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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#1
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346439/hippo-signalling-governs-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-through-yap-taz-mediated-tbk1-blockade
#2
Qian Zhang, Fansen Meng, Shasha Chen, Steven W Plouffe, Shiying Wu, Shengduo Liu, Xinran Li, Ruyuan Zhou, Junxian Wang, Bin Zhao, Jianming Liu, Jun Qin, Jian Zou, Xin-Hua Feng, Kun-Liang Guan, Pinglong Xu
The Hippo pathway senses cellular conditions and regulates YAP/TAZ to control cellular and tissue homeostasis, while TBK1 is central for cytosolic nucleic acid sensing and antiviral defence. The correlation between cellular nutrient/physical status and host antiviral defence is interesting but not well understood. Here we find that YAP/TAZ act as natural inhibitors of TBK1 and are vital for antiviral physiology. Independent of transcriptional regulation and through the transactivation domain, YAP/TAZ associate directly with TBK1 and abolish virus-induced TBK1 activation, by preventing TBK1 Lys63-linked ubiquitylation and the binding of adaptors/substrates...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346423/mob1-yap1-taz-nkx2-1-axis-controls-bronchioalveolar-cell-differentiation-adhesion-and-tumour-formation
#3
K Otsubo, H Goto, M Nishio, K Kawamura, S Yanagi, W Nishie, T Sasaki, T Maehama, H Nishina, K Mimori, T Nakano, H Shimizu, T W Mak, K Nakao, Y Nakanishi, A Suzuki
Mps One Binder Kinase Activator (MOB)1A/1B are core components of the Hippo pathway. These proteins, which coactivate LArge Tumour Suppressor homologue kinases, are also tumour suppressors. To investigate MOB1A/B's roles in normal physiology and lung cancer, we generated doxycycline (Dox)-inducible, bronchioalveolar epithelium-specific, null mutations of MOB1A/B in mice (SPC-rtTA/(tetO)7-Cre/Mob1a(flox/flox)/Mob1b(-/-); termed luMob1DKO mice). Most mutants (70%) receiving Dox in utero (luMob1DKO (E6.5-18.5) mice) died of hypoxia within 1 h post-birth...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346141/insights-into-electrosensory-organ-development-physiology-and-evolutionfrom-a-lateral-line-enriched-transcriptome
#4
Melinda S Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R Carr, Harold H Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S Campbell, Marcus C Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker
The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#5
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345793/small-molecules-deep-from-the-gut
#6
Michael Ehrmann, Markus Kaiser
Although the influence of the human microbiome on host functions is widely recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. A recent study of the Fischbach group now provided an experimental workflow for characterizing and evaluating the impact of microbiome-derived small molecules on host physiology.
March 27, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345602/a-primary-human-macrophage-enteroid-co-culture-model-to-investigate-mucosal-gut-physiology-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#7
Gaelle Noel, Nicholas W Baetz, Janet F Staab, Mark Donowitz, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Marcela F Pasetti, Nicholas C Zachos
Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345587/derivation-of-functional-human-astrocytes-from-cerebral-organoids
#8
Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Luciana Ferreira Romão, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Jorge Marcondes de Souza, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345488/deep-infiltrating-endometriosis-and-endometrial-adenocarcinoma-express-high-levels-of-myostatin-and-its-receptors-messenger-rnas
#9
Patrizia Carrarelli, Lucia Funghi, Pasquapina Ciarmela, Gabriele Centini, Fernando M Reis, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Alberto Mattei, Silvia Vannuccini, Felice Petraglia
Myostatin is a growth factor member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, which is known to play major roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present study investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of myostatin and myostatin receptors (activin receptor-like kinase 4 [ALK4], transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor kinase [ALK5] and activin receptor type IIB [ActRIIB]) in endometrium of healthy women during menstrual cycle as well as in benign (endometriosis, polyps) and malignant (endometrial adenocarcinoma) conditions...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345479/imaging-the-physiological-evolution-of-the-ischemic-penumbra-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Richard Leigh, Linda Knutsson, Jinyuan Zhou, Peter Cm van Zijl
We review the hemodynamic, metabolic and cellular parameters affected during early ischemia and their changes as a function of approximate cerebral blood flow ( CBF) thresholds. These parameters underlie the current practical definition of an ischemic penumbra, namely metabolically affected but still viable brain tissue. Such tissue is at risk of infarction under continuing conditions of reduced CBF, but can be rescued through timely intervention. This definition will be useful in clinical diagnosis only if imaging techniques exist that can rapidly, and with sufficient accuracy, visualize the existence of a mismatch between such a metabolically affected area and regions that have suffered cell depolarization...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345070/are-scoring-systems-sufficient-for-predicting-mortality-due-to-sepsis-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Merve Gunes Ozaydin, Ozlem Guneysel, Fatma Saridogan, Vehbi Ozaydin
OBJECTIVES: Scoring systems have been used to risk stratify in intensive care units (ICU), but not routinely used in emergency departments. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy for predicting mortality in emergency medicine with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Mortality in ED Sepsis (MEDS) score and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPSII). METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. Patients presenting with evidence of sepsis were all included...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345060/genome-reduction-and-microbe-host-interactions-drive-adaptation-of-a-sulfur-oxidizing-bacterium-associated-with-a-cold-seep-sponge
#12
Ren-Mao Tian, Weipeng Zhang, Lin Cai, Yue-Him Wong, Wei Ding, Pei-Yuan Qian
As the most ancient metazoan, sponges have established close relationships with particular microbial symbionts. However, the characteristics and physiology of thioautotrophic symbionts in deep-sea sponges are largely unknown. Using a tailored "differential coverage binning" method on 22-Gb metagenomic sequences, we recovered the nearly complete genome of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) that dominates the microbiota of the cold seep sponge Suberites sp. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this bacterium (an unclassified gammaproteobacterium termed "Gsub") may represent a new deep-sea SOB group...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345029/tidal-heat-pulses-on-a-reef-trigger-a-fine-tuned-transcriptional-response-in-corals-to-maintain-homeostasis
#13
Lupita J Ruiz-Jones, Stephen R Palumbi
For reef-building corals, extreme stress exposure can result in loss of endosymbionts, leaving colonies bleached. However, corals in some habitats are commonly exposed to natural cycles of sub-bleaching stress, often leading to higher stress tolerance. We monitored transcription in the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus daily for 17 days over a strong tidal cycle that included extreme temperature spikes, and show that increases in temperature above 30.5°C triggered a strong transcriptional response. The transcriptomic time series data allowed us to identify a set of genes with coordinated expression that were activated only on days with strong tides, high temperature, and large diel pH and oxygen changes...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344903/comparison-of-consumption-behavior-and-appetite-sensations-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-bariatric-surgery
#14
Chun Yeh, Hsien-Hao Huang, Shu-Chun Chen, Tung-Fang Chen, Kong-Han Ser, Chih-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: The promising postsurgical weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) from bariatric surgery can be attributed to modified eating physiology after surgical procedures. We sought to investigate the changes in the parameters of consumption behaviors and appetite sensations induced by a mixed meal tolerance test, and to correlate these alterations with age, body mass index, C-peptide levels, and duration of T2D 1 year after bariatric surgery. METHODS: A total of 16 obese patients with T2D who underwent mini-gastric bypass (GB) and 16 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were enrolled in this study and evaluated using a mixed meal tolerance test one year after surgery...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344819/olfaction-as-a-soldier-a-review-of-the-physiology-and-its-present-and-future-use-in-the-military
#15
REVIEW
Palaniappan Ganesh Nagappan, Somasundram Subramaniam, De-Yun Wang
Olfaction is one of our 5 main qualitative sensory abilities. In this review, we have examined the physiology of olfaction from the olfactory receptor to the brain. Through analyzing the physiology of olfaction, we have found that the biochemistry of olfactory nerve stimulation is unique from that of other similar pathways. Upon receiving large amounts of input from the olfactory nerve, the olfactory bulb, followed by several layers of centrifugal and centripetal processing in the brain, has to sort the information from the input as well as integrate it with other inputs from the brain to develop a coherent understanding of the input...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344668/diabetes-and-bone-health-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#16
REVIEW
Vikram Sundararaghavan, Matthew M Mazur, Brad Evans, Jiayong Liu, Nabil A Ebraheim
As the prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, research on some of the lesser-known effects, including impaired bone health, are gaining a lot of attention. The two most common forms of diabetes are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These two differ in their physiology, with T1DM stemming from an inability to produce insulin, and T2DM involving an insufficient response to the insulin that is produced. This review aims to highlight the most current information regarding diabetes as it relates to bone health...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#17
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344352/bacterial-physiology-when-things-turn-sour-for-helicobacter
#18
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344349/microorganisms-maintain-crowding-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Jonas van den Berg, Arnold J Boersma, Bert Poolman
Macromolecular crowding affects the mobility of biomolecules, protein folding and stability, and the association of macromolecules with each other. Local differences in crowding that arise as a result of subcellular components and supramolecular assemblies contribute to the structural organization of the cytoplasm. In this Opinion article we discuss how macromolecular crowding affects the physicochemistry of the cytoplasm and how this, in turn, affects microbial physiology. We propose that cells maintain the overall concentration of macromolecules within a narrow range and discuss possible mechanisms for achieving crowding homeostasis...
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344328/renal-physiology-hco3-reclamation-in-the-renal-proximal-tubule
#20
Ellen F Carney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
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