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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538736/leaf-bacterial-diversity-mediates-plant-diversity-and-ecosystem-function-relationships
#1
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier, Steven W Kembel
Research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has demonstrated links between plant diversity and ecosystem functions such as productivity. At other trophic levels, the plant microbiome has been shown to influence host plant fitness and function, and host-associated microbes have been proposed to influence ecosystem function through their role in defining the extended phenotype of host organisms However, the importance of the plant microbiome for ecosystem function has not been quantified in the context of the known importance of plant diversity and traits...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538188/identification-and-characterization-of-a-class-of-malat1-like-genomic-loci
#2
Bin Zhang, Yuntao S Mao, Sarah D Diermeier, Irina V Novikova, Eric P Nawrocki, Tom A Jones, Zsolt Lazar, Chang-Shung Tung, Weijun Luo, Sean R Eddy, Karissa Y Sanbonmatsu, David L Spector
The MALAT1 (Metastasis-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1) gene encodes a noncoding RNA that is processed into a long nuclear retained transcript (MALAT1) and a small cytoplasmic tRNA-like transcript (mascRNA). Using an RNA sequence- and structure-based covariance model, we identified more than 130 genomic loci in vertebrate genomes containing the MALAT1 3' end triple-helix structure and its immediate downstream tRNA-like structure, including 44 in the green lizard Anolis carolinensis. Structural and computational analyses revealed a co-occurrence of components of the 3' end module...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538165/the-complexity-in-herpesvirus-entry
#3
REVIEW
Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Jia Chen, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. In general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. HIV and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycoprotein, HIV env or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538163/metabolic-signatures-of-t-cells-and-macrophages-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
REVIEW
Cornelia M Weyand, Markus Zeisbrich, Jörg J Goronzy
In most autoimmune diseases, a decade-long defect in self-tolerance eventually leads to clinically relevant, tissue-destructive inflammatory disease. The pathogenic potential of chronic persistent immune responses during the pre-clinical and clinical phase is ultimately linked to the bioenergetic fitness of innate and adaptive immune cells. Chronic immune cell stimulation, high cellular turn-over, structural damage to the host tissue and maladaptive wound healing, all require a reliable supply of nutrients, oxygen, and biosynthetic precursors...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538147/structural-and-functional-investigations-of-the-n-terminal-ubiquitin-binding-region-of-usp25
#5
Yuanyuan Yang, Li Shi, Yiluan Ding, Yanhong Shi, Hong-Yu Hu, Yi Wen, Naixia Zhang
Ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (Usp25) is a deubiquitinase that is involved in multiple biological processes. The N-terminal ubiquitin-binding region (UBR) of Usp25 contains one ubiquitin-associated domain, one small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs. Previous studies suggest that the covalent sumoylation in the UBR of Usp25 impairs its enzymatic activity. Here, we raise the hypothesis that non-covalent binding of SUMO, a prerequisite for efficient sumoylation, will impair Usp25's catalytic activity as well...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537767/assessing-dimensions-of-pathological-narcissism-psychometric-properties-of-the-short-form-of-the-five-factor-narcissism-inventory-in-a-sample-of-italian-university-students
#6
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Joshua D Miller
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory-Short Form (FFNI-SF), 1,063 Italian university students were administered the scale, along with the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) and the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning (MDPF). In general, the FFNI-SF scales showed good internal consistency (median α = .76; median interitem r = .44) and structural analyses suggested a 3-component model of FFNI-SF scales that was similar to that reported by Sherman et al...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535588/pedogenic-knowledge-aided-modelling-of-soil-inorganic-carbon-stocks-in-an-alpine-environment
#7
Ren-Min Yang, Fan Yang, Fei Yang, Lai-Ming Huang, Feng Liu, Jin-Ling Yang, Yu-Guo Zhao, De-Cheng Li, Gan-Lin Zhang
Accurate estimation of soil carbon is essential for accounting carbon cycling on the background of global environment change. However, previous studies made little contribution to the patterns and stocks of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in large scales. In this study, we defined the structure of the soil depth function to fit vertical distribution of SIC based on pedogenic knowledge across various landscapes. Soil depth functions were constructed from a dataset of 99 soil profiles in the alpine area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535586/an-experimental-infarct-targeting-the-internal-capsule-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-changes
#8
Chang-Woo Han, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Myung Giun Noh, Jin-Myung Kim, Hyung-Seok Kim, Hyung-Sun Kim, Ra Gyung Kim, Jongwook Cho, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Min-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: Stroke involving the cerebral white matter (WM) has increased in prevalence, but most experimental studies have focused on ischemic injury of the gray matter. This study was performed to investigate the WM in a unique rat model of photothrombotic infarct targeting the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), focusing on the identification of the most vulnerable structure in WM by ischemic injury, subsequent glial reaction to the injury, and the fundamental histopathologic feature causing different neurologic outcomes...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535449/the-center-for-epidemiological-studies-depression-scale-ces-d-measurement-equivalence-across-gender-groups-in-hispanic-college-students
#9
Consuelo Arbona, Andrea Burridge, Norma Olvera
BACKGROUND: This study examined among Hispanic college students the factor structure and gender measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The CES-D's original 20 item four-factor model was compared to a recently proposed 14 item, three-factor model. METHODS: Participants included 858 Hispanic undergraduates at an ethnically diverse, major research, urban, public university in the Southwest United States (U.S.). Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and structural equation modeling were used to examine the factor structure, gender invariance, and construct validity of the CES-D scores...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535337/overall-structural-model-of-ns5a-protein-from-hepatitis-c-virus-and-modulation-by-mutations-confering-resistance-of-virus-replication-to-cyclosporin-a
#10
Aurelie Badillo, Veronique Brechot, Stephane Sarrazin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Frederic Delolme, Marie-Laure Fogeron, Jennifer Molle, Roland Montserret, Anja Bockmann, Ralf Bartenschlager, Volker Lohmann, Guy Lippens, Sylvie Ricard-Blum, Xavier Hanoulle, Francois Penin
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a RNA-binding phosphoprotein composed of a N-terminal membrane anchor (AH), a structured domain 1 (D1) and two intrinsically disordered domains (D2 and D3). The knowledge of the functional architecture of this multifunctional protein remains limited. We report here that NS5A-D1D2D3 produced in a wheat germ cell-free system is obtained under a highly phosphorylated state. Its NMR analysis revealed that these phosphorylations do not change the disordered nature of D2 and D3 domains but increase the number of conformers due to partial phosphorylations...
May 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535269/increased-retinal-oxygen-metabolism-precedes-microvascular-alterations-in-type-1-diabetic-mice
#11
Wenzhong Liu, Shoujian Wang, Brian Soetikno, Ji Yi, Kevin Zhang, Siyu Chen, Robert A Linsenmeier, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Hao F Zhang
Purpose: To investigate inner retinal oxygen metabolic rate (IRMRO2) during early stages of type 1 diabetes in a transgenic mouse model. Methods: In current study, we involved seven diabetic mice (Akita/+, TSP1-/-) and seven control mice (TSP1-/-), and applied visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) to image functional parameters including retinal blood flow rate, oxygen saturation (sO2) and the IRMRO2 value longitudinally from 5 weeks of age to 13 weeks of age...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535251/mms1-binds-to-g-rich-regions-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-influences-replication-and-genome-stability
#12
Katharina Wanzek, Eike Schwindt, John A Capra, Katrin Paeschke
The regulation of replication is essential to preserve genome integrity. Mms1 is part of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is linked to replication fork progression. By identifying Mms1 binding sites genome-wide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we connected Mms1 function to genome integrity and replication fork progression at particular G-rich motifs. This motif can form G-quadruplex (G4) structures in vitro. G4 are stable DNA structures that are known to impede replication fork progression. In the absence of Mms1, genome stability is at risk at these G-rich/G4 regions as demonstrated by gross chromosomal rearrangement assays...
May 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535187/serum-levels-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-and-risk-of-incident-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
Casey M Rebholz, Morgan E Grams, Yuan Chen, Alden L Gross, Yingying Sang, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin
Glycemic excursions, independent of average glucose, have been implicated in the development of diabetic implications. It is unknown if low 1,5-anyhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are associated with advanced stages of kidney disease independent of kidney function and glycemia. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (N = 13,277), we used structural equation modeling to estimate the association between serum 1,5-AG levels and end-stage renal disease from baseline (1990-1992) through 2013 with adjustment for demographics, risk factors, a latent variable for glycemia (diabetes status, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin), and a latent variable for kidney function (creatinine, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534981/loss-of-csmd1-expression-disrupts-mammary-duct-formation-while-enhancing-proliferation-migration-and-invasion
#14
Mohamed Kamal, Deborah L Holliday, Ewan E Morrison, Valerie Speirs, Carmel Toomes, Sandra M Bell
The CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene maps to chromosome 8p23, a region deleted in many cancers. Loss of CSMD1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer suggesting that it acts as a tumour suppressor in this cancer. However, the function of CSMD1 is largely unknown. Herein, we investigated CSMD1 functions in cell line models. CSMD1 expression was suppressed in MCF10A and LNCaP cells using short hairpin RNA. Functional assays were performed focusing on the 'normal' MCF10A cell line...
May 22, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534693/exploring-the-icf-cy-as-a-framework-to-inform-transition-programs-from-pediatric-to-adult-healthcare
#15
Laura R Hartman, Amy C McPherson, Joanne Maxwell, Sally Lindsay
OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) for informing transition-related programs for youth with chronic conditions moving into adult healthcare settings, using an exemplar spina bifida program. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 53 participants (9 youth and 11 parents who participated in a spina bifida transition program, 12 young adults who did not, 12 clinicians, and 9 key informants involved in development/implementation)...
May 23, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534584/composition-dependent-electronic-energy-relaxation-dynamics-of-metal-domains-as-revealed-by-bimetallic-au144-xagx-sc8h9-60-monolayer-protected-clusters
#16
Hongjun Zheng, Marcus A Tofanelli, Christopher J Ackerson, Kenneth L Knappenberger
We examined the electronic relaxation dynamics for mono and bimetallic Au144-xAgx(SC8H9)60 monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs) using femtosecond time-resolved transient extinction spectroscopy. MPCs provide compositionally well-defined model systems for structure-specific determination of nanoscale electronic properties. Based on pulse-energy-dependent transient extinction data, we quantified electron-phonon coupling constants for three distinct Au144-xAgx(SC8H9)60 MPC samples, where x = 0, 0 < x < 30, and x ∼ 30, as Gx=0 = (1...
May 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534432/gastrointestinal-microphysiological-systems
#17
Sarah E Blutt, James R Broughman, Winnie Zou, Xi-Lei Zeng, Umesh C Karandikar, Julie In, Nicholas C Zachos, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz, Mary K Estes
Gastrointestinal diseases are a significant health care and economic burden. Prevention and treatment of these diseases have been limited by the available human biologic models. Microphysiological systems comprise organ-specific human cultures that recapitulate many structural, biological, and functional properties of the organ in smaller scale including aspects of flow, shear stress and chemical gradients. The development of intestinal microphysiological system platforms represents a critical component in improving our understanding, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534095/qspr-modeling-of-detonation-parameters-and-sensitivity-of-some-energetic-materials-dft-vs-pm3-calculations
#18
Jianying Zhang, Gangling Chen, Xuedong Gong
The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methodology was applied to describe and seek the relationship between the structures and energetic properties (and sensitivity) for some common energy compounds. An extended series of structural and energetic descriptors was obtained with density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP and semi-empirical PM3 approaches. Results indicate that QSPR model constructed using quantum descriptors can be applied to verify the confidence of calculation results compared with experimental data...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533784/the-divergence-of-flowering-time-modulated-by-ft-tfl1-is-independent-to-their-interaction-and-binding-activities
#19
Zhen Wang, Ruiguang Yang, Upendra K Devisetty, Julin N Maloof, Yang Zuo, Jingjing Li, Yuxiao Shen, Jian Zhao, Manzhu Bao, Guogui Ning
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) proteins share highly conserved amino acid residues but they play opposite regulatory roles in promoting and repressing the flowering response, respectively. Previous substitution models and functional analysis have identified several key amino acid residues which are critical for the promotion of flowering. However, the precise relationship between naturally occurring FT/TFL1 homologs and the mechanism of their role in flowering is still unclear. In this study, FT/TFL1 homologs from eight Rosaceae species, namely, Spiraea cantoniensis, Pyracantha fortuneana, Photinia serrulata, Fragaria ananassa, Rosa hybrida, Prunus mume, Prunus persica and Prunus yedoensis, were isolated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533454/genomics-of-coloration-in-natural-animal-populations
#20
REVIEW
Luis M San-Jose, Alexandre Roulin
Animal coloration has traditionally been the target of genetic and evolutionary studies. However, until very recently, the study of the genetic basis of animal coloration has been mainly restricted to model species, whereas research on non-model species has been either neglected or mainly based on candidate approaches, and thereby limited by the knowledge obtained in model species. Recent high-throughput sequencing technologies allow us to overcome previous limitations, and open new avenues to study the genetic basis of animal coloration in a broader number of species and colour traits, and to address the general relevance of different genetic structures and their implications for the evolution of colour...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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