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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806855/functional-stem-cell-integration-into-neural-networks-assessed-by-organotypic-slice-cultures
#1
David Forsberg, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Johan Jäderstad, Linda Maria Jäderstad, Petri Olivius, Eric Herlenius
Re-formation or preservation of functional, electrically active neural networks has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated neural therapeutics. A primary issue for a cell therapy approach is the formation of functional contacts between the implanted cells and the host tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to establish protocols that allow us to delineate a detailed time course of grafted stem cell survival, migration, differentiation, integration, and functional interaction with the host...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806738/partial-igf-1-deficiency-is-sufficient-to-reduce-heart-contractibility-angiotensin-ii-sensibility-and-alter-gene-expression-of-structural-and-functional-cardiac-proteins
#2
José Luis González-Guerra, Inma Castilla-Cortazar, Gabriel A Aguirre, Úrsula Muñoz, Irene Martín-Estal, Elena Ávila-Gallego, Miriam Granado, Juan E Puche, Ángel Luis García-Villalón
Circulating levels of IGF-1 may decrease under several circumstances like ageing, metabolic syndrome, and advanced cirrhosis. This reduction is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, progression to type 2 diabetes, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, underlying mechanisms between IGF-1 deficiency and cardiovascular disease remain elusive. The specific aim of the present work was to study whether the partial IGF-1 deficiency influences heart and/or coronary circulation, comparing vasoactive factors before and after of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806733/the-interaction-between-endogenous-30s-ribosomal-subunit-protein-s11-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus-ls2b-protein-affects-viral-replication-infection-and-gene-silencing-suppressor-activity
#3
Ruilin Wang, Zhiyou Du, Zhenqing Bai, Zongsuo Liang
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806708/predictive-simulation-of-diabetic-gait-individual-contribution-of-ankle-stiffness-and-muscle-weakening
#4
Gilmar F Santos, Aline A Gomes, Isabel C N Sacco, Marko Ackermann
Diabetic neuropathic individuals present massive muscle strength reduction at the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors and increased joint stiffness. Our aim is to investigate the adaptation strategies to these musculoskeletal alterations during walking by means of predictive simulations. We used a seven segment planar musculoskeletal model actuated by eight Hill-type muscles in each leg. The effect of all passive tissue in muscles and other joint structures was modeled by net passive joint moment curves. The predictive simulations were generated by solving an optimal control problem that minimized a cost function, including effort and tracking terms, using direct collocation and a commercial optimal control package...
August 1, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806519/pluronic-p85-f68-micelles-of-baicalein-could-interfere-with-mitochondria-to-overcome-mrp2-mediated-efflux-and-offer-improved-anti-parkinsonian-activity
#5
Tongkai Chen, Ye Li, Chuwen Li, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
Overexpression of the drug efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in the gastrointestinal tract and blood-brain barrier compromises the oral delivery of drugs to the circulation system and brain in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we aim to develop small-sized Pluronic P85/F68 micelles loaded with baicalein (B-MCs) to overcome MRP2-mediated efflux and to investigate related mechanism, as well as the anti-Parkinsonian efficacy. Spherical and sustained-release B-MCs have a mean particle size of 40...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806446/sema3a-reduces-sprouting-of-adult-rod-photoreceptors-in-vitro
#6
Frank Kung, Weiwei Wang, Tracy S Tran, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Purpose: Rod photoreceptor terminals respond to retinal injury with retraction and sprouting. Since the guidance cue Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is observed in the retina after injury, we asked whether Sema3A contributes to structural plasticity in rod photoreceptors. Methods: We used Western blots and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-tagged neuropilin-1 (NPN-1) to detect the expression of Sema3A in an organotypic model of porcine retinal detachment. We then examined Sema3A binding to cultured salamander rod photoreceptors using AP-tagged Sema3A...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806396/inhibiting-myc-binding-to-the-e-box-dna-motif-by-me47-decreases-tumour-xenograft-growth
#7
L C Lustig, D Dingar, W B Tu, C Lourenco, M Kalkat, I Inamoto, R Ponzielli, W C W Chan, J A Shin, L Z Penn
Developing therapeutics to effectively inhibit the MYC oncoprotein would mark a key advance towards cancer patient care as MYC is deregulated in over 50% of human cancers. MYC deregulation is correlated with aggressive disease and poor patient outcome. Despite strong evidence in mouse models that inhibiting MYC would significantly impact tumour cell growth and patient survival, traditional approaches have not yet yielded the urgently needed therapeutic agents that directly target MYC. MYC functions through its interaction with MAX to regulate gene transcription by binding to E-box DNA response elements of MYC target genes...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805634/honey-bee-gut-dysbiosis-a-novel-context-of-disease-ecology
#8
REVIEW
Kirk E Anderson, Vincent A Ricigliano
The honey bee microbiota has become a hot-spot of recent research. Highly co-evolved with its host, the hindgut microbiota of a worker honey bee consists of six bacterial species shown to occur reliably in particular proportions. Altered microbiota structure is associated with host deficiencies, and a variety of bacteria found throughout the hive environment can dominate the worker gut suppressing or displacing microbiota function. The synthesis presented here suggests environmental insults alter gut bacterial balance, leading to decreased host function and disease progression...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805393/disappearance-of-the-superionic-phase-transition-in-sub-5-nm-silver-iodide-nanoparticles
#9
Takayuki Yamamoto, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Loku Singgappulige Rosantha Kumara, Osami Sakata, Kiyofumi Nitta, Tomoya Uruga, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Bulk silver iodide (AgI) is known to show a phase transition from the poorly conducting β/γ-phases into the superionic conducting α-phase at 147 °C. Its transition temperature decreases with decreasing the size of AgI, and the α-phase exists stably at 37 °C in AgI nanoparticles with a diameter of 6.3 nm. In this Letter, we investigated the atomic configuration, the phase transition behavior, and the ionic conductivity of AgI nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.0 nm. The combination of pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling based on high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed for the first time that they formed the β/γ-phases with atomic disorder...
August 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805387/polymyxin-binding-to-the-bacterial-outer-membrane-reveals-cation-displacement-and-increasing-membrane-curvature-in-susceptible-but-not-in-resistant-lps-chemotypes
#10
Denys Ewerton da Silva Santos, Laércio Pol-Fachin, Roberto D Lins, Thereza A Soares
Lipid-A is the causative agent of Gram-negative sepsis and responsible for increasingly high mortality rate among hospitalized patients. Compounds that bind Lipid-A can limit this inflammatory process. The cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B (Pmx-B) is one of the simplest molecules capable of selectively bind to Lipid-A, and may serve as a model for further development of Lipid-A binding agents. Gram-negative bacteria resistance to Pmx-B relies on the upregulation of a number of regulatory systems, which promote chemical modifications of the LPS structure, and leads to major changes in the physical-chemical properties of the outer membrane...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805303/controlled-release-of-igf1-enhances-urethral-sphincter-function-and-histological-structure-in-the-treatment-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-a-rodent-model
#11
Hao Yan, Liren Zhong, Yaodong Jiang, Jian Yang, Junhong Deng, Shicheng Wei, Emmanuel Opara, Anthony Atala, Xiangming Mao, Margot Damaser, Yuanyuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) diminishes the quality of life of millions, particularly women who have delivered vaginally, which can injure the urethral sphincter. Despite several well-established treatments for SUI, growth factor therapy might provide an alternative to promote urethral sphincter repair. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of controlled release of IGF1 from alginate-poly-L-ornithine-gelatin microbeads (IGF1-A-PLO-G microbeads) on sphincter tissue regeneration in a rat model of SUI...
August 14, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805136/the-ovine-model-for-meniscus-tissue-engineering-considerations-of-anatomy-function-implantation-and-evaluation
#12
Andrzej Brzezinski, Salim A Ghodbane, Jay M Patel, Barbara A Perry, Charles J Gatt, Michael G Dunn
Meniscus injuries represent one of the most-common intra-articular knee injuries. The current treatment options include meniscectomy and allograft transplantation, both with poor long-term outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for regenerative techniques to restore meniscal function. In order to pre-clinically test scaffolds for meniscus replacement, large-animal models need to be established and standardized. This review establishes the anatomical and compositional similarities between the human and sheep menisci and provides guidance for implantation and evaluation of such devices...
August 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804911/chronic-ethanol-metabolism-inhibits-hepatic-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-via-lysine-acetylation
#13
Mohammed A Assiri, Samantha R Roy, Peter S Harris, Hadi Ali, Yongliang Liang, Colin T Shearn, David J Orlicky, James R Roede, Matthew D Hirschey, Donald S Backos, Kristofer S Fritz
BACKGROUND: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Oxidative stress is a known consequence of ethanol metabolism and is thought to contribute significantly to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Therefore, elucidating pathways leading to sustained oxidative stress and downstream redox imbalances may reveal how ethanol consumption leads to ALD. Recent studies suggest that ethanol metabolism impacts mitochondrial antioxidant processes through a number of proteomic alterations, including hyperacetylation of key antioxidant proteins...
August 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803903/structured-illumination-microscopy-reveals-actin-i-localization-in-discreet-foci-in-plasmodium-berghei-gametocytes
#14
Chiara Curra, Paul J McMillan, Lefteris Spanos, Vanessa Mollard, Elena Deligianni, Geoffrey McFadden, Leann Tilley, Inga Siden-Kiamos
Actin has important roles in Plasmodium parasites but its exact function in different life stages is not yet fully elucidated. Here we report the localization of ubiquitous actin I in gametocytes of the rodent model parasite P. berghei. Using an antibody specifically recognizing F-actin and deconvolution microscopy we detected actin I in a punctate pattern in gametocytes. 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy which allows sub-diffraction limit imaging resolved the signal into structures of less than 130 nm length...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803586/genetic-evaluation-and-selection-response-for-growth-in-meat-type-quail-through-random-regression-models-using-b-spline-functions-and-legendre-polynomials
#15
L F M Mota, P G M A Martins, T O Littiere, L R A Abreu, M A Silva, C M Bonafé
The objective was to estimate (co)variance functions using random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials, B-spline function and multi-trait models aimed at evaluating genetic parameters of growth traits in meat-type quail. A database containing the complete pedigree information of 7000 meat-type quail was utilized. The models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and generation. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, considered as random, were modeled using B-spline functions considering quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment, and Legendre polynomials for age...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803477/mg2-channel-inspired-nanopores-for-mg2-li-separation-the-effect-of-coordination-on-the-ionic-hydration-microstructures
#16
Yudan Zhu, Yang Ruan, Yumeng Zhang, Yaojia Chen, Xiaohua Lu, Linghong Lu
The separation behaviors of Mg2+ and Li+ were investigated using molecular dynamics. Two functionalized graphene nanopore models (i.e., co_5 and coo_5) inspired by the characteristic structural features of Mg2+ channels were used. Both nanopores exhibited a higher preference to Mg2+ than to Li+, and the selectivity ratios were higher for coo_5 than for co_5 under all the studied transmembrane voltages. An evaluation of the effect of coordination on the ionic hydration microstructures for both nanopores showed that the positioning of the modified groups could better fit a hydrated Mg2+ than a hydrated Li+, as if Mg2+ was not dehydrated according to hydrogen bond analysis of the ionic hydration shells...
August 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803364/volatile-terpenoids-multiple-functions-biosynthesis-modulation-and-manipulation-by-genetic-engineering
#17
REVIEW
Farhat Abbas, Yanguo Ke, Rangcai Yu, Yuechong Yue, Sikandar Amanullah, Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir, Yanping Fan
Terpenoids play several physiological and ecological functions in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses and also in human society because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Through the aid of genetic engineering its role can by magnified to broad spectrum by improving genetic ability of crop plants, enhancing the aroma quality of fruits and flowers and the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids contents in medicinal plants. Terpenoids are structurally diverse and the most abundant plant secondary metabolites, playing an important role in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses, by attracting pollinators and through different interactions between the plants and their environment...
August 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803038/srsf-shape-analysis-for-sequencing-data-reveal-new-differentiating-patterns
#18
Sergiusz Wesolowski, Daniel Vera, Wei Wu
MOTIVATION: Sequencing-based methods to examine fundamental features of the genome, such as gene expression and chromatin structure, rely on inferences from the abundance and distribution of reads derived from Illumina sequencing. Drawing sound inferences from such experiments relies on appropriate mathematical methods to model the distribution of reads along the genome, which has been challenging due to the scale and nature of these data. RESULTS: We propose a new framework (SRSFseq) based on square root slope functions shape analysis to analyse Illumina sequencing data...
July 27, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802916/brain-region-and-sex-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-function-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Wanda M Snow, Claudia Perez, Tak Pan Wong, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common late onset neurodegenerative disorder with indications that women are disproportionally affected. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been one of the most discussed hypotheses associated with the early onset and progression of AD, and it has been attributed to intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ). It was suggested that one of the possible mediators for Aβ-impaired mitochondrial function is the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. NF-κB plays important roles in brain inflammation and antioxidant defense, as well as in the regulation of mitochondrial function, and studies have confirmed altered NF-κB signaling in AD brain...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802835/residues-in-the-eighth-transmembrane-domain-of-the-proton-coupled-folate-transporter-slc46a1-play-an-important-role-in-defining-the-aqueous-translocation-pathway-and-in-folate-substrate-binding
#20
Srinivas Aluri, Rongbao Zhao, Andras Fiser, I David Goldman
The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) is required for intestinal folate absorption and folate transport across the choroid plexus. This report addresses the structure/function of the 8th transmembrane helix. Based upon biotinylation of cysteine-substituted residues by MTSEA-biotin, 14 contiguous exofacial residues to Leu316 were accessible to the extracellular compartment of the 23 residues in this helix (Leu303-Leu325). Pemetrexed blocked biotinylation of six Cys-substituted residues deep within the helix implicating an important role for this region in folate binding...
August 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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