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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922502/the-three-component-system-esrisr-regulates-a-cell-envelope-stress-response-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Britta Kleine, Ava Chattopadhyay, Tino Polen, Daniela Pinto, Thorsten Mascher, Michael Bott, Melanie Brocker, Roland Freudl
When the cell envelope integrity is compromised, bacteria trigger signaling cascades resulting in the production of proteins that counteract these extracytoplasmic stresses. Here, we show that the two-component system EsrSR regulates a cell envelope stress response in the Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The sensor kinase EsrS possesses an amino-terminal phage shock protein C (PspC) domain, a property that sets EsrSR apart from all other two-component systems characterized so far. An integral membrane protein, EsrI, whose gene is divergently transcribed to the esrSR gene locus and which interestingly also possesses a PspC domain, acts as an inhibitor of EsrSR under non-stress conditions...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919692/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacteriophages-with-lytic-activity-against-common-bacterial-pathogens
#2
R K Shende, S D Hirpurkar, C Sannat, Nidhi Rawat, Vinay Pandey
AIM: Present investigation was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteriophages with lytic activity against common bacterial pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 samples of animal waste disposal from cattle (42) and buffalo (18) farms were collected from three different strata, i.e., top, mid, and bottom of collection tank. Samples were primarily subjected to rapid detection methods, and then isolation of phage was done by double agar layer method using Bacillus subtilis (BsH) and Escherichia coli (EH) as host system...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917835/antitumor-activity-pharmacokinetics-tumor-homing-effect-and-hepatotoxicity-of-a-species-cross-reactive-c-met-antibody
#3
Hyunkyu Park, Donggeon Kim, Eunju Son, Sunhwa Shin, Jason K Sa, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yeup Yoon, Do-Hyun Nam
The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays critical roles in promoting tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in various types of cancer and is a promising therapeutic target. The development of a species cross-reactive therapeutic antibody could provide useful to comprehensive preclinical assessment in animal models. Towards this goal, we developed human/mouse cross-reactive c-Met antibodies using an antibody phage library. IRCR201, a c-Met antibody with species cross-reactivity, successfully inhibited the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway via degradation of c-Met and disruption of the binding with its partners, and demonstrated strong in vivo antitumor activity...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917670/morphological-characterization-and-biocontrol-effects-of-vibrio-vulnificus-phages-against-vibriosis-in-the-shrimp-aquaculture-environment
#4
P Srinivasan, P Ramasamy
The re-emerging field of phage therapy is the potential biocontrol agents for the transfer of virulence factor and to kill their bacterial hosts. In this study, the lytic Vibrio vulnificus phages were studied to provide a better understanding of phage-host interactions and development of phage therapy. Four new V. vulnificus phages were detected from shrimp aquaculture system, named VV1, VV2, VV3 and VV4. All lytic V. vulnificus phages are the Tecviruses of the family Tectiviridae with typical double layered elongated icosahedral head and tailless morphology...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917651/bacteriophages-as-an-alternative-to-conventional-antibiotic-use-for-the-prevention-or-treatment-of-paenibacillus-larvae-in-honeybee-hives
#5
T Scott Brady, Bryan D Merrill, Jared A Hilton, Ashley M Payne, Michael B Stephenson, Sandra Hope
American Foulbrood (AFB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae. P. larvae phages were isolated and tested to determine each phages' host range amongst 59 field isolate strains of P. larvae. Three phages were selected to create a phage cocktail for the treatment of AFB infections according to the combined phages' ability to lyse all tested strains of bacteria. Studies were performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the phage cocktail treatment as a replacement for traditional antibiotics for the prevention of AFB and the treatment of active infections...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916756/identification-of-the-s100-fused-type-protein-hornerin-as-a-regulator-of-tumor-vascularity
#6
Michael F Gutknecht, Marc E Seaman, Bo Ning, Daniel Auger Cornejo, Emily Mugler, Patrick F Antkowiak, Christopher A Moskaluk, Song Hu, Frederick H Epstein, Kimberly A Kelly
Sustained angiogenesis is essential for the development of solid tumors and metastatic disease. Disruption of signaling pathways that govern tumor vascularity provide a potential avenue to thwart cancer progression. Through phage display-based functional proteomics, immunohistochemical analysis of human pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) specimens, and in vitro validation, we reveal that hornerin, an S100 fused-type protein, is highly expressed on pancreatic tumor endothelium in a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-independent manner...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915819/bacteriophage-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-infections-in-poultry
#7
REVIEW
Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek, Renata Urban-Chmiel
Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections...
September 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915012/managing-the-sos-response-for-enhanced-crispr-cas-based-recombineering-in-e-coli-through-transient-inhibition-of-host-reca-activity
#8
Eirik Adim Moreb, Benjamin Hoover, Adam Yaseen, Nisakorn Valyasevi, Zoe Roecker, Romel Menacho-Melgar, Michael Lynch
Phage-derived "recombineering" methods are utilized for bacterial genome editing. Recombineering results in a heterogeneous population of modified and unmodified chromosomes and therefore selection methods, such as CRISPR-Cas9, are required to select for edited clones. Cells can evade CRISPR-Cas-induced cell death through recA-mediated induction of the SOS response. The SOS response increases RecA dependent repair as well mutation rates through the induction of the umuDC error prone polymerase. As a result, CRISPR-Cas selection is more efficient in recA mutants...
September 15, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914348/immunogenicity-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-specific-bacteriophage-in-a-human-lung-in-vitro-model
#9
Joseph R Shiley, Kristen K Comfort, Jayne B Robinson
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a serious threat to human health. For example, resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have resulted in untreatable and potentially lethal infections in both cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Due to the growing need for alternative treatment options, bacteriophage, or phage, therapy is gaining considerable attention. While previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of phage in combating persistent bacterial infections, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the host immunological response following phage exposure...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912772/an-anthropocentric-view-of-the-virosphere-host-relationship
#10
Rodrigo A L Rodrigues, Ana C Dos S P Andrade, Paulo V de M Boratto, Giliane de S Trindade, Erna G Kroon, Jônatas S Abrahão
For over a century, viruses have been known as the most abundant and diverse group of organisms on Earth, forming a virosphere. Based on extensive meta-analyses, we present, for the first time, a wide and complete overview of virus-host network, covering all known viral species. Our data indicate that most of known viral species, regardless of their genomic category, have an intriguingly narrow host range, infecting only 1 or 2 host species. Our data also show that the known virosphere has expanded based on viruses of human interest, related to economical, medical or biotechnological activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#12
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912765/biology-and-genomics-of-an-historic-therapeutic-escherichia-coli-bacteriophage-collection
#13
Abiyad Baig, Joan Colom, Paul Barrow, Catherine Schouler, Arshnee Moodley, Rob Lavigne, Robert Atterbury
We have performed microbiological and genomic characterization of an historic collection of nine bacteriophages, specifically infecting a K1 E. coli O18:K1:H7 ColV(+) strain. These phages were isolated from sewage and tested for their efficacy in vivo for the treatment of systemic E. coli infection in a mouse infection model by Smith and Huggins (1982). The aim of the study was to identify common microbiological and genomic characteristics, which co-relate to the performance of these phages in in vivo study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912306/complete-nucleotide-sequence-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteriophage-vb_kpnm_kpv477
#14
Ekaterina V Komisarova, Angelina A Kislichkina, Valentina M Krasilnikova, Alexander G Bogun, Nadezhda K Fursova, Nikolay V Volozhantsev
The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage vB_KpnM_KpV477, with a broad spectrum of lytic activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, including strains of capsular serotypes K1, K2, and K57, was isolated from a clinical sample. The phage genome comprises 168,272 bp, with a G+C content of 39.3%, and it contains 275 putative coding sequences (CDSs) and 17 tRNAs.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911805/delivery-strategies-of-the-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-system-for-therapeutic-applications
#15
REVIEW
Chang Liu, Li Zhang, Hao Liu, Kun Cheng
The CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system is a part of the adaptive immune system in archaea and bacteria to defend against invasive nucleic acids from phages and plasmids. The single guide RNA (sgRNA) of the system recognizes its target sequence in the genome, and the Cas9 nuclease of the system acts as a pair of scissors to cleave the double strands of DNA. Since its discovery, CRISPR-Cas9 has become the most robust platform for genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has triggered enormous interest in therapeutic applications...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910631/specialized-weaponry-how-a-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-system-excels-at-combating-phages
#16
Ole Niewoehner, Martin Jinek
CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense against phage invaders usually requires recognition of short sequences, termed protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs), in phage DNA. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Pyenson et al. (2017) show that the lack of a PAM requirement in some CRISPR-Cas systems prevents interference evasion and facilitates phage extinction.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906479/characterization-of-vb_saum-frusau02-a-twort-like-bacteriophage-isolated-from-a-therapeutic-phage-cocktail
#17
Katarzyna Leskinen, Henni Tuomala, Anu Wicklund, Jenni Horsma-Heikkinen, Pentti Kuusela, Mikael Skurnik, Saija Kiljunen
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium that causes infections in humans and animals. It is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Due to increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are necessary. In this respect, polyvalent staphylococcal myoviruses have been demonstrated to be excellent candidates for phage therapy. Here we present the characterization of the bacteriophage vB_SauM-fRuSau02 (fRuSau02) that was isolated from a commercial Staphylococcus bacteriophage cocktail produced by Microgen (Moscow, Russia)...
September 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904355/highly-potent-antimicrobial-modified-peptides-derived-from-the-acinetobacter-baumannii-phage-endolysin-lysab2
#18
Shih-Yi Peng, Ren-In You, Meng-Jiun Lai, Nien-Tsung Lin, Li-Kuang Chen, Kai-Chih Chang
The increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) strains is a serious public health concern. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a possible solution to this problem. In this study, we examined whether AMPs could be derived from phage endolysins. We synthesized four AMPs based on an amphipathic helical region in the C-terminus of endolysin LysAB2 encoded by the A. baumannii phage ΦAB2. These peptides showed potent antibacterial activity against A. baumannii (minimum inhibitory concentration, 4-64 μM), including some MDR and colistin-resistant A...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902178/tumor-inhibitory-effect-of-ircr201-a-novel-cross-reactive-c-met-antibody-targeting-the-psi-domain
#19
Hyunkyu Park, Donggeon Kim, Eunmi Kim, Jason K Sa, Hee Won Lee, Suji Yu, Jiwon Oh, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yeup Yoon, Do-Hyun Nam
Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-Met) is an essential member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is often dysregulated during tumor progression, driving a malignant phenotypic state and modulating important cellular functions including tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, providing a strong rationale for targeting HGF/c-Met signaling axis in cancer therapy. Based on its protumorigenic potentials, we developed IRCR201, a potent antagonistic antibody targeting the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain of c-Met, using synthetic human antibody phage libraries...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901276/immunocontraception-filamentous-bacteriophage-as-a-platform-for-vaccine-development
#20
Tatiana I Samoylova, Timothy D Braden, Jennifer A Spencer, Frank F Bartol
Population control of domestic, wild and invasive species of animals is a global issue of importance to public health, animal welfare and the economy. Although many methods for regulation of animal reproduction are available, the need for effective, safe, and inexpensive contraceptives remains. Immunocontraceptives (contraceptive vaccines) are designed to stimulate the immune system in order to block critical events in the reproductive process and suppress fertility. Platforms used for vaccine development play a critical role in vaccine efficacy, safety, and practicality...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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