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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527384/embracing-the-enemy-the-diversification-of-microbial-gene-repertoires-by-phage-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer
#1
REVIEW
Marie Touchon, Jorge A Moura de Sousa, Eduardo Pc Rocha
Bacteriophages and archaeal viruses contribute, through lysogenic conversion or transduction, to the horizontal transfer of genetic material between microbial genomes. Recent genomics, metagenomics, and single cell studies have shown that lysogenic conversion is widespread and provides hosts with adaptive traits often associated with biotic interactions. The quantification of the evolutionary impact of transduction has lagged behind and requires further theoretical and experimental work. Nevertheless, recent studies suggested that generalized transduction plays a role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and in the acquisition of novel genes during intra-specific bacterial competition...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526816/delineation-of-b-cell-epitopes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-hemolysin-e-potential-antibody-therapeutic-target
#2
Chai Fung Chin, Jing Yi Lai, Yee Siew Choong, Amy Amilda Anthony, Asma Ismail, Theam Soon Lim
Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critical to identify key immunogenic regions of HlyE. A random 20-mer peptide library was used for biopanning with enriched anti-HlyE polyclonal antibodies from typhoid patient sera. Bioinformatic tools were used to refine, analyze and map the enriched peptide sequences against the protein to identify the epitopes. The analysis identified both linear and conformational epitopes on the HlyE protein...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#3
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523910/dense-layer-of-bacteriophages-ordered-in-alternating-electric-field-and-immobilized-by-surface-chemical-modification-as-sensing-element-for-bacteria-detection
#4
Łukasz Richter, Krzysztof Bielec, Adam Lesniewski, Marcin Łoś, Jan Paczesny, Robert Holyst
Faster and more sensitive environmental monitoring should be developed to face the worldwide problem of bacterial infections. To remedy this issue we demonstrate bacteria sensing element, which utilizes dense and ordered layers of bacteriophages specific for given bacteria strain. We combine 1) chemical modification of the surface to increase the surface coverage of bacteriophages 2) with alternating electric field to greatly increase the number of properly oriented bacteriophages at the surface. Usually in sensing elements a random orientation of bacteriophages results in steric hindrances, which cause that no more than few percent of all receptors is available...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522818/efficient-modification-of-%C3%AE-dna-substrates-for-single-molecule-studies
#5
Yoori Kim, Armando de la Torre, Andrew A Leal, Ilya J Finkelstein
Single-molecule studies of protein-nucleic acid interactions frequently require site-specific modification of long DNA substrates. The bacteriophage λ is a convenient source of high quality long (48.5 kb) DNA. However, introducing specific sequences, tertiary structures, and chemical modifications into λ-DNA remains technically challenging. Most current approaches rely on multi-step ligations with low yields and incomplete products. Here, we describe a molecular toolkit for rapid preparation of modified λ-DNA...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522702/complete-genome-sequence-of-escherichia-coli-phage-vb_ecom_alf5
#6
Laurynas Alijošius, Eugenijus Šimoliūnas, Laura Kaliniene, Rolandas Meškys, Lidija Truncaitė
Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Escherichia coli myophage vB_EcoM_Alf5 belonging to the genus Felixo1virus, whose members have not been comprehensively studied at the molecular level. Phage vB_EcoM_Alf5 infects E. coli K-12-derived laboratory strains and therefore is well suited for functional studies.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515656/isolation-and-characterization-of-listeria-phages-for-control-of-growth-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-milk
#7
Sunhee Lee, Min Gon Kim, Hee Soo Lee, Sunhak Heo, Mirae Kwon, GeunBae Kim
In this study, two Listeria bacteriophages, LMP1 and LMP7, were isolated from chicken feces as a means of biocontrol of L. monocytogenes. Both bacteriophages had a lytic effect on L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644, 15313, 19114, and 19115. Phages LMP1 and LMP7 were able to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and 19114 in tryptic soy broth at 10°C and 30°C. Nevertheless, LMP1 was more effective than LMP7 at inhibiting L. monocytogenes ATCC 19114. On the contrary, LMP7 was more effective than LMP1 at inhibiting L...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515479/acquisition-of-virulence-factors-in-livestock-associated-mrsa-lysogenic-conversion-of-cc398-strains-by-virulence-gene-containing-phages
#8
Britta Kraushaar, Jens Andre Hammerl, Marina Kienöl, Marie Luise Heinig, Nina Sperling, Mai Dinh Thanh, Jochen Reetz, Claudia Jäckel, Alexandra Fetsch, Stefan Hertwig
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains belonging to the clonal complex 398 (CC398) are highly prevalent in livestock and companion animals but may also cause serious infections in humans. CC398 strains in livestock usually do not possess well-known virulence factors that can be frequently found in other MRSA sequence types (ST). Since many staphylococcal virulence genes are residing on the genomes of temperate phages, the question arises why livestock-associated (LA-) CC398 strains are only rarely infected by those phages...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513737/dimeric-and-trimeric-derivatives-of-the-azinomycin-b-chromophore-show-enhanced-dna-binding
#9
Milena Balazy, Alejandra Fausto, Christina Voskanian, Bianca Chavez, Harmanpreet Panesar, Thomas G Minehan
To explore the utility of the azinomycin B chromophore as a platform for the development of major-groove binding small molecules, we have prepared a series of 3-methoxy-5-methylnaphthalene derivatives containing diamine, triamine, and carbohydrate linker moieties. All bis- and tris-azinomycin derivatives are intercalators that display submicromolar binding affinities for calf-thymus DNA, as revealed by viscometry measurements and fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assays, respectively. Although the tightest binding ligand 1d (Ka = 2...
May 17, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513100/function-of-bacteriophage-g7c-esterase-tailspike-in-host-cell-adsorption
#10
Nikolai S Prokhorov, Cristian Riccio, Evelina L Zdorovenko, Mikhail M Shneider, Christopher Browning, Yuriy A Knirel, Petr G Leiman, Andrey V Letarov
Bacteriophages recognize and bind to their hosts with the help of receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) that emanate from the phage particle in the form of fibers or tailspikes. RBPs show a great variability in their shapes, sizes, and location on the particle. Some RBPs are known to depolymerize surface polysaccharides of the host while others show no enzymatic activity. Here we report that both RBPs of podovirus G7C - tailspikes gp63.1 and gp66 - are essential for infection of its natural host bacterium E. coli 4s that populates the equine intestinal tract...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512627/laboratory-mice-are-frequently-colonized-with-staphylococcus-aureus-and-mount-a-systemic-immune-response-note-of-caution-for-in-vivo-infection-experiments
#11
Daniel Schulz, Dorothee Grumann, Patricia Trübe, Kathleen Pritchett-Corning, Sarah Johnson, Kevin Reppschläger, Janine Gumz, Nandakumar Sundaramoorthy, Stephan Michalik, Sabine Berg, Jens van den Brandt, Richard Fister, Stefan Monecke, Benedict Uy, Frank Schmidt, Barbara M Bröker, Siouxsie Wiles, Silva Holtfreter
Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512219/energetic-cost-of-building-a-virus
#12
Gita Mahmoudabadi, Ron Milo, Rob Phillips
Viruses are incapable of autonomous energy production. Although many experimental studies make it clear that viruses are parasitic entities that hijack the molecular resources of the host, a detailed estimate for the energetic cost of viral synthesis is largely lacking. To quantify the energetic cost of viruses to their hosts, we enumerated the costs associated with two very distinct but representative DNA and RNA viruses, namely, T4 and influenza. We found that, for these viruses, translation of viral proteins is the most energetically expensive process...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511109/sensitive-detection-of-viable-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-from-foods-using-a-luciferase-reporter-phage-phiv10lux
#13
Jinwoo Kim, Minsik Kim, Seongmi Kim, Sangryeol Ryu
Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major foodborne pathogen, is a major public health concern associated with life-threatening diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. To alleviate this burden, a sensitive and rapid system is required to detect this pathogen in various kinds of foods. Herein, we propose a phage-based pathogen detection method to replace laborious and time-consuming conventional methods. We engineered an E. coli O157:H7-specific phage phiV10 to rapidly and sensitively detect this notorious pathogen...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510021/molecular-assembly-and-structure-of-the-bacteriophage-t4-tail
#14
REVIEW
Fumio Arisaka, Moh Lan Yap, Shuji Kanamaru, Michael G Rossmann
The tail of bacteriophage T4 undergoes large structural changes upon infection while delivering the phage genome into the host cell. The baseplate is located at the distal end of the contractile tail and plays a central role in transmitting the signal to the tail sheath that the tailfibers have been adsorbed by a host bacterium. This then triggers the sheath contraction. In order to understand the mechanism of assembly and conformational changes of the baseplate upon infection, we have determined the structure of an in vitro assembled baseplate through the three-dimensional reconstruction of cryo-electron microscopy images to a resolution of 3...
December 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509398/the-multi-component-antirestriction-system-of-phage-p1-is-linked-to-capsid-morphogenesis
#15
Denish Piya, Leonardo Vara, William K Russell, Ry Young, Jason J Gill
Bacterial Type I restriction-modification (R-M) systems present a major barrier to foreign DNA entering the bacterial cell. The temperate phage P1 packages several proteins into the virion that protect the phage DNA from host restriction. Isogenic P1 deletion mutants were used to reconstitute the previously described restriction phenotypes associated with darA and darB. While P1ΔdarA and P1ΔdarB produced the expected phenotypes, deletions of adjacent genes hdf and ddrA also produced darA-like phenotypes and deletion of ulx produced a darB-like phenotype, implicating several new proteins of previously unknown function in the P1 dar antirestriction system...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507156/rna-primer-primase-complexes-serve-as-the-signal-for-polymerase-recycling-and-okazaki-fragment-initiation-in-t4-phage-dna-replication
#16
Michelle M Spiering, Philip Hanoian, Swathi Gannavaram, Stephen J Benkovic
The opposite strand polarity of duplex DNA necessitates that the leading strand is replicated continuously whereas the lagging strand is replicated in discrete segments known as Okazaki fragments. The lagging-strand polymerase sometimes recycles to begin the synthesis of a new Okazaki fragment before finishing the previous fragment, creating a gap between the Okazaki fragments. The mechanism and signal that initiate this behavior-that is, the signaling mechanism-have not been definitively identified. We examined the role of RNA primer-primase complexes left on the lagging ssDNA from primer synthesis in initiating early lagging-strand polymerase recycling...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505134/a-novel-roseosiphophage-isolated-from-the-oligotrophic-south-china-sea
#17
Yunlan Yang, Lanlan Cai, Ruijie Ma, Yongle Xu, Yigang Tong, Yong Huang, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Zhang
The Roseobacter clade is abundant and widespread in marine environments and plays an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycling. In this present study, a lytic siphophage (labeled vB_DshS-R5C) infecting the strain type of Dinoroseobacter shibae named DFL12(T), which is part of the Roseobacter clade, was isolated from the oligotrophic South China Sea. Phage R5C showed a narrow host range, short latent period and low burst size. The genome length of phage R5C was 77, 874 bp with a G+C content of 61.5%. Genomic comparisons detected no genome matches in the GenBank database and phylogenetic analysis based on DNA polymerase I revealed phylogenetic features that were distinct to other phages, suggesting the novelty of R5C...
May 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503119/targeting-hiv-1-envelope-proteins-using-a-fragment-discovery-all-atom-computational-algorithm
#18
Michael H Peters
INTRODUCTION: HIV viral envelope proteins are targets for small inhibitor molecules aimed at disrupting the cellular entry process. Potential peptide-class inhibitor molecules (rDNA drugs) have been previously identified, with mixed results, through biomimicry and phage display experimental methods. Here we describe a new approach based on computational fragment discovery. The method has the potential to not only optimize peptide binding affinity but also to rapidly produce alternative inhibitors against mutated strains...
April 2017: Current Enzyme Inhibition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502784/liposome-loaded-phage-cocktail-enhanced-therapeutic-potential-in-resolving-klebsiella-pneumoniae-mediated-burn-wound-infections
#19
Parul Chadha, Om Prakash Katare, Sanjay Chhibber
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the predominant pathogens in burn wound infections, and prevalence of multidrug resistant strains has further complicated the situation. An increased interest in phage therapy as a means of combating infection has been accruing in recent years. In order to overcome the drawbacks associated with phage therapy, the present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of liposomes as a delivery vehicle for phage in the treatment of burn wound infection...
May 11, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500531/tubulin-like-proteins-in-prokaryotic-dna-positioning
#20
Gero Fink, Christopher H S Aylett
A family of tubulin-related proteins (TubZs) has been identified in prokaryotes as being important for the inheritance of virulence plasmids of several pathogenic Bacilli and also being implicated in the lysogenic life cycle of several bacteriophages. Cell biological studies and reconstitution experiments revealed that TubZs function as prokaryotic cytomotive filaments, providing one-dimensional motive forces. Plasmid-borne TubZ filaments most likely transport plasmid centromeric complexes by depolymerisation, pulling on the plasmid DNA, in vitro...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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