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Truong Dinh Hoai, Issei Nishiki, Terutoyo Yoshida, Toshihiro Nakai
Three lytic phages (PLgW-1, PLgY-16, and PLgY-30) were previously used for phage-typing Lactococcus garvieae, a bacterial pathogen of various marine fish species, and were demonstrated to be potential therapeutants for infections caused by L. garvieae. The morphology, host range, and efficacy of these phages have not been investigated in detail, however. The current study examined the lysis spectrum of these 3 phages against 16 different genotypes of L. garvieae and the influence of a bacterial capsule on phage efficacy, to aid in developing an effective treatment for lactococcosis in fish...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Kunyuan Tie, Yuyu Yuan, Shiqing Yan, Xi Yu, Qiuyang Zhang, Huihui Xu, Yang Zhang, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Xin Feng
Salmonella pullorum is the major pathogen that is harmful to the poultry industry in developing countries, and the treatment of chicken diarrhea caused by S. pullorum has become increasingly difficult. In this study, a virulent bacteriophage YSP2, which was able to specifically infect Salmonella, was isolated and characterized. Phage YSP2 was classified in the Siphoviridae family and had a short latent period of 10 min. No bacterial virulence- or lysogenesis-related ORF is present in the YSP2 genome, making it eligible for use in phage therapy...
March 21, 2018: Virus Genes
Chuan Loo Wong, Chean Yeah Yong, Azira Muhamad, Amir Syahir, Abdul Rahman Omar, Chin Chin Sieo, Wen Siang Tan
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Despite constant surveillance and effective vaccination, the perpetual mutations of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pose a huge challenge to FMD diagnosis. The immunodominant region of the FMDV VP1 protein (residues 131-170) displayed on phage T7 has been used to detect anti-FMDV in bovine sera. In the present study, the functional epitope was further delineated using amino acid sequence alignment, homology modelling and phage display...
March 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hyun J Yu, Da S R Cha, Dong-Hun Shin, Gopinath B Nair, Eun J Kim, Dong W Kim
Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains arise upon infection and integration of the lysogenic cholera toxin phage, the CTX phage, into bacterial chromosomes. The V. cholerae serogroup O1 strains identified to date can be broadly categorized into three main groups: the classical biotype strains, which harbor CTX-cla; the prototype El Tor strains (Wave 1 strains), which harbor CTX-1; and the atypical El Tor strains, which harbor CTX-2 (Wave 2 strains) or CTX-3~6 (Wave 3 strains). The efficiencies of replication and transmission of CTX phages are similar, suggesting the possibility of existence of more diverse bacterial strains harboring various CTX phages and their arrays in nature...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hang Yang, Yanfang Zhong, Juncheng Wang, Qinghong Zhang, Xiulan Li, Sumei Ling, Shihua Wang, Rongzhi Wang
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a signal proinflammatory cytokine secreted by immune cell, and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. It has been regarded as an important marker for determination of disease-specific immune responses. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accurate method to detect IFN-γ in clinic real blood samples. Until now, the immunoassay based on singe chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody for human IFN-γ is still not reported. In the present study, an scFv antibody named scFv-A8 with high specificity was obtained by phage display and biopanning, with the affinity 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Weon Sup Lee, Sang Ryeol Shim, Seon Young Lee, Jin San Yoo, Sung Kweon Cho
Background: VEGF is a highly selective mitogen that serves as the central regulator of tumor angiogenesis by mediating endothelial proliferation, permeability, and survival. Tanibirumab (TTAC-0001) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody derived from a fully human naïve single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) phage library that was developed to inhibit the effects of VEGF in the treatment of solid tumors, especially those of the brain. Methods: In the present study, we conducted intravenous pharmacokinetic studies of TTAC-0001 in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Jason W Shapiro, Catherine Putonti
Bacteriophages are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on the planet, and new phage genomes are being discovered at a rapid pace. As more phage genomes are published, new methods are needed for placing these genomes in an ecological and evolutionary context. Phages are difficult to study by phylogenetic methods, because they exchange genes regularly, and no single gene is conserved across all phages. Here, we demonstrate how gene-level networks can provide a high-resolution view of phage genetic diversity and offer a novel perspective on virus ecology...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Hai Xu, Xi Bao, Yiwei Wang, Yue Xu, Bihua Deng, Yu Lu, Jibo Hou
BACKGROUND: DNA delivery with bacteriophage by surface-displayed mammalian cell penetrating peptides has been reported. Although, various phages have been used to facilitate DNA transfer by surface displaying the protein transduction domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein (Tat peptide), no similar study has been conducted using T7 phage. METHODS: In this study, we engineeredT7 phage as a DNA targeting delivery vector to facilitate cellular internalization...
March 20, 2018: Virology Journal
Shengjian Yuan, Ling Chen, Quan Liu, Yan Zhou, Jingfang Yang, Deng Deng, Hongping Li, Yingfei Ma
In this study, two bacteriophage isolates, AhSzq-1 and AhSzw-1 that specifically infect Aeromonas hydrophila strain KT998822, were isolated from seawater and characterized. One-step growth curves showed that the latent period of AhSzq-1 and AhSzw-1 are 50 min and 60 min, respectively. The sequence similarities between AhSzq-1 and AhSzw-1 were 88% at the DNA and 83% at the protein level, suggesting that these two phages are representatives of two different species. The virion morphology, DNA genome size and terminal repeats of these two phages are similar to those of viruses classified as T5virus phages...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Virology
Yan-Jiun Lee, Nan Dai, Shannon E Walsh, Stephanie Müller, Morgan E Fraser, Kathryn M Kauffman, Chudi Guan, Ivan R Corrêa, Peter R Weigele
Certain viruses of bacteria (bacteriophages) enzymatically hypermodify their DNA to protect their genetic material from host restriction endonuclease-mediated cleavage. Historically, it has been known that virion DNAs from the Delftia phage ΦW-14 and the Bacillus phage SP10 contain the hypermodified pyrimidines α-putrescinylthymidine and α-glutamylthymidine, respectively. These bases derive from the modification of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-hmdU) in newly replicated phage DNA via a pyrophosphorylated intermediate...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francesca Forti, Dwayne R Roach, Marco Cafora, Maria E Pasini, David S Horner, Ersilia V Fiscarelli, Martina Rossitto, Lisa Cariani, Federica Briani, Laurent Debarbieux, Daniela Ghisotti
The alarming diffusion of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains requires investigations on non-antibiotic therapies. Amongst them, the use of bacteriophages (phages) as antimicrobial agents, namely phage therapy, is a promising treatment strategy with support by recent successful compassionate treatments in Europe and the U.S.A. In this work, we combined host range and genomic information to design a 6-phage cocktail killing several clinical strains of P. aeruginosa , including those collected from Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyzed the cocktail performance...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yuwei Zhu, Fan Zhang, Zhiwei Huang
A molecular arms race is progressively being unveiled between prokaryotes and viruses. Prokaryotes utilize CRISPR-mediated adaptive immune systems to kill the invading phages and mobile genetic elements, and in turn, the viruses evolve diverse anti-CRISPR proteins to fight back. The structures of several anti-CRISPR proteins have now been reported, and here we discuss their structural features, with a particular emphasis on topology, to discover their similarities and differences. We summarize the CRISPR-Cas inhibition mechanisms of these anti-CRISPR proteins in their structural context...
March 19, 2018: BMC Biology
Ewelina Stefanovic, Olivia McAuliffe
BACKGROUND: Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei are present in many diverse environments, including dairy and plant materials and the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. Their adaptation to various niches is correlated to intra-species diversity at the genomic and metabolic level. In this study, we compared the genome sequences of three L. paracasei strains isolated from mature Cheddar cheeses, two of which (DPC4206 and DPC4536) shared the same genomic fingerprint by PFGE, but demonstrated varying metabolic capabilities...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ye Chen, SuNing Chen, Jian Zhang, YangMin Wang, Zhengping Jia, Xin Zhang, Xiao Han, Xiuquan Guo, XiaoDi Sun, Chen Shao, Ji Wang, Tian Lan
The current study aimed to identify a comprehensive expression-profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) collected from healthy men and patients with CP/CPPS (Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome). After clinical screening of 382 participants, 60 healthy men and 59 IIIA CP/CPPS patients with significant pelvic-pain were included into this study from March 2012 to December 2014. High-throughput sequencing was employed to identify characteristic expression-profile of EPS-miRNAs...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Jumpei Uchiyama, Ryu Shigehisa, Tadahiro Nasukawa, Keijiro Mizukami, Iyo Takemura-Uchiyama, Takako Ujihara, Hironobu Murakami, Ichiro Imanishi, Koji Nishifuji, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Shigenobu Matsuzaki
The combined use of phage and antibiotics can show synergistic antimicrobial effects, so-called phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). Here, we screened and examined PAS against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. Testing four different phages infecting P. aeruginosa, phage KPP22 classified within the family Myoviridae genus Pbunavirus showed PAS with the widest range of antibiotics, and showed PAS with anti-Pseudomonas drugs such as piperacillin and ceftazidime. Thus, evidence suggests that the combined use of phage and antibiotics is a promising therapeutic strategy against P...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Virology
Mark R H Hurst, Amy Beattie, Sandra A Jones, Aurelie Laugraud, Chikako van Koten, Lincoln Harper
A highly virulent Serratia proteamaculans strain, AGR96X, exhibiting specific pathogenicity against larvae of the New Zealand grass grub ( Costelytra giveni ; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the New Zealand manuka beetle ( Pyronota festiva and P. setosa ; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), was isolated from a diseased grass grub larva. A 12-day median lethal dose of 4.89 ± 0.92 × 103 cells per grass grub larva was defined for AGR96X, and death occurred within 5--12 days following ingestion of a high bacterial dose...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ana Catarina Lopes, Ariane Sagasti, Andoni Lasheras, Virginia Muto, Jon Gutiérrez, Dimitris Kouzoudis, José Manuel Barandiarán
The main parameters of magnetoelastic resonators in the detection of chemical (i.e., salts, gases, etc.) or biological (i.e., bacteria, phages, etc.) agents are the sensitivity S (or external agent change magnitude per Hz change in the resonance frequency) and the quality factor Q of the resonance. We present an extensive study on the experimental determination of the Q factor in such magnetoelastic resonant platforms, using three different strategies: (a) analyzing the real and imaginary components of the susceptibility at resonance; (b) numerical fitting of the modulus of the susceptibility; (c) using an exact mathematical expression for the real part of the susceptibility...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Sungdae Yang, Hyung-Suk Kim, Sang-Do Ha
Microbial biofilms pose a serious threat to food industry, as they are difficult to inactivate or remove owing to their inherent resistance to traditional physical and antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages have been suggested as promising biocontrol agents for eliminating biofilms within the food industry. The efficacy of phages (BP 1369 and BP 1370) was evaluated against Salmonella spp. in biofilms. Biofilms were grown on food (lettuce), food contact surfaces (stainless steel and rubber), and MBEC biofilm devices...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Ekwu M Ameh, Sean Tyrrel, Jim Harris, Athanasios Ignatiou, Elena Orlova, Andreas Nocker
Disinfection aims at maximal inactivation of target organisms and the sustainable suppression of their regrowth. Whereas many disinfection efforts achieve efficient inactivation when the effect is measured directly after treatment, there are questions about the sustainability of this effect. One aspect is that the treated bacteria might recover and regain the ability to grow. In an environmental context, another question is how amenable surviving bacteria are to predation by omnipresent bacteriophages. Provisional data suggested that bacteria when subjected to sublethal heat stress might develop a phage-resistant phenotype...
March 15, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Cintia P J Rua, Louisi S de Oliveira, Adriana Froes, Diogo A Tschoeke, Ana Carolina Soares, Luciana Leomil, Gustavo B Gregoracci, Ricardo Coutinho, Eduardo Hajdu, Cristiane C Thompson, Roberto G S Berlinck, Fabiano L Thompson
Marine sponge holobionts harbor complex microbial communities whose members may be the true producers of secondary metabolites accumulated by sponges. Bromopyrrole alkaloids constitute a typical class of secondary metabolites isolated from sponges that very often display biological activities. Bromine incorporation into secondary metabolites can be catalyzed by either halogenases or haloperoxidases. The diversity of the metagenomes of sponge holobiont species containing bromopyrrole alkaloids (Agelas spp. and Tedania brasiliensis) as well as holobionts devoid of bromopyrrole alkaloids spanning in a vast biogeographic region (approx...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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