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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437784/the-physiology-of-childhood-growth-hormonal-regulation
#1
Emelie Benyi, Lars Sävendahl
The growth patterns of a child changes from uterine life until the end of puberty. Height velocity is highest in utero and declines after birth until puberty when it rises again. Important hormonal regulators of childhood growth are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, sex steroids, and thyroid hormone. This review gives an overview of these hormonal regulators of growth and their interplay with nutrition and other key players such as inflammatory cytokines.
April 24, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437539/safety-and-efficacy-of-antiviral-therapy-for-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-in-immunocompetent-critically-ill-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Nicholas J Cowley, Andrew Owen, Sarah C Shiels, Joanne Millar, Rebecca Woolley, Natalie Ives, Husam Osman, Paul Moss, Julian F Bion
Importance: Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is present in more than half the adult population, and a viral reactivation (ie, when the virus becomes measurable in body fluids such as blood) can occur in up to one-third of these individuals during episodes of critical illness. Objective: To determine whether antiviral therapy is safe and effective for preventing CMV reactivation in a general population of critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial recruited 124 CMV-seropositive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit between January 1, 2012, and January 31, 2014...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436966/microbial-metabolites-regulate-host-lipid-metabolism-through-nr5a-hedgehog-signalling
#3
Chih-Chun Janet Lin, Meng C Wang
Microorganisms and their hosts share the same environment, and microbial metabolic molecules (metabolites) exert crucial effects on host physiology. Environmental factors not only shape the composition of the host's resident microorganisms, but also modulate their metabolism. However, the exact molecular relationship among the environment, microbial metabolites and host metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we discovered that environmental methionine tunes bacterial methyl metabolism to regulate host mitochondrial dynamics and lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through an endocrine crosstalk involving NR5A nuclear receptor and Hedgehog signalling...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436498/integrative-meta-modeling-identifies-endocytic-vesicles-late-endosome-and-the-nucleus-as-the-cellular-compartments-primarily-directing-rtk-signaling
#4
Jared C Weddell, Princess I Imoukhuede
Recently, intracellular receptor signaling has been identified as a key component mediating cell responses for various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). However, the extent each endocytic compartment (endocytic vesicle, early endosome, recycling endosome, late endosome, lysosome and nucleus) contributes to receptor signaling has not been quantified. Furthermore, our understanding of endocytosis and receptor signaling is complicated by cell- or receptor-specific endocytosis mechanisms. Therefore, towards understanding the differential endocytic compartment signaling roles, and identifying how to achieve signal transduction control for RTKs, we delineate how endocytosis regulates RTK signaling...
April 24, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436102/nutrition-in-adolescents-physiology-metabolism-and-nutritional-needs
#5
REVIEW
Jai K Das, Rehana A Salam, Kent L Thornburg, Andrew M Prentice, Susan Campisi, Zohra S Lassi, Berthold Koletzko, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning...
April 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435837/staphylococcus-aureus-type-i-signal-peptidase-essential-or-not-essential-that-s-the-question
#6
COMMENT
Wouter L Hazenbos, Elizabeth Skippington, Man-Wah Tan
Secretion of proteins into the extracellular environment is crucial for the normal physiology and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Type I signal peptidase (SPase I) mediates the final step of bacterial secretion, by cleaving proteins at their signal peptide once they are translocated by the Sec or twin-arginine (Tat) translocon. SPase I has long been thought to be essential for viability in multiple bacterial pathogens. Challenging this view, we and others have recently created Staphylococcus aureus bacteria lacking the SPase I SpsB that are viable and able to grow in vitro when over-expressing a native gene cassette encoding for a putative ABC transporter...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435684/comparison-of-the-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-primary-versus-secondary-acute-gastrointestinal-injury-in-critically-ill-patients
#7
Dong Zhang, Rao Fu, Yanhua Li, Hongyan Li, Yuting Li, Hongxiang Li
BACKGROUND: This prospective study compared clinical characteristics and prognosis between primary (P) and secondary (S) acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) (P-AGI)/(S-AGI) in critically ill patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center observational study. Patients were included if they had been hospitalized for at least 72 h before the AGI diagnosis. Patients were classified according to severity of gastrointestinal dysfunction, while P-AGI or S-AGI were defined according to whether the gastrointestinal system was directly or indirectly involved...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435456/physiological-effects-of-ac4mannaz-and-optimization-of-metabolic-labeling-for-cell-tracking
#8
Sang-Soo Han, Dong-Eun Lee, Hye-Eun Shim, Sangmin Lee, Taekhee Jung, Jung-Hwa Oh, Hyang-Ae Lee, Sung-Hwan Moon, Jongho Jeon, Seokjoo Yoon, Kwangmeyung Kim, Sun-Woong Kang
Metabolic labeling techniques are powerful tools for cell labeling, tracking and proteomic analysis. However, at present, the effects of the metabolic labeling agents on cell metabolism and physiology are not known. To address this question, in this study, we analyzed the effects of cells treated with Ac4ManNAz through microarray analysis and analyses of membrane channel activity, individual bio-physiological properties, and glycolytic flux. According to the results, treatment with 50 μM Ac4ManNAz led to the reduction of major cellular functions, including energy generation capacity, cellular infiltration ability and channel activity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434991/the-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-by-mesolimbic-dopamine-systems
#9
REVIEW
Yo Oishi, Michael Lazarus
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivational behaviors. Recent findings indicate that the VTA and NAc are also involved in sleep/wake regulation - the topic of this review. First, we present an overview of the growing evidence from rodent studies revealing a wake-regulatory role of VTA dopamine neurons. We also discuss brain areas and their neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that may regulate the activity of wake-promoting VTA dopamine neurons...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434587/aligning-physiology-with-psychology-translational-neuroscience-in-neuropsychiatric-drug-discovery
#10
REVIEW
Robert A McArthur
This review presents an overview of some of the pre-clinical and clinical issues that have contributed to the failures of potential novel neuropsychiatric drugs, which have prompted a re-examination of the role of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Advances both in basic neuroscience and technology have driven the development of animal models of aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetics and environmental factors have been the primary contributors to the development of new animal models. Neuroimaging has contributed to the search for biomarkers by which neuropsychiatric disorders may be identified and differentiated, its progression monitored and that the effects of therapy assessed...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433951/transesophageal-echocardiography-in-the-evaluation-of-the-trauma-patient-a-trauma-resuscitation-transesophageal-echocardiography-exam
#11
REVIEW
Stefan W Leichtle, Andrew Singleton, Mandeep Singh, Matthew J Griffee, Joshua M Tobin
The point-of-care ultrasound exam has become an essential tool for hemodynamic monitoring and resuscitation in the trauma bay as well as the intensive care unit. Transthoracic ultrasound provides a dynamic assessment of cardiac function, volume status, and fluid responsiveness that offers potential advantage over traditional methods of hemodynamic monitoring. More recently, a focused transthoracic echocardiography exam was described to improve immediate resuscitation of severely injured patients in the trauma bay...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433933/functional-foods-in-pet-nutrition-focus-on-dogs-and-cats
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro Di Cerbo, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Beniamino Palmieri, Federica Pezzuto, Raffaella Cocco, Gonzalo Flores, Tommaso Iannitti
Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats...
April 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433658/molecular-cloning-of-esr2-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-esr1-and-esr2-in-the-pituitary-gland-of-the-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis-during-female-reproductive-cycle
#13
Ruidong Zhang, Yanan Yin, Long Sun, Peng Yan, Yongkang Zhou, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
Estrogens play critical roles in reproductive physiology via estrogen receptors (ESRs) in vertebrates, including reptiles. Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endemic and endangered reptile species in China. In the present study, we cloned ESR2 gene from the ovary using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), investigated the spatial expression of ESRs in various tissues and temporal expression of ESRs in the pituitary glands during the reproductive cycle in Chinese alligators by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433597/prediction-of-toxicity-of-zinc-and-nickel-mixtures-to-artemia-sp-at-various-salinities-from-additivity-to-antagonism
#14
Évila Pinheiro Damasceno, Lívia Pitombeira de Figuerêdo, Marcionília Fernandes Pimentel, Susana Loureiro, Letícia Veras Costa-Lotufo
Few studies have examined the toxicity of metal mixtures to marine organisms exposed to different salinities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute toxicity of zinc and nickel exposures singly and in combination to Artemia sp. under salinities of 10, 17, and 35 psu. The mixture concentrations were determined according to individual toxic units (TUs) to follow a fixed ratio design. Zinc was more toxic than nickel, and both their individual toxicities were higher at lower salinities. These changes in toxicity can be attributed to the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) rather than to metal speciation...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433468/environmental-structure-and-energetic-consequences-in-groups-of-young-mice
#15
Delia S Shelton, Paul M Meyer, Karen M Ocasio
Microenvironments can have considerable physiological consequences for the inhabitants by influencing the movements of individual members. The microenvironment can permit more diverse aggregation patterns or restrict movements to certain dimensions. Here, we tested whether aspects of the microenvironment that influenced aggregation patterns also influenced the energetics of groups of young animals. We tested the effects of enclosure configuration on the group temperature and respiration of infant mice (Mus musculus)...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433042/-alarmins-and-surgical-injury
#16
J Máca, M Peteja
Surgical intervention is an inseparable part of the management of serious surgical disease. However, surgery also presents a potential risk related to the so-called surgical injury causing immune response. When dysregulated the immune activation is able to cause local complications (i.e. wound dehiscence, impaired healing). Systemic decompartmentization of the immunologic disturbance can negatively influence long-term outcomes (i.e. hospital length of stay, mortality). Due to aseptic conditions in the operating room, such an immune activation is almost always of sterile nature...
2017: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432816/rhodnius-prolixus-from-classical-physiology-to-modern-developmental-biology
#17
REVIEW
Rodrigo Nunes-da-Fonseca, Mateus Berni, Vitória Tobias-Dos-Santos, Attilio Pane, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect and a primary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas disease. Over the past century, Rhodnius has been the subject of intense investigations, which have contributed to unveil important aspects of metabolism and physiology in insects. Recent technological innovations are helping dissect the genetic and molecular underpinnings of Rhodnius embryogenesis and organogenesis, thus fostering the use of this important species in the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432749/motor-nerve-excitability-after-childhood-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#18
Judith Drenthen, Joyce Roodbol, Ellen M Maathuis, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Joleen H Blok, Marie-Claire Y de Wit, Bart C Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: To determine the residual motor nerve dysfunction after pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). METHODS: Observational cross-sectional cohort study in patients who previously developed GBS during childhood (<18 years). Ulnar motor nerve dysfunction was defined by compound motor action potential (CMAP) scan in patients after a follow-up of at least one year compared with age-matched healthy controls, in relation to clinical course and outcome. RESULTS: Thirty-seven persons previously diagnosed with GBS in childhood were included with a mean age at current examination of 20...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432465/ppar%C3%AE-activation-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-lactate-production-in-rat-sertoli-cells
#19
A Gorga, G M Rindone, M Regueira, E H Pellizzari, M C Camberos, S B Cigorraga, M F Riera, M N Galardo, S B Meroni
Sertoli cells provide the structural and nutritional support for germ cell development; they actively metabolize glucose and convert it to lactate, which is an important source of energy for germ cells. Furthermore, Sertoli cells can oxidize fatty acids, a metabolic process that is assumed to fulfill their own energy requirements. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerides within lipid droplets. The regulation of fatty acid storage in conjunction with the regulation of lactate production may thus be relevant to seminiferous tubule physiology...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432103/morphology-and-cardiac-physiology-are-differentially-affected-by-temperature-in-developing-larvae-of-the-marine-fish-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#20
Prescilla Perrichon, Christina Pasparakis, Edward M Mager, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle) and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output) were recorded under two conditions by imaging: i) under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and then acutely exposed to 25° (rearing temperature), 27° and 30°C; ii) at two rearing (chronic) temperatures of 26° and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
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