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heavy metals

Dan Park, Aaron William Brewer, David W Reed, Philip Hageman, Laura Nielsen Lammers, Yongqin Jiao
The use of biomass for sorption of rare earth elements (REEs) has been the subject of many recent investigations. However, REE adsorption by bioengineered systems has been scarcely documented, and rarely tested with complex natural feedstocks. Herein, we engineered E. coli cells for enhanced cell surface-mediated extraction of REEs by functionalizing the OmpA protein with 16 copies of lanthanide binding tag (LBT). Through biosorption experiments conducted with leachates from metal-mine tailings and rare earth deposits, we show that functionalization of the cell surface with LBT yielded several notable advantages over the non-engineered control...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Weijie Mu, Kun Jia, Yan Liu, Xuming Pan, Yawen Fan
This study investigates the effects of copper and mercury on growth rate, chlorophyll a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, SOD mRNA gene expression, and frustule morphology of the benthic freshwater diatom Halamphora veneta (Kützing) Levkov and the potential utility of each for toxicity assessment in aquatic habitats. Results showed the following: (1) Compared to mercury, exposure to copper resulted in greater growth inhibition of H. veneta even at low concentrations and after short durations of exposure; (2) high accumulation of chlorophyll a in H...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Abdelhamid Talbi, Yacine Kerchich, Rabah Kerbachi, Ménouèr Boughedaoui
Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM1, PM2...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Paola Movalli, Peter Bode, René Dekker, Lorenzo Fornasari, Steven van der Mije, Reuven Yosef
This study examines the potential to use instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to explore temporal and geographical variation in exposure to heavy metals and other selected elements in common kestrel Falco tinnunculus using feathers from a natural history collection. The study gathered samples of two breast feathers from each of 16 adult male kestrel specimens from Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, collected in The Netherlands between 1901 and 2001. Feather samples were analysed for more than 50 elements, using INAA at the Reactor Institute Delft...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Di Zhang, Hui-Zhen Fu, Yuh-Shan Ho
A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and trends of the environmental monitoring from 1993 to 2012. Study emphases covered publication outputs, language, categories, journals, countries/territories, institutions, words, and hot issues. The results indicated that the annual output of environmental monitoring publications increased steadily. The environmental sciences and analytical chemistry were the two most common categories...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mirko Cucina, Chiara Tacconi, Anna Ricci, Daniela Pezzolla, Simone Sordi, Claudia Zadra, Giovanni Gigliotti
Industrial fermentations for the production of pharmaceuticals generate large volumes of wastewater that can be biologically treated to recover plant nutrients through the application of pharmaceutical-derived wastes to the soil. Nevertheless, benefits and risks associated with their recovery are still unexplored. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize three potential organic residues (sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost) derived from the wastewater generated by the daptomycin production process...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
B Kirthika Rani, S Abraham John
A highly selective and sensitive determination of Hg(2+) in water samples with bioimaging applications in living cells using a fluorogenic pyrene-amino mercapto thiadiazole (PYAMT) probe is described. The probe PYAMT exhibited three absorption peaks at 333, 348 and 394nm and emission maxima at 378, 388 and 397nm (λex=348nm). It showed significant fluorescent quenching (96%) with I/I0=0.051 upon the addition of 2.5μM Hg(2+) ion in CH3CN(ACN):H2O (1:1, v/v; pH 7.2), whereas its fluorescence remained unaltered in the presence of other metal ions...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Krailak Fakkaew, Thammarat Koottatep, Chongrak Polprasert
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be applied to convert faecal sludge into carbonaceous solids, called hydrochar. In this study, the technical feasibility of hydrochar production by HTC of faecal sludge was investigated. Experimental results showed energy contents of the produced hydrochar to be about 19-20 MJ/kg, comparable to natural coals and therefore usable as a solid fuel. The produced hydrochar contained a carbon content of approximately 40%wt, which could be processed further to make it suitable as an anode in batteries...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
D Fernández-Fuego, A Bertrand, A González
Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Thomas Friedrich Fässler, Kerstin Mayer, Jasmin Dums, Wilhelm Klein
The new [SnBi3]5- polyanion is obtained by the reaction of K3Bi2 with K4Sn9 or K12Sn17 in liquid ammonia. The anion is iso(valence)electronic with and structurally analogous to the carbonate ion. Despite the high negative charge of the anion, the Sn-Bi bond lengths range between single and double bonds. Quantum-chemical calculations at a DFT-PBE0/def2-TZVPP/COSMO level of theory reveal that the partial double bond character between the heavy main group atoms Bi and Sn originates from a delocalized π-electronic system...
September 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Fehmi Burak Alkas, Jehad Abdullah Shaban, Ayca Aktas Sukuroglu, Mehmet Ali Kurt, Dilek Battal, Sahan Saygi
The presence of heavy metals/metalloids in the ecosystem has been an increasing ecological and global public health concern due to their potential to cause adverse health effects. For this reason, the accumulation of some heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Pb was assessed by way of ICP-MS in water, sediment and fish (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from Gonyeli Lake, North Cyprus. The results showed that these metals/metalloids are found widespread throughout the study area. In water, most concentrated element was manganese with 92...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Cédric Gonneau, Kinsey Miller, Sanjay K Mohanty, Rengyi Xu, Wei-Ting Hwang, Jane K Willenbring, Brenda B Casper
We examine the feasibility of phytoremediation as an alternative strategy to limit the exposure of asbestos in site with asbestos-containing materials. We collected soils from four locations from two sites-one with naturally occurring asbestos, and another, a superfund site, where asbestos-containing materials were disposed over decades-and performed ecotoxicology tests. We also performed two experiments with crop cultivar and two grasses from serpentine ecotype and cultivar to determined best choice for phytoremediation...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shichao Zhang, Hong Yao, Yintao Lu, Xiaohua Yu, Jing Wang, Shaobin Sun, Mingli Liu, Desheng Li, Yi-Fan Li, Dayi Zhang
By investigating the uptake of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and five heavy metals from soils to maize at the farmlands with industrial wastewater irrigation, this study revealed the effects of heavy metals on PAHs uptake in terms of co-contamination. The results of 15 investigated soils showed medium contamination level and the vertical PAHs distribution in soils indicated that 2-3 rings PAHs with low octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow < 4.5) were easier to transport in soils, causing a great potential risk immigrating to the groundwater...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nidhi Sahu, Abhinav Sharma, Priyanka Mishra, B Chandrashekhar, Ganesh Sharma, Atya Kapley, R A Pandey
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of kitchen waste (KW) for biogas production is a major challenge to all over the world due to significant compositional variations in KW, such as different types and quantities of spices used for preparing food. Spices may affect the AD process owing to their antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the effect of spices (garlic, red chili, cinnamon, coriander, clove, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper) on AD of KW has been investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the maximum biogas production potential, methane production rate and lag phase for biogas production...
September 19, 2017: Waste Management
Deyi Hou, David O'Connor, Paul Nathanail, Li Tian, Yan Ma
Heavy metal soil contamination is associated with potential toxicity to humans or ecotoxicity. Scholars have increasingly used a combination of geographical information science (GIS) with geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis techniques to examine the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils at a regional scale. A review of such studies showed that most soil sampling programs were based on grid patterns and composite sampling methodologies. Many programs intended to characterize various soil types and land use types...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Maja Turk Sekulić, Sabolč Pap, Zoran Stojanović, Nikola Bošković, Jelena Radonić, Tatjana Šolević Knudsen
This paper investigates the ability of the phosphoric acid functionalized Prunus armeniaca stones biochar (AsPhA) prepared by thermochemical activation to remove lead (Pb(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), naproxen and chlorophenols from aqueous wastes. The engineered biochar was characterized using the Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller technique. The batch studies were performed by varying the initial pH of the solution (2-9), adsorbent dosage (0...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nouf Abdulkareem Omer Alkharashi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A Alshatwi
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic and widely distributed heavy metal that induces various diseases in humans through environmental exposure. Therefore, alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity in living organisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the protective role of sulforaphane on Cd-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Sulforaphane did not show any major reduction in the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. However, Cd treatment at a concentration of 50μM induced around 69% cell death...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Markus J Tamás, Bruno Fauvet, Philipp Christen, Pierre Goloubinoff
Cadmium is a highly poisonous metal and a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its cellular toxicity are not fully understood. Recent findings in yeast cells indicate that cadmium exerts its deleterious effects by inducing widespread misfolding and aggregation of nascent proteins. Here, we discuss this novel mode of toxic heavy metal action and propose a mechanism by which molecular chaperones may reduce the damaging effects of heavy metal ions on protein structures.
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Julia Richter, Marie Ploderer, Gaëlle Mongelard, Laurent Gutierrez, Marie-Theres Hauser
Cell walls are not only a protective barrier surrounding protoplasts but serve as signaling platform between the extracellular environment and the intracellular physiology. Ions of heavy metals and trace elements, summarized to metal ions, bind to cell wall components, trigger their modification and provoke growth responses. To examine if metal ions trigger cell wall sensing receptor like kinases (RLKs) of the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L) family we employed a molecular genetic approach. Quantitative transcription analyses show that HERCULES1 (HERK1), THESEUS1 (THE1), and FERONIA (FER) were differently regulated by cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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