterior temporal pole. This region is held to function as a conceptual hub and might be expected to be a target of plastic changes in bilingual speakers because of the requirement for these speakers to store and differentiate lexical concepts in 2 languages to guide speech production and comprehension processes...
September 2014: Neurobiology of Aging
Eric J Waldron, Kenneth Manzel, Daniel Tranel
The left temporal pole (LTP) has been posited to be a heteromodal hub for retrieving proper names for semantically unique entities. Previous investigations have demonstrated that LTP is important for retrieving names for famous faces and unique landmarks. However, whether such a relationship would hold for unique entities apprehended through stimulus modalities other than vision has not been well established, and such evidence is critical to adjudicate claims about the "heteromodal" nature of the LTP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the LTP would be important for naming famous voices...
2014: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Jixin Liu, Ling Zhao, Guoying Li, Shiwei Xiong, Jiaofen Nan, Jing Li, Kai Yuan, Karen M von Deneen, Fanrong Liang, Wei Qin, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the changes of brain structural and functional connectivity networks underlying the pathophysiology in migraine. We aimed to investigate how the cortical network reorganization is altered by frequent cortical overstimulation associated with migraine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gray matter volumes and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal correlations were employed to construct structural and functional networks between brain regions in 43 female patients with migraine (PM) and 43 gender-matched healthy controls (HC) by using graph theory-based approaches...
2012: PloS One
Chunming Xie, Feng Bai, Hui Yu, Yongmei Shi, Yonggui Yuan, Gang Chen, Wenjun Li, Guangyu Chen, Zhijun Zhang, Shi-Jiang Li
Abnormalities of functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) recently have been reported in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other psychiatric diseases. As such, these abnormalities may be epiphenomena instead of playing a causal role in AD progression. To date, few studies have investigated specific brain networks, which extend beyond the DMN involved in the early AD stages, especially in aMCI. The insula is one site affected by early pathological changes in AD and is a crucial hub of the human brain networks...
October 15, 2012: NeuroImage
Anna Alonso-Solís, Iluminada Corripio, Pilar de Castro-Manglano, Santiago Duran-Sindreu, Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Erika Proal, Fidel Nuñez-Marín, Cesar Soutullo, Enric Alvarez, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Clare Kelly, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Default network (DN) abnormalities have been identified in patients with chronic schizophrenia using "resting state" functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Here, we examined the integrity of the DN in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) compared with sex- and age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: We collected R-fMRI data from 19 FEP patients (mean age 24.9 ± 4.8 yrs, 14 males) and 19 healthy controls (26.1 ± 4.8 yrs, 14 males) at 3T...
August 2012: Schizophrenia Research
Kyrana Tsapkini, Constantine E Frangakis, Argye E Hillis
The role of the anterior temporal lobes in cognition and language has been much debated in the literature over the last few years. Most prevailing theories argue for an important role of the anterior temporal lobe as a semantic hub or a place for the representation of unique entities such as proper names of peoples and places. Lately, a few studies have investigated the role of the most anterior part of the left anterior temporal lobe, the left temporal pole in particular, and argued that the left anterior temporal pole is the area responsible for mapping meaning on to sound through evidence from tasks such as object naming...
October 2011: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Martijn P van den Heuvel, René C W Mandl, Cornelis J Stam, René S Kahn, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Brain regions are not independent. They are interconnected by white matter tracts, together forming one integrative complex network. The topology of this network is crucial for efficient information integration between brain regions. Here, we demonstrate that schizophrenia involves an aberrant topology of the structural infrastructure of the brain network. Using graph theoretical analysis, complex structural brain networks of 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 human healthy controls were examined. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to reconstruct the white matter connections of the brain network, with the strength of the connections defined as the level of myelination of the tracts as measured through means of magnetization transfer ratio magnetic resonance imaging...
November 24, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gorana Pobric, Elizabeth Jefferies, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The key question of how the brain codes the meaning of words and pictures is the focus of vigorous debate. Is there a "semantic hub" in the temporal poles where these different inputs converge to form amodal conceptual representations? Alternatively, are there distinct neural circuits that underpin our comprehension of pictures and words? Understanding words might be primarily left-lateralised, linked to other language areas, while semantic representation of pictures may be more bilateral. To elucidate this debate, we used offline, low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to disrupt neural processing temporarily in the left or right temporal poles...
April 2010: Neuropsychologia
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