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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213104/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-virulent-bacteriophage-infecting-acinetobacter-johnsonii-from-activated-sludge
#1
Niansi Fan, Rong Qi, Min Yang
A double-stranded DNA phage named AJO1, infecting Acinetobacter johnsonii, which plays an important role in wastewater treatment, was isolated from activated sludge in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. Based on morphological taxonomy, AJO1, with an icosahedral head 55 ± 2 nm in diameter and a non-contractile tail 8 ± 2 nm in length, was classified as a member of the Podoviridae family. Bacterial infection characteristics were as follows: no polyvalent infectivity, optimal multiplicity of infection of 10(-2); eclipse and burst size of 30 min and 51...
February 14, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212322/detection-of-salmonella-typhimurium-on-spinach-using-phage-based-magnetoelastic-biosensors
#2
Fengen Wang, Shin Horikawa, Jiajia Hu, Howard C Wikle, I-Hsuan Chen, Songtao Du, Yuzhe Liu, Bryan A Chin
Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors have been studied as an in-situ, real-time, wireless, direct detection method of foodborne pathogens in recent years. This paper investigates an ME biosensor method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. A procedure to obtain a concentrated suspension of Salmonella from contaminated spinach leaves is described that is based on methods outlined in the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual for the detection of Salmonella on leafy green vegetables...
February 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211904/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-deep-sea-thermophilic-bacteriophage-gve2-hnh-endonuclease
#3
Likui Zhang, Dandan Xu, Yanchao Huang, Xinyuan Zhu, Mianwen Rui, Ting Wan, Xin Zheng, Yulong Shen, Xiangdong Chen, Kesen Ma, Yong Gong
HNH endonucleases in bacteriophages play a variety of roles in the phage lifecycle as key components of phage DNA packaging machines. The deep-sea thermophilic bacteriophage Geobacillus virus E2 (GVE2) encodes an HNH endonuclease (GVE2 HNHE). Here, the crystal structure of GVE2 HNHE is reported. This is the first structural study of a thermostable HNH endonuclease from a thermophilic bacteriophage. Structural comparison reveals that GVE2 HNHE possesses a typical ββα-metal fold and Zn-finger motif similar to those of HNH endonucleases from other bacteriophages, apart from containing an extra α-helix, suggesting conservation of these enzymes among bacteriophages...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211522/structure-and-polymorphisms-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-the-oriental-stork-ciconia-boyciana
#4
Hiroki Tsuji, Yukio Taniguchi, Shintaro Ishizuka, Hirokazu Matsuda, Takahisa Yamada, Kazuaki Naito, Hiroaki Iwaisaki
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is highly polymorphic and plays a central role in the vertebrate immune system. Despite its functional consistency, the MHC genomic structure differs substantially among organisms. In birds, the MHCs of Galliformes and the Japanese crested ibis (Pelecaniformes) are well-characterized, but information about other avian MHCs remains scarce. The Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana, order Ciconiiformes) is a large endangered migrant. The current Japanese population of this bird originates from a few founders; thus, understanding the genetic diversity among them is critical for effective population management...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210247/genome-insight-and-comparative-pathogenomic-analysis-of-nesterenkonia-jeotgali-strain-cd08_7-isolated-from-duodenal-mucosa-of-celiac-disease-patient
#5
Atul M Chander, Ramesan G Nair, Gurwinder Kaur, Rakesh Kochhar, Devinder K Dhawan, Sanjay K Bhadada, Shanmugam Mayilraj
Species of the genus Nesterenkonia have been isolated from different ecological niches, especially from saline habitats and reported as weak human pathogens causing asymptomatic bacteraemia. Here, for the first time we are reporting the genome sequence and pathogenomic analysis of a strain designated as CD08_7 isolated from the duodenal mucosa of a celiac disease patient, identified as Nesterenkonia jeotgali. To date, only five strains of the genus Nesterenkonia (N. massiliensis strain NP1(T), Nesterenkonia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210242/biocidal-inactivation-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacteriophages-efficacy-and-targets-of-commonly-used-sanitizers
#6
Stephen Hayes, James Murphy, Jennifer Mahony, Gabriele A Lugli, Marco Ventura, Jean-Paul Noben, Charles M A P Franz, Horst Neve, Arjen Nauta, Douwe Van Sinderen
Lactococcus lactis strains, being intensely used in the dairy industry, are particularly vulnerable to members of the so-called 936 group of phages. Sanitization and disinfection using purpose-made biocidal solutions is a critical step in controlling phage contamination in such dairy processing plants. The susceptibility of 36 936 group phages to biocidal treatments was examined using 14 biocides and commercially available sanitizers. The targets of a number of these biocides were investigated by means of electron microscopic and proteomic analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208254/electrochemical-detection-of-escherichia-coli-from-aqueous-samples-using-engineered-phages
#7
Danhui Wang, Juhong Chen, Sam R Nugen
In this study, an enzyme-based electrochemical method was developed for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using the T7 bacteriophages engineered with lacZ operon encoding for beta-galactosidase (β-gal). The T7lacZ phages can infect E. coli, and have the ability to trigger the overexpression of β-gal during the infection of E. coli. The use of the engineered phages resulted in a more sensitive detection of E. coli by (1) overexpression of β-gal in E. coli during the specific infection and (2) release of the endogenous intracellular β-gal from E...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208072/identification-of-triosephosphate-isomerase-as-a-novel-allergen-in-octopus-fangsiao
#8
Yang Yang, Zhong-Wei Chen, Barry K Hurlburt, Gui-Ling Li, Yong-Xia Zhang, Dan-Xia Fei, Hai-Wang Shen, Min-Jie Cao, Guang-Ming Liu
Octopus is an important mollusk in human dietary for its nutritional value, however it also causes allergic reactions in humans. Major allergens from octopus have been identified, while the knowledge of novel allergens remains poor. In the present study, a novel allergen with molecular weight of 28kDa protein was purified from octopus (Octopus fangsiao) and identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) by mass spectrometry. TIM aggregated beyond 45°C, and its IgE-binding activity was affected under extreme pH conditions due to the altered secondary structure...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207864/characterisation-and-genome-sequence-of-the-lytic-acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteriophage-vb_abas_loki
#9
Dann Turner, Matthew E Wand, Yves Briers, Rob Lavigne, J Mark Sutton, Darren M Reynolds
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in healthcare and community settings. While over 100 of Acinetobacter phages have been described in the literature, relatively few have been sequenced. This work describes the characterisation and genome annotation of a new lytic Acinetobacter siphovirus, vB_AbaS_Loki, isolated from activated sewage sludge. Sequencing revealed that Loki encapsulates a 41,308 bp genome, encoding 51 predicted open reading frames. Loki is most closely related to Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and more distantly related to Burkholderia phage KL1, Paracoccus phage vB_PmaS_IMEP1 and Pseudomonas phages vB_Pae_Kakheti25, vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26 and PA73...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207002/detecting-natural-adaptation-of-the-streptococcus-thermophilus-crispr-cas-systems-in-research-and-classroom-settings
#10
Alexander P Hynes, Marie-Laurence Lemay, Luc Trudel, Hélène Deveau, Michel Frenette, Denise M Tremblay, Sylvain Moineau
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas systems have been adapted into a powerful genome-editing tool. The basis for the flexibility of the tool lies in the adaptive nature of CRISPR-Cas as a bacterial immune system. Here, we describe a protocol to experimentally demonstrate the adaptive nature of this bacterial immune system by challenging the model organism for the study of CRISPR adaptation, Streptococcus thermophilus, with phages in order to detect natural CRISPR immunization...
March 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203234/inducible-prophage-mutant-of-escherichia-coli-can-lyse-new-host-and-the-key-sites-of-receptor-recognition-identification
#11
Mianmian Chen, Lei Zhang, Sipei Xin, Huochun Yao, Chengping Lu, Wei Zhang
The use of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents is hindered by their narrow and specific host range, and by a lack of the knowledge concerning the molecular mechanism of receptor recognition. Two P2-like coliphages, named P88 and pro147, were induced from Escherichia coli strains K88 and DE147, respectively. A comparison of the genomes of these two and other P2-like coliphages obtained from GenBank showed that the tail fiber protein genes, which are the key genes for receptor recognition in other myoviridae phages, showed more diversity than the conserved lysin, replicase, and terminase genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202591/non-classical-phase-diagram-for-virus-bacterial-coevolution-mediated-by-clustered-regularly-interspaced-short-palindromic-repeats
#12
Pu Han, Michael W Deem
CRISPR is a newly discovered prokaryotic immune system. Bacteria and archaea with this system incorporate genetic material from invading viruses into their genomes, providing protection against future infection by similar viruses. The condition for coexistence of prokaryots and viruses is an interesting problem in evolutionary biology. In this work, we show an intriguing phase diagram of the virus extinction probability, which is more complex than that of the classical predator-prey model. As the CRISPR incorporates genetic material, viruses are under pressure to evolve to escape recognition by CRISPR...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201993/structure-and-variation-of-crispr-and-crispr-flanking-regions-in-deleted-direct-repeat-region-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-strains
#13
Paul Jeffrey Freidlin, Israel Nissan, Anna Luria, Drora Goldblatt, Lana Schaffer, Hasia Kaidar-Shwartz, Daniel Chemtob, Zeev Dveyrin, Steven Robert Head, Efrat Rorman
BACKGROUND: CRISPR and CRISPR-flanking genomic regions are important for molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, and potentially for adaptive immunity to phage and plasmid DNA, and endogenous roles in the bacterium. Genotyping in the Israel National Mycobacterium Reference Center Tel-Aviv of over 1500 MTBC strains from 2008-2013 showed three strains with validated negative 43-spacer spoligotypes, that is, with putatively deleted direct repeat regions (deleted-DR/CRISPR regions)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196958/transcription-profiling-of-bacillus-subtilis-cells-infected-with-ar9-a-giant-phage-encoding-two-multisubunit-rna-polymerases
#14
Daria Lavysh, Maria Sokolova, Marina Slashcheva, Konrad U Förstner, Konstantin Severinov
Bacteriophage AR9 is a recently sequenced jumbo phage that encodes two multisubunit RNA polymerases. Here we investigated the AR9 transcription strategy and the effect of AR9 infection on the transcription of its host, Bacillus subtilis Analysis of whole-genome transcription revealed early, late, and continuously expressed AR9 genes. Alignment of sequences upstream of the 5' ends of AR9 transcripts revealed consensus sequences that define early and late phage promoters. Continuously expressed AR9 genes have both early and late promoters in front of them...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196886/replication-of-vibrio-cholerae-classical-ctx-phage
#15
Eun Jin Kim, Hyun Jin Yu, Je Hee Lee, Jae-Ouk Kim, Seung Hyun Han, Cheol-Heui Yun, Jongsik Chun, G Balakrish Nair, Dong Wook Kim
The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196397/evolved-distal-tail-carbohydrate-binding-modules-of-lactobacillus-phage-j-1-a-novel-type-of-anti-receptor-widespread-among-lactic-acid-bacteria-phages
#16
Maria-Eugenia Dieterle, Silvia Spinelli, Irina Sadovskaya, Mariana Piuri, Christian Cambillau
Bacteriophage replication requires specific host-recognition. Some siphophages harbour a large complex, the baseplate, at the tip of their non-contractile tail. This baseplate holds receptor binding proteins (RBPs) that can recognize the host cell-wall polysaccharide (CWPS) and specifically attach the phage to its host. While most phages possess a dedicated RBP, the phage J-1 that infects Lactobacillus casei seemed to lack one. We have shown that the phage J-1 distal tail protein (Dit) plays a role in host recognition and that its sequence comprises two inserted modules compared to "classical" Dits...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195220/induction-of-invertebrate-larval-settlement-different-bacteria-different-mechanisms
#17
Marnie L Freckelton, Brian T Nedved, Michael G Hadfield
Recruitment via settlement of pelagic larvae is critical for the persistence of benthic marine populations. For many benthic invertebrates, larval settlement occurs in response to surface microbial films. Larvae of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans can be induced to settle by single bacterial species. Until now, only Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea had been subjected to detailed genetic and mechanistic studies. To determine if the complex structures, termed tailocins, derived from phage-tail gene assemblies and hypothesized to be the settlement cue in P...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194314/evolutionary-and-functional-implications-of-hypervariable-loci-within-the-skin-virome
#18
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Qi Zheng, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Samuel S Minot, Frederick D Bushman, Elizabeth A Grice
Localized genomic variability is crucial for the ongoing conflicts between infectious microbes and their hosts. An understanding of evolutionary and adaptive patterns associated with genomic variability will help guide development of vaccines and antimicrobial agents. While most analyses of the human microbiome have focused on taxonomic classification and gene annotation, we investigated genomic variation of skin-associated viral communities. We evaluated patterns of viral genomic variation across 16 healthy human volunteers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194090/prevalence-and-characterization-of-salmonella-among-humans-in-ghana
#19
Linda Aurelia Andoh, Shabana Ahmed, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Kwasi Obiri-Danso, Mercy Jemima Newman, Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Lisa Barco, Anders Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health problem worldwide and particularly in Africa with high disease burden. This study characterized Salmonella isolates from humans in Ghana to determine serovar distribution, phage types, and antimicrobial resistance. Further, the clonal relatedness among isolates was determined. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven Salmonella isolates (111 clinical and 26 public toilet) were characterized using standard serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193547/salmonella-proteomics-under-oxidative-stress-reveals-coordinated-regulation-of-antioxidant-defense-with-iron-metabolism-and-bacterial-virulence
#20
Jiaqi Fu, Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Yanhua Liu, Kaiwen Yu, Qian Liu, Xiaoyun Liu
Salmonella Typhimurium is a bacterial pathogen that can cause widespread gastroenteritis. Salmonella encounters reactive oxygen species both under free-living conditions and within their mammalian host during infection. To study its response to oxidative stress, we performed the first large-scale proteomic profiling of Salmonella upon exposure to H2O2. Among 1600 detected proteins, 83 proteins showed significantly altered abundance. Interestingly, only a subset of known antioxidants was induced, likely due to distinct regulatory mechanisms...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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