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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#1
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156254/xenografted-tissue-models-for-the-study-of-human-endometrial-biology
#2
REVIEW
Satu Kuokkanen, Liyin Zhu, Jeffrey W Pollard
The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156188/addressing-obesity-in-aging-patients
#3
REVIEW
John A Batsis, Alexandra B Zagaria
Obesity in older adults affects not only morbidity and mortality but, importantly, quality of life and the risk of institutionalization. Weight loss interventions can effectively lead to improved physical function. Diet-alone interventions can detrimentally affect muscle and bone physiology and, without interventions to affect these elements, can lead to adverse outcomes. Understanding social and nutritional issues facing older adults is of utmost importance to primary care providers. This article will also discuss the insufficient evidence related to pharmacotherapy as well as providing an overview of using physiologic rather than chronologic age for identifying suitable candidates for bariatric surgery...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156183/medical-devices-for-obesity-treatment-endoscopic-bariatric-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Eric J Vargas, Monika Rizk, Fateh Bazerbachi, Barham K Abu Dayyeh
Endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs) are effective tools for the management of obesity. By mimicking restrictive and bypass surgery physiology, they provide a safe and effective treatment option with the added capabilities of reaching a broader population. Multiple efficacious medical devices, such as intragastric balloons, endoscopic suturing/plication devices, and bypass liners, at various stages of development are available in the United States. EBTs represent the newest addition to a multidisciplinary approach in obesity management...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155920/early-pregnancy-perfluoroalkyl-substance-plasma-concentrations-and-birth-outcomes-in-project-viva-confounded-by-pregnancy-hemodynamics
#5
Sharon K Sagiv, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Abby F Fleisch, Thomas F Webster, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
Associations of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), ubiquitous chemicals used in stain and water resistant products, with adverse birth outcomes may be confounded by pregnancy hemodynamics. We measured plasma concentrations of four PFASs in early pregnancy (median, 9 weeks) among 1,645 women in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We fit multivariable models to estimate PFAS associations with birth weight-for-gestational age z score and gestation length adjusting for sociodemographic confounders and two hemodynamic markers: 1) plasma albumin, a measure of plasma volume expansion, and 2) plasma creatinine, used to estimate glomerular filtration rate...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155897/advances-in-applied-homeostatic-modelling-of-the-relationship-between-thyrotropin-and-free-thyroxine
#6
Rudolf Hoermann, John Edward Maurice Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes Wolfgang Christian Dietrich
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between pituitary TSH and thyroid hormones is central to our understanding of thyroid physiology and thyroid function testing. Here, we generated distribution patterns by using validated tools of thyroid modelling. METHODS: We simulated patterns of individual set points under various conditions, based on a homeostatic model of thyroid feedback control. These were compared with observed data points derived from clinical trials. RESULTS: A random mix of individual set points was reconstructed by simulative modelling with defined structural parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155854/profiling-of-proteins-secreted-in-the-bovine-oviduct-reveals-diverse-functions-of-this-luminal-microenvironment
#7
Viju Vijayan Pillai, Darren M Weber, Brett S Phinney, Vimal Selvaraj
The oviductal microenvironment is a site for key events that involve gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Secretions into the oviductal lumen by either the lining epithelium or by transudation of plasma constituents are known to contain elements conducive for reproductive success. Although previous studies have identified some of these factors involved in reproduction, knowledge of secreted proteins in the oviductal fluid remains rudimentary with limited definition of function even in extensively studied species like cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155851/pac1-and-vpac2-receptors-in-light-regulated-behavior-and-physiology-studies-in-single-and-double-mutant-mice
#8
Jens Hannibal, Birgitte Georg, Jan Fahrenkrug
The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155460/antarctic-emerald-rockcod-have-the-capacity-to-compensate-for-warming-when-uncoupled-from-co2-acidification
#9
Brittany E Davis, Erin E Flynn, Nathan A Miller, Frederick A Nelson, Nann A Fangue, Anne E Todgham
Increases in atmospheric CO2 levels and associated ocean changes are expected to have dramatic impacts on marine ecosystems. Although the Southern Ocean is experiencing some of the fastest rates of change, few studies have explored how Antarctic fishes may be affected by co-occurring ocean changes, and even fewer have examined early life stages. To date, no studies have characterized potential trade-offs in physiology and behavior in response to projected multiple climate change stressors (ocean acidification and warming) on Antarctic fishes...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155304/metabolomics-taking-snapshots-of-cellular-physiology-in-health-and-disease
#10
EDITORIAL
Joanna Kargul, Irmgard Irminger-Finger, Geoff J Laurent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155247/cells-have-sex-chromosomes-and-circadian-clocks-implications-for-organismal-level-functions
#11
Rae Silver
A great number of stakeholders have a keen interest in issues surrounding sex differences. These participants in the discourse often use the same evidence to draw opposite conclusions, with implications for individuals and society as a whole. One part of the maelstrom and associated emotionality derives from confounds between the concepts of "sex" vs. "gender", even among professionals. Here, the oft-repeated point is made that evidence for gender differences can't be derived from the animal research, once the generally accepted conception of gender as a process unique to humans, is acknowledged...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155215/membrane-estrogen-receptors-signal-to-determine-transcription-factor-function
#12
Ellis R Levin
Estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta as well as many other steroid receptors are found both within the nucleus and outside the nucleus. This includes extra-nuclear receptors in many organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, cytosolic endosomes, and membrane lipid rafts, such as caveolae. The functions of these receptors in the various extra-nuclear cell organelles are not well described, but progress for understanding steroid receptor signaling from the membrane has advanced. In this Review I will discuss the enlarging role of membrane ER signaling to the expression, cell localization, and function of transcription factors that are essential to mediate cell physiology or pathophysiology in many organs...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155072/a-protocol-to-study-ex-vivo-mouse-working-heart-at-human-like-heart-rate
#13
Han-Zhong Feng, Jian-Ping Jin
Genetically modified mice are widely used as experimental models to study human heart function and diseases. However, the fast rate of normal mouse heart at 400-600bpm limits its capacity of assessing kinetic parameters that are important for the physiology and pathophysiology of human heart that beats at a much slower rate (75-180bpm). To extend the value of mouse models, we established a protocol to study ex vivo mouse working hearts at a human-like heart rate. In the presence of 300μM lidocaine to lower pacemaker and conductive activities and prevent arrhythmia, a stable rate of 120-130bpm at 37°C is achieved for ex vivo mouse working hearts...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155013/3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-synthase-and-cuticle-formation-in-insects
#14
Chenghong Liao, Archana Upadhyay, Jing Liang, Qian Han, Jianyong Li
Cuticle is the most important structure that protects mosquitoes and other insect species from adverse environmental conditions and infections of microorganism. The physiology and biochemistry of insect cuticle formation have been studied for many years and our understanding of cuticle formation and hardening has increased considerably. This is especially true for flexible cuticle. The recent discovery of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) in insects provides intriguing insights concerning the flexible cuticle formation in insects...
November 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155008/-alternative-fuels-contributing-to-mitochondrial-electron-transport-importance-of-non-classical-pathways-in-the-diversity-of-animal-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Allison E McDonald, Nicolas Pichaud, Charles-A Darveau
The study of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in animals has yielded a wealth of information about bioenergetics. Less is known about how animals use fuels other than glucose and less characterized enzymes that are also used to provide electrons to the electron transport system. It has become clear that bioenergetic flexibility is employed by a wide variety of animals in order to successfully grow, maintain cells, and reproduce, and has contributed to the exploitation of new environments and ecological niches through evolution...
November 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154958/pathogenic-th17-inflammation-is-sustained-in-the-lungs-by-conventional-dendritic-cells-and-tlr4-signaling
#16
Karim H Shalaby, Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Gregory S Whitehead, Seddon Y Thomas, Immo Prinz, Hideki Nakano, Donald N Cook
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms that elicit mucosal Th17 cell responses have been described, yet how these cells are sustained in chronically inflamed tissues remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand whether the maintenance of lung Th17 inflammation requires environmental agents in addition to antigen, and to identify the lung antigen-presenting cell types (APCs) that sustain the self-renewal of Th17 cells. METHODS: Animals were repeatedly exposed to aspiration of ovalbumin alone, or together with environmental adjuvants, including extracts of common house dust (HDE), to test their role in maintaining lung inflammation...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154913/the-physiological-and-glycaemic-changes-in-breastfeeding-women-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
Naomi Achong, Emma L Duncan, H David McIntyre, Leonie Callaway
The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life ([1]. Breastfeeding confers many short- and long-term benefits for infants and mothers, including reduced childhood obesity and lower maternal body weight [2-6]. Exclusive breastfeeding is also recommended in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), for at least four months [7]. However, the impact of breastfeeding on mothers with T1DM, and, conversely, the impact of maternal T1DM on breastfeeding, is not clear...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154902/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibition-prevents-fibrosis-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#18
Ana Patrícia Marques, Janete Cunha-Santos, Helena Leal, Lígia Sousa-Ferreira, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Cláudia Cavadas, Joana Rosmaninho-Salgado
BACKGROUND: During the development of obesity the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to a dysregulation and an excessive remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to fibrosis formation. These ECM changes have high impact on WAT physiology and may change obesity progression. Blocking WAT fibrosis may have beneficial effects on the efficacy of diet regimen or therapeutical approaches in obesity. Since dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors prevent fibrosis in tissues, such as heart, liver and kidney, the objective of this study was to assess whether vildagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, prevents fibrosis in WAT in a mouse model of obesity, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154783/involvement-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-slc16a1-in-the-uptake-of-l-lactate-in-human-astrocytes
#19
Masaya Ideno, Masaki Kobayashi, Shotaro Sasaki, Yuya Futagi, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Ken Iseki
PURPOSE: Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS), help neurons survive Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are reported to transport l-lactate, which is important for CNS physiology and cognitive function. However, it remains unclear which MCT isoform is functionally expressed by human astrocytes. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of each MCT isoform to l-lactate transport in human astrocytes. METHODS: The function of l-lactate transport was studied using NHA cells as a human astrocyte model and radiolabeled l-lactate...
November 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154585/cognitive-reappraisal-and-acceptance-effects-on-emotion-physiology-and-perceived-cognitive-costs
#20
Allison S Troy, Amanda J Shallcross, Anna Brunner, Rachel Friedman, Markera C Jones
Two emotion regulation strategies-cognitive reappraisal and acceptance-are both associated with beneficial psychological health outcomes over time. However, it remains unclear whether these 2 strategies are associated with differential consequences for emotion, physiology, or perceived cognitive costs in the short-term. The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effects of reappraisal (reframing one's thoughts) and acceptance (accepting feelings without trying to control or judge them) on the subjective experience of negative emotions, positive emotions, and physiological responses during and following recovery from sad film clips shown in the laboratory...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
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