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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231452/proteome-scale-identification-classification-and-structural-analysis-of-iron-binding-proteins-in-bread-wheat
#1
Shailender Kumar Verma, Ankita Sharma, Padmani Sandhu, Neha Choudhary, Shailaja Sharma, Vishal Acharya, Yusuf Akhter
Bread wheat is one of the major staple foods of worldwide population and iron plays a significant role in growth and development of the plant. In this report, we are presenting the genome wide identification of iron-binding proteins in bread wheat. The wheat genome derived putative proteome was screened for identification of iron-binding sequence motifs. Out of 602 putative iron-binding proteins, 130 were able to produce reliable structural models by homology techniques and further analyzed for the presence of iron-binding structural motifs...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231026/late-administration-of-a-palladium-lipoic-acid-complex-poly-mva-modifies-cardiac-mitochondria-but-not-functional-or-structural-manifestations-of-radiation-induced-heart-disease-in-a-rat-model
#2
Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, John W Seawright, Francis J Antonawich, Merrill Garnett, Maohua Cao, Preeti Singh, Marjan Boerma
Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation can cause adverse myocardial remodeling. In small animal models, local heart irradiation causes persistent alterations in cardiac mitochondrial function and swelling. POLY-MVA is a dietary supplement that contains a palladium lipoic acid complex that targets mitochondrial complex I and has been demonstrated to have greater redox potential than lipoic acid alone. POLY-MVA improves mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in the aged rat heart. In this study, we tested whether POLY-MVA can mitigate cardiac effects of ionizing radiation...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230931/spatially-assembled-bilayer-cell-sheets-of-stem-cells-and-endothelial-cells-using-thermosensitive-hydrogels-for-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#3
Indong Jun, Taufiq Ahmad, Seongwoo Bak, Joong-Yup Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Jinkyu Lee, Yu Bin Lee, Hongsoo Jeong, Hojeong Jeon, Heungsoo Shin
Although the coculture of multiple cell types has been widely employed in regenerative medicine, in vivo transplantation of cocultured cells while maintaining the hierarchical structure remains challenging. Here, a spatially assembled bilayer cell sheet of human mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells on a thermally expandable hydrogel containing fibronectin is prepared and its effect on in vitro proangiogenic functions and in vivo ischemic injury is investigated. The expansion of hydrogels in response to a temperature change from 37 to 4 °C allows rapid harvest and delivery of the bilayer cell sheet to two different targets (an in vitro model glass surface and in vivo tissue)...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#4
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230838/studying-neuroanatomy-using-mri
#5
REVIEW
Jason P Lerch, André J W van der Kouwe, Armin Raznahan, Tomáš Paus, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Karla L Miller, Stephen M Smith, Bruce Fischl, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos
The study of neuroanatomy using imaging enables key insights into how our brains function, are shaped by genes and environment, and change with development, aging and disease. Developments in MRI acquisition, image processing and data modeling have been key to these advances. However, MRI provides an indirect measurement of the biological signals we aim to investigate. Thus, artifacts and key questions of correct interpretation can confound the readouts provided by anatomical MRI. In this review we provide an overview of the methods for measuring macro- and mesoscopic structure and for inferring microstructural properties; we also describe key artifacts and confounds that can lead to incorrect conclusions...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230380/effects-of-6-hydroxyceramides-on-the-thermotropic-phase-behavior-and-permeability-of-model-skin-lipid-membranes
#6
Andrej Kovacik, Michaela Silarova, Petra Pullmannová, Jaroslav Maixner, Katerina Vavrova
Ceramides (Cer) based on 6-hydroxysphingosine are important components of the human skin barrier, the stratum corneum. Although diminished concentrations of 6-hydroxyCer have been detected in skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, our knowledge of these unusual sphingolipids, which have only been found in the skin, is limited. In this work, we investigate the biophysical behavior of N-lignoceroyl 6-hydroxysphingosine (Cer NH) in multilamellar lipid membranes composed of Cer/free fatty acids (C16-C24)/cholesterol/cholesteryl sulfate...
February 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#7
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230156/drebrin-mediated-microtubule-actomyosin-coupling-steers-cerebellar-granule-neuron-nucleokinesis-and-migration-pathway-selection
#8
Niraj Trivedi, Daniel R Stabley, Blake Cain, Danielle Howell, Christophe Laumonnerie, Joseph S Ramahi, Jamshid Temirov, Ryan A Kerekes, Phillip R Gordon-Weeks, David J Solecki
Neuronal migration from a germinal zone to a final laminar position is essential for the morphogenesis of neuronal circuits. While it is hypothesized that microtubule-actomyosin crosstalk is required for a neuron's 'two-stroke' nucleokinesis cycle, the molecular mechanisms controlling such crosstalk are not defined. By using the drebrin microtubule-actin crosslinking protein as an entry point into the cerebellar granule neuron system in combination with super-resolution microscopy, we investigate how these cytoskeletal systems interface during migration...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230094/hierarchical-tissue-organization-as-a-general-mechanism-to-limit-the-accumulation-of-somatic-mutations
#9
Imre Derényi, Gergely J Szöllősi
How can tissues generate large numbers of cells, yet keep the divisional load (the number of divisions along cell lineages) low in order to curtail the accumulation of somatic mutations and reduce the risk of cancer? To answer the question we consider a general model of hierarchically organized self-renewing tissues and show that the lifetime divisional load of such a tissue is independent of the details of the cell differentiation processes, and depends only on two structural and two dynamical parameters. Our results demonstrate that a strict analytical relationship exists between two seemingly disparate characteristics of self-renewing tissues: divisional load and tissue organization...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229991/a-novel-mutation-in-the-pyrin-domain-of-the-nod-like-receptor-family-pyrin-domain-containing-protein-3-in-muckle-wells-syndrome
#10
Jian Hu, Yun Zhu, Jian-Zhong Zhang, Rong-Guang Zhang, Hou-Min Li
BACKGROUND: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a group of rare, heterogeneous autoinflammatory disease characterized by interleukin (IL)-1β-mediated systemic inflammation and clinical symptoms involving skin, joints, central nervous system, and eyes. It encompasses a spectrum of three clinically overlapping autoinflammatory syndromes including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. CAPS is associated with gain-of-function missense mutations in NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), the gene encoding NLRP3...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229208/trichoderma-reesei-xylanase-5-is-defective-in-the-reference-strain-qm6a-but-functional-alleles-are-present-in-other-wild-type-strains
#11
Jonas Ramoni, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Verena Seidl-Seiboth, Bernhard Seiboth
Trichoderma reesei is a paradigm for the regulation and industrial production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Among these, five xylanases, including the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 XYN1 and XYN2, the GH10 XYN3, and the GH30 XYN4 and XYN6, were described. By genome mining and transcriptome analysis, a further putative xylanase, encoded by xyn5, was identified. Analysis of xyn5 from the genome-sequenced reference strain T. reesei QM6a shows that it encodes a non-functional, truncated form of XYN5...
February 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229161/high-levels-of-latent-antithrombin-in-plasma-from-patients-with-antithrombin-deficiency
#12
María de la Morena-Barrio, Edna Sandoval, Pilar Llamas, Ewa Wypasek, Mara Toderici, José Navarro-Fernández, Agustín Rodríguez-Alen, Nuria Revilla, Raquel López-Gálvez, Antonia Miñano, José Padilla, Belén de la Morena-Barrio, Jorge Cuesta, Javier Corral, Vincente Vincente
Antithrombin is an anticoagulant serpin that efficiently inhibits multiple procoagulant proteases. The cost for the structural flexibility required for this function is the vulnerability to mutations that impact its folding pathway. Most conformational mutations identified in serpins cause polymerisation. Only three mutations in SERPINC1 affecting two residues have been found to favour transformation to the latent conformation of antithrombin, another hyperstable non-anticoagulant form with strong antiangiogenic activity that constitutes 3 % of plasma antithrombin in healthy subjects...
February 23, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229145/oxidation-potentials-of-phenols-and-anilines-correlation-analysis-of-electrochemical-and-theoretical-values
#13
Ania S Pavitt, Eric J Bylaska, Paul G Tratnyek
Phenols and anilines have been studied extensively as reductants of environmental oxidants (such as manganese dioxide) and as reductates (e.g., model contaminants) that are transformed by environmental oxidants (ozone, triple organic matter, etc.). The thermodynamics and kinetics of these reactions have been interpreted using oxidation potentials for substituted phenols and anilines, often using a legacy experimental dataset that is of uncertain quality. Although there are many alternative oxidation potential data, there has been little systematic analysis of the relevance, reliability, and consistency of the data obtained by different methods...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229112/chronic-psychosocial-stressors-in-adulthood-studies-in-mice-rats-and-tree-shrews
#14
REVIEW
Christopher R Pryce, Eberhard Fuchs
Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229107/translational-relevance-of-rodent-models-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-and-stressors-in-adolescence
#15
REVIEW
Cheryl M McCormick, Matthew R Green, Jonathan J Simone
Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228927/computational-approaches-for-revealing-the-structure-of-membrane-transporters-case-study-on-bilitranslocase
#16
REVIEW
Katja Venko, A Roy Choudhury, Marjana Novič
The structural and functional details of transmembrane proteins are vastly underexplored, mostly due to experimental difficulties regarding their solubility and stability. Currently, the majority of transmembrane protein structures are still unknown and this present a huge experimental and computational challenge. Nowadays, thanks to X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy over 3000 structures of membrane proteins have been solved, among them only a few hundred unique ones. Due to the vast biological and pharmaceutical interest in the elucidation of the structure and the functional mechanisms of transmembrane proteins, several computational methods have been developed to overcome the experimental gap...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228754/proofreading-of-peptide-mhc-complexes-through-dynamic-multivalent-interactions
#17
REVIEW
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
The adaptive immune system is able to detect and destroy cells that are malignantly transformed or infected by intracellular pathogens. Specific immune responses against these cells are elicited by antigenic peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the cell surface. Since these MHC I-presented peptides are generated in the cytosol by proteasomal protein degradation, they can be metaphorically described as a window providing immune cells with insights into the state of the cellular proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228540/functional-optics-of-glossy-buttercup-flowers
#18
Casper J van der Kooi, J Theo M Elzenga, Jan Dijksterhuis, Doekele G Stavenga
Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228504/the-dynamics-of-gastric-emptying-and-self-reported-feelings-of-satiation-are-better-predictors-than-gastrointestinal-hormones-of-the-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-structure-on-fat-digestion-in-healthy-adults-a-bayesian-inference-approach
#19
Andreas Steingoetter, Simon Buetikofer, Jelena Curcic, Dieter Menne, Jens F Rehfeld, Michael Fried, Werner Schwizer, Tim J Wooster
Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228376/xenopus-laevis-kif18a-is-a-highly-processive-kinesin-required-for-meiotic-spindle-integrity
#20
Martin M Möckel, Andreas Heim, Thomas Tischer, Thomas U Mayer
The assembly and functionality of the mitotic spindle depends on the coordinated activities of microtubule-associated motor-proteins of the dynein and kinesin superfamily. Our current understanding of the function of motor-proteins is significantly shaped by studies using Xenopus laevis egg extract as its open structure allows complex experimental manipulations hardly feasible in other model systems. Yet, the Kinesin-8 orthologue of human Kif18A has not been described in Xenopus laevis so far. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Xenopus laevis (Xl) Kif18A...
February 22, 2017: Biology Open
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