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William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Penny J Tricker, Abdeljalil ElHabti, Jessica Schmidt, Delphine Fleury
Drought and heat stress cause losses in wheat productivity in major growing regions worldwide, and both the occurrence and the severity of these events is likely to increase with global climate change. Water deficits and high temperatures frequently occur simultaneously at sensitive growth stages, reducing wheat yields by reducing grain number or weight. Although genetic variation and underlying quantitative trait loci for either individual stress are known, the combination of the two stresses has rarely been studied...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Bhavik N Modi, Kalpa De Silva, Ronak Rajani, Nick Curzen, Divaka Perera
Importance: Ischemia-guided revascularization is the cornerstone of contemporary management of coronary artery disease and has evolved from noninvasive functional evaluation to real-time assessment with invasive physiological indices during diagnostic catheterization. However, serial/diffuse disease is common, and revascularization decisions often need to be made about individual lesions within the same vessel. It is unclear whether current physiological techniques, such as fractional flow reserve, can be reliably used to discern the individual contribution of lesions within a serially diseased vessel with erroneous measurements, potentially leading to suboptimal revascularization decisions...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Fernando Garagoli, Ezequiel Guzzetti, Ezequiel Lillo, Luciano Lucas, César Belziti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Panteleimon D Mavroudis, Helen E Hermes, Donato Teutonico, Thomas G Preuss, Sebastian Schneckener
The environmental fates of pharmaceuticals and the effects of crop protection products on non-target species are subjects that are undergoing intense review. Since measuring the concentrations and effects of xenobiotics on all affected species under all conceivable scenarios is not feasible, standard laboratory animals such as rabbits are tested, and the observed adverse effects are translated to focal species for environmental risk assessments. In that respect, mathematical modelling is becoming increasingly important for evaluating the consequences of pesticides in untested scenarios...
2018: PloS One
Jovi C Y Wong, Nicola J Smyllie, Gareth T Banks, Carina A Pothecary, Alun R Barnard, Elizabeth S Maywood, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Robert E MacLaren, Mark W Hankins, Michael H Hastings, Patrick M Nolan, Russell G Foster, Stuart N Peirson
Cryptochromes 1 and 2 (CRY1/2) are key components of the negative limb of the mammalian circadian clock. Like many peripheral tissues, Cry1 and -2 are expressed in the retina, where they are thought to play a role in regulating rhythmic physiology. However, studies differ in consensus as to their localization and function, and CRY1 immunostaining has not been convincingly demonstrated in the retina. Here we describe the expression and function of CRY1 and -2 in the mouse retina in both sexes. Unexpectedly, we show that CRY1 is expressed throughout all retinal layers, whereas CRY2 is restricted to the photoreceptor layer...
March 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Shengtao Jin, Yanan Zhao, Yinghong Jiang, Yanyu Wang, Changjiang Li, Deli Zhang, Bo Lian, Zhongde Du, Hongwei Sun, Lin Sun
Maternal separation (MS) plays a central role in developing physiology and psychology during the individual ontogeny process. MS is used to research the neurobiological mechanisms of mental disorders and early life stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS and early handling (EH) on locomotor activity in an open-field test, a light-dark box test and an elevated plus-maze test of adolescent rats. The results showed that MS reduced locomotor activities in the open-field test, and increased anxiety-like behaviours in the light-dark box test and the elevated plus-maze test in adolescent rats...
March 20, 2018: Neuroreport
Hongyan Li, Heng Weng, Changqing Lan, Hongying Zhang, Xinhang Wang, Jianguang Pan, Lulu Chen, Jinbao Huang
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < ...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sabri Soussi, Marina Taccori, Christian De Tymowski, François Depret, Maïté Chaussard, Alexandre Fratani, Marion Jully, Alexandru Cupaciu, Axelle Ferry, Mourad Benyamina, Kevin Serror, David Boccara, Marc Chaouat, Maurice Mimoun, Pierre Cattan, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, James Anstey, Alexandre Mebazaa, Matthieu Legrand
OBJECTIVES: Burn-induced shock can lead to tissue hypoperfusion, including the gut. We performed this study to describe burn patients at risk of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) with the aim to identify potential modifiable risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study including adult severely burned patients between August 2012 and March 2017. Patients who developed AMI were matched to severely burned patients without AMI at a ratio of 1:3 (same year of admission, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII))...
March 20, 2018: Shock
Martin Schweiger, Angela Lorts, Jennifer Conway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased miniaturization of ventricular assist devices (VADs) and new mechanical support strategies (MCS) has increased the use of MCS in the pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) population. This comes with the need for care providers specialized in this field to determine optimal patient and device selection, and to improve outcomes and decrease complication rates for new innovative strategies. A review of the published literature in this field is timely and relevant...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Linlin Yang, Jun Zhao, Xinling Yu, Ruilong Zhang, Guangmei Han, Renyong Liu, Zhengjie Liu, Tingting Zhao, Ming-Yong Han, Zhongping Zhang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a key signaling molecule in the cytoprotection, vascular mediation and neurotransmission of living organisms. In-depth understanding of its production, trafficking, and transformation in cells is very important in the way H2S mediates cellular signal transductions and organism functions; it also motivates the development of H2S probes and imaging technologies. A fundamental challenge, however, is how to engineer probes with sensitivity and cellular penetrability that allow detection of spontaneous production of H2S in the entire cell space and live animals...
March 21, 2018: Analyst
Luiz Eduardo Sousa, Andre Avarese Figueiredo, José Murillo Bastos Netto
The male pelvic floor muscles comprise a pair of compound muscle layers referred to as the levator ani. Studies have shown that pelvic floor muscle strength is affected by physical activity. This study aimed to assess male pelvic floor muscle strength through manometry of the external anal sphincter and evaluation of its association with physical activity level, BMI, and rectal pressure in healthy men. To assess physical activity level over the previous week, we used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 8 (IPAQ)...
March 21, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Nadine Musallam, Diana Altshuler, Cristian Merchan, Bishoy Zakhary, Caitlin Aberle, John Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: There is little data guiding clinicians on how to discontinue vasopressors among septic shock patients on concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and vasopressin (VP). OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours of discontinuing NE (NE DC first) versus VP (VP DC first) first in septic shock patients. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated septic shock patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) and surgical ICU (SICU) receiving concomitant NE and VP...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Daisuke Ono, Ken-Ichi Honma, Yuchio Yanagawa, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma
In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Jacob Itzhacki, Daniel Clesse, Yannick Goumon, Eus J Van Someren, Jorge Mendoza
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), beyond mood changes, is characterized by alterations in daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. The pathophysiological conditions of SAD involve changes in day length and its first-line treatment is bright light therapy. Animal models using nocturnal rodents have been studied to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of depression, but might be ill suited to study the therapeutic effects of light in SAD since they exhibit light-aversive responses. Here Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent, was used to determine behavioral, molecular and brain dopamine changes in response to exposure to a winter-like photoperiod consisting of a light-dark cycle with 8 h of light, under diminished light intensity, and 16 h of darkness...
March 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
David D Bushart, Ravi Chopra, Vikrant Singh, Geoffrey G Murphy, Heike Wulff, Vikram G Shakkottai
Objective: Purkinje neuron dysfunction is associated with cerebellar ataxia. In a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), reduced potassium channel function contributes to altered membrane excitability resulting in impaired Purkinje neuron spiking. We sought to determine the relationship between altered membrane excitability and motor dysfunction in SCA1 mice. Methods: Patch-clamp recordings in acute cerebellar slices and motor phenotype testing were used to identify pharmacologic agents which improve Purkinje neuron physiology and motor performance in SCA1 mice...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
José C Ramalho, Isabel P Pais, António E Leitão, Mauro Guerra, Fernando H Reboredo, Cristina M Máguas, Maria L Carvalho, Paula Scotti-Campos, Ana I Ribeiro-Barros, Fernando J C Lidon, Fábio M DaMatta
Climate changes, mostly related to high temperature, are predicted to have major negative impacts on coffee crop yield and bean quality. Recent studies revealed that elevated air [CO2 ] mitigates the impact of heat on leaf physiology. However, the extent of the interaction between elevated air [CO2 ] and heat on coffee bean quality was never addressed. In this study, the single and combined impacts of enhanced [CO2 ] and temperature in beans of Coffea arabica cv. Icatu were evaluated. Plants were grown at 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 air, and then submitted to a gradual temperature rise from 25°C up to 40°C during ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Weijing Wang, Dongfeng Zhang, Chunsheng Xu, Yili Wu, Haiping Duan, Shuxia Li, Qihua Tan
Serum uric acid (SUA), as the end product of purine metabolism, has proven emerging roles in human disorders. Here based on a sample of 379 middle and old-aged Chinese twin pairs, we aimed to explore the magnitude of genetic impact on SUA variation by performing sex-limitation twin modeling analyses and further detect specific genetic variants related to SUA by conducting a genome-wide association study. Monozygotic (MZ) twin correlation for SUA level (rMZ = 0.56) was larger than for dizygotic (DZ) twin correlation (rDZ = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ann Joo Lee, Dale F Kraemer, Ozdemir Kanar, Andrew C Berry, Carmen Smotherman, Emely Eid
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can disrupt normal sleep physiology and amplify a negative perception about quality of life. Evidence suggests increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, may play a role. Methods: A total of 56 patients completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure 7 sleep domains: sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficacy, sleep disturbance, sleep medications, and daytime dysfunction...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Victoria Shabardina, Tabea Kischka, Hanna Kmita, Yutaka Suzuki, Wojciech Makałowski
Amoebozoans are in many aspects interesting research objects, as they combine features of single-cell organisms with complex signaling and defense systems, comparable to multicellular organisms. Acanthamoeba castellanii is a cosmopolitan species and developed diverged feeding abilities and strong anti-bacterial resistance; Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic amoeba, who underwent massive gene loss and its genome is almost twice smaller than that of A. castellanii . Nevertheless, both species prosper, demonstrating fitness to their specific environments...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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