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heavy metals

He Wang, Yongfeng Jia
The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. Adsorption (ADS) and coprecipitation (CPT) on amorphous metal hydroxides are important processes, controlling the fates of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. This work studied the bioavailability of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Pb adsorbed on and/or coprecipitated with amorphous iron and iron/aluminum mixed hydroxides to the wetland plant Phragmites australis. After a 13-day treatment, there was an apparent uptake of the heavy metals by the plant, and the amount of metal bioaccumulation was measurably different for different association forms (ADS vs...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jangsun Hwang, Mintai P Hwang, Moonhyun Choi, Youngmin Seo, Yeonho Jo, Jaewoo Son, Jinkee Hong, Jonghoon Choi
Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu(2+)), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu(2+) at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mitchell K Monninger, Chrystal A Nguessan, Candace D Blancett, Kathleen A Kuehl, Cynthia A Rossi, Scott P Olschner, Priscilla L Williams, Steven L Goodman, Mei G Sun
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the image is created by passing an electron beam through a specimen with contrast generated by electron scattering from dense elements in the specimen. Viruses do not normally contain dense elements, so a negative stain that places dense heavy metal salts around the sample is added to create a dark border. To prepare a virus sample for a negative stain transmission electron microscopy, a virus suspension is applied to a TEM grid specimen support, which is a 3mm diameter fragile specimen screen coated with a few nanometers of plastic film...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Xie-Feng Yao, Jiu-Ming Zhang, Li Tian, Jian-Hua Guo
In this study, determination of heavy metal parameters and microbiological characterization of marine sediments obtained from two heavily polluted sites and one low-grade contaminated reference station at Jiaozhou Bay in China were carried out. The microbial communities found in the sampled marine sediments were studied using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) fingerprinting profiles in combination with multivariate analysis. Clustering analysis of DGGE and matrix of heavy metals displayed similar occurrence patterns...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor M Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Soil pollution by heavy metals/metalloids (HMMs) is a problem worldwide. To prevent dispersion of contaminated particles by erosion, the maintenance of a vegetative cover is needed. Successful plant establishment in multi-polluted soils can be hampered not only by HMM toxicities, but also by soil nutrient deficiencies and the co-occurrence of abiotic stresses. Some plant species are able to thrive under these multi-stress scenarios often linked to marked fluctuations in environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments involved in Zygophyllum fabago acclimative responses to conditions prevailing in HMM-enriched mine-tailings piles, during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jiang Zhu, Wen-Shu Wang, Dan Ma, Lin-Yu Zhang, Feng Ren, Ting-Ting Yuan
Protein kinase CK2, which consists of two α and two β subunits, plays an essential role in plant development and is implicated in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt and heat. However, the function of CK2 in response to heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) has not yet been established. In this study, the transgenic line CKB4ox, which overexpresses CKB4 encoding the CK2β subunit and has elevated CK2 activity, was used to investigate the potential role of CK2 in response to Cd stress in Arabidopsis thaliana...
October 8, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Hassan Mirmonsef, Hanne D Hornum, John Jensen, Martin Holmstrup
Contaminated soil is a problem throughout the industrialized world, and a significant proportion of these sites are polluted with heavy metals such as copper. Ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites requires ecotoxicological studies with spiked soils as well as in-situ ecological observations. Here, we report laboratory and field assessment of copper toxicity for earthworms at a Danish site (Hygum) exclusively contaminated with an increasing gradient in copper from background to highly toxic levels (>1000mgkg(-1) dry soil)...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ivana Tlak Gajger, Marina Kosanović, Nina Bilandžić, Marija Sedak, Bruno Čalopek
Beeswax foundations are a necessary material in intensive modern beekeeping. Heavy metals can accumulate in these foundations for decades, as it is a common beekeeping practice to recycle wax. Beeswax samples were analysed using GFAAS for As, Cd, Pb, and Hg concentrations during the production of beeswax foundations using casting technology with a prolonged cooling and sedimentation phase. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of As, Cd, Pb (p<0.01, all), and Hg (p<0.05) between the three levels of wax in a double-walled steel casting container and comb foundations (CF) during the processing stage...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Vladica Čudić, Dragoslava Stojiljković, Aleksandar Jovović
Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Kevin J Sheridan, Beatrix Elisabeth Lechner, Grainne O' Keeffe, Markus A Keller, Ernst R Werner, Herbert Lindner, Gary W Jones, Hubertus Haas, Sean Doyle
Ergothioneine (EGT; 2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine) is a trimethylated and sulphurised histidine derivative which exhibits antioxidant properties. Here we report that deletion of Aspergillus fumigatus egtA (AFUA_2G15650), which encodes a trimodular enzyme, abrogated EGT biosynthesis in this opportunistic pathogen. EGT biosynthetic deficiency in A. fumigatus significantly reduced resistance to elevated H2O2 and menadione, respectively, impaired gliotoxin production and resulted in attenuated conidiation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrea Buffa, Yigal Erel, Daniel Mandler
A flow-through electrode made of a carbon nanotubes (CNT) film deposited on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was assembled and employed for the determination of low concentration of copper as a model system by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV). CNT films with areal mass ranging from 0.12 to 0.72 mg cm-2 were characterized by measurement of sheet resistance, water permeation flux and capacitance. Moreover, CNT with two different sizes and PTFE membrane with two different pore diameters (0...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Soumitra Shome, Anupam Das Talukdar, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Mrinal Kanti Bhattacharya, Hrishikesh Upadhyaya
OBJECTIVES: Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems can resolve the poor bioavailability issue allied with curcumin. The therapeutic potential of curcumin can be enhanced by making nanocomposite preparation of curcumin with metal oxide nanoparticles, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles and solid lipid nanoparticles that increases its bioavailability in the tissue. KEY FINDINGS: Curcumin has manifold therapeutic effects which include antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Qiang Wang, Liping Huang, Yuzhen Pan, Xie Quan, Gianluca Li Puma
The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO4(-)) and dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Shoriya Aruni Abdul Manaf, Gurumurthy Hedge, Uttam Kumar Mandal, Wong Tin Wui, Partha Roy
BACKGROUND: Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. OBJECTIVE: The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. METHODS: This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique...
October 17, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Xihui Xu, Zhou Zhang, Shunli Hu, Zhepu Ruan, Jiandong Jiang, Chen Chen, Zhenguo Shen
Soil provides a critical environment for microbial community development. However, microorganisms may be sensitive to substances such as heavy metals (HMs), which are common soil contaminants. This study investigated bacterial communities using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment sequencing in geographic regions with and without HM pollution to elucidate the effects of soil properties and HMs on bacterial communities. No obvious changes in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities were observed between samples from mining and control areas...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anita Giglio, Anna Ammendola, Silvia Battistella, Attilio Naccarato, Alberto Pallavicini, Enrico Simeon, Antonio Tagarelli, Piero Giulio Giulianini
Honeybees have become important tools for the ecotoxicological assessment of soil, water and air metal contamination due to their extraordinary capacity to bioaccumulate toxic metals from the environment. The level of heavy metal pollution in the Trieste city was monitored using foraging bees of Apis mellifera ligustica from hives owned by beekeepers in two sites strategically located in the suburban industrial area and urban ones chosen as control. The metal concentration in foraging bees was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Y Lin, W Zhao, Z D Shi, H R Gu, X T Zhang, X Ji, X T Zou, J S Gong, W Yao
Meat duck deep litter is considered to be an ideal environment for the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance if it is under poor management. The aim of this study was to characterize the accumulation of antibiotics and heavy metals in the deep litter and their role in the persistence of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli, and evaluate the service life of the deep litter. Samples were collected from initial, middle, and final stages of deep litter within 3 barns (zero, 4, and 8 rounds of meat duck fattening, d 34) and 9 flocks, with known consumption of antibiotics in the controlled trail...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Musong Chen, Shiming Ding, Liping Zhang, Yangyang Li, Qin Sun, Chaosheng Zhang
Excessive phosphorus (P) input plays an important role on the release of heavy metals in sediments under the eutrophic environment. In this study, a microcosm experiment with 40-day incubation using homogenized sediments was performed to investigate this aspect at a millimeter resolution. Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) and dialysis (Peeper) techniques were employed to simultaneously measure labile and dissolved P, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co and Ni in sediments at a millimeter scale, respectively. The results showed that an increase of water P from 0...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Zhou, Jing Liu, Faqin Dong
Mackinawite (FeS), widespread in low temperature aquatic environments, is generally considered to be the first Fe sulfide formed in sedimentary environments which has shown effective immobilization of heavy metals and toxic oxyanions through various sorption reactions. The spectroscopic study researches on mackinawite formed by FRB and SRB and its environmental implication for in-situ remediation of acid mine drainage where contains large amounts of Fe(3+) and SO4(2-). The XRD result of biologically synthetic particles shows that these particles are mainly composed of mackinawite (FeS0...
September 29, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Yugao Guo, He Zhao, Yelin Han, Xia Liu, Shan Guan, Qingyin Zhang, Xihui Bian
A simultaneous spectrophotometric determination method for trace heavy metal ions based on solid-phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches was developed. In the proposed method, trace metal ions in aqueous samples were adsorbed by cation exchange fibers and desorbed by acidic solution from the fibers. After the ion preconcentration process, the enriched solution was detected by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). Then, the concentration of heavy metal ions were quantified by analyzing ultraviolet and visible spectrum with the help of partial least squares (PLS) approaches...
October 6, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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