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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817696/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-sweet-sorghum-accessions-for-bioenergy-production
#1
Michele Jorge da Silva, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Fillipe de Souza, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Pedro Crescêncio Souza Carneiro, Roberto Willians Noda, José Eustáquio de Souza Carneiro, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella
Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817678/family-based-exome-wide-association-study-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-among-hispanics-confirms-role-of-arid5b-in-susceptibility
#2
Natalie P Archer, Virginia Perez-Andreu, Ulrik Stoltze, Michael E Scheurer, Anna V Wilkinson, Ting-Nien Lin, Maoxiang Qian, Charnise Goodings, Michael D Swartz, Nalini Ranjit, Karen R Rabin, Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Sharon E Plon, Pedro A de Alarcon, Ryan C Zabriskie, Federico Antillon-Klussmann, Cesar R Najera, Jun J Yang, Philip J Lupo
We conducted an exome-wide association study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among Hispanics to confirm and identify novel variants associated with disease risk in this population. We used a case-parent trio study design; unlike more commonly used case-control studies, this study design is ideal for avoiding issues with population stratification bias among this at-risk ethnic group. Using 710 individuals from 323 Guatemalan and US Hispanic families, two inherited SNPs in ARID5B reached genome-wide level significance: rs10821936, RR = 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817644/cheek-tooth-morphology-and-ancient-mitochondrial-dna-of-late-pleistocene-horses-from-the-western-interior-of-north-america-implications-for-the-taxonomy-of-north-american-late-pleistocene-equus
#3
Christina I Barrón-Ortiz, Antonia T Rodrigues, Jessica M Theodor, Brian P Kooyman, Dongya Y Yang, Camilla F Speller
Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817588/phylogeography-of-the-reticulated-python-malayopython-reticulatus-ssp-conservation-implications-for-the-worlds-most-traded-snake-species
#4
Gillian Murray-Dickson, Muhammad Ghazali, Rob Ogden, Rafe Brown, Mark Auliya
As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#5
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817155/genetic-variation-of-15-autosomal-strs-in-a-population-sample-of-bedouins-residing-in-the-area-of-the-fourth-nile-cataract-sudan
#6
Andrzej Ossowski, Jaroslaw Piatek, Miroslaw Parafiniuk, Aleksandra Pudlo, Witold Pepinski, Malgorzata Skawronska, Michal Szeremeta, Anna Niemcunowicz-Janica, Ireneusz Soltyszewski
The purpose of the paper was to report allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR markers (AmpFlSTR NGM PCR Amplification Kit) for Bedouin inhabitants in the area of the Fourth Nile Cataract in Sudan, and compute commonly used population and forensic biostatistical parameters. Buccal swabs were collected from 117 unrelated individuals. DNA was extracted using DNA QIAamp(®) DNA Mini Kit, and quantitated with Quantifiler Human Quantification Kit in a 7500 Real-Time PCR System. Amplification of 15 AmpFlSTR NGM PCR Kit loci was performed in PCR System 9700...
August 17, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816234/novel-mutations-of-tcirg1-cause-a-malignant-and-mild-phenotype-of-autosomal-recessive-osteopetrosis-aro-in-four-chinese-families
#7
Xiao-Ya Zhang, Jin-Wei He, Wen-Zhen Fu, Chun Wang, Zhen-Lin Zhang
Human autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO), also known as infantile malignant osteopetrosis, is a rare genetic bone disorder that often causes death. Mutations in T-cell immune regulator 1 (TCIRG1) are a frequent cause of human ARO. Six additional genes (TNFSF11, TNFRSF11A, CLCN7, OSTM1, SNX10, PLEKHM1) were also found to be associated with human ARO. In order to expand the mutation spectrum and clinical diversity for a better understanding of the ARO phenotype and to further investigate the clinical characteristics of benign subjects with ARO, we here report five individuals with ARO from four unrelated Chinese families...
August 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816213/association-of-presenile-cataract-with-galactose-1-phosphate-uridyl-transferase-gene-mutations
#8
Nitin Nema, Ravindra Kumar, Abha Verma, Sonam Verma, Kiran Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Presenile cataract is commonly idiopathic in origin. However, patients with presenile cataract could have an underlying genetic abnormality of galactose metabolism. We studied the association, if any, between idiopathic presenile cataract and galactose-1 -phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene mutation. METHODS: We selected 50 patients with idiopathic presenile cataract, <45 years of age, and 50 age- and sex-matched controls for the study. Mutations in the GALT gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism...
March 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815929/aggregation-of-population-based-genetic-variation-over-protein-domain-homologues-and-its-potential-use-in-genetic-diagnostics
#9
Laurens Wiel, Hanka Venselaar, Joris A Veltman, Gerrit Vriend, Christian Gilissen
Whole exomes of patients with a genetic disorder are nowadays routinely sequenced but interpretation of the identified genetic variants remains a major challenge. The increased availability of population-based human genetic variation has given rise to measures of genetic tolerance that have been used, for example, to predict disease-causing genes in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we investigated whether combining variant information from homologous protein domains can improve variant interpretation. For this purpose, we developed a framework that maps population variation and known pathogenic mutations onto 2,750 "meta-domains"...
August 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815918/a-model-based-approach-to-characterize-individual-inbreeding-at-both-global-and-local-genomic-scales
#10
T Druet, M Gautier
Inbreeding results from the mating of related individuals and may be associated with reduced fitness because it brings together deleterious variants in one individual. In general, inbreeding is estimated with respect to an arbitrary base population consisting of ancestors that are assumed unrelated. We herein propose a model-based approach to estimate and characterize individual inbreeding at both global and local genomic scales by assuming the individual genome is a mosaic of HBD (Homozygous-By-Descent) and non-HBD segments...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815872/a-multimethod-computational-simulation-approach-for-investigating-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-dysfunction-in-degenerative-aging
#11
Timothy E Hoffman, Katherine J Barnett, Lyle Wallis, William H Hanneman
Research in biogerontology has largely focused on the complex relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and biological aging. In particular, the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA) has been well accepted. However, this theory has been challenged by recent studies showing minimal increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as not entirely deleterious in nature, and even beneficial under the appropriate cellular circumstances. To assess these significant and nonintuitive observations in the context of a functional system, we have taken an in silico approach to expand the focus of the MFRTA by including other key mitochondrial stress response pathways, as they have been observed in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
August 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815786/vitamin-d-intake-during-the-first-4-years-and-onset-of-asthma-by-age-5-a-nested-case-control-study
#12
Bright I Nwaru, Kishor Hadkhale, Niina Hämäläinen, Hanna-Mari Takkinen, Suvi Ahonen, Jorma Ilonen, Jorma Toppari, Onni Niemelä, Anna-Maija Haapala, Riitta Veijola, Mikael Knip, Suvi M Virtanen
BACKGROUND: Early life vitamin D intake has been linked to asthma risk in childhood, but the role of longitudinal vitamin D exposure has not been previously evaluated. We investigated the association between vitamin D intake during the first 4 years of life and asthma risk by age 5. METHODS: Within a Finnish population-based birth cohort, 182 incident asthma cases were matched to 728 controls on sex, genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, delivery hospital, and time of birth...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815785/late-pleistocene-origin-of-the-entire-circumarctic-range-of-the-arctic-alpine-plant-kalmia-procumbens
#13
Hajime Ikeda, Pernille Bronken Eidesen, Valentin Yakubov, Vyacheslav Barkalov, Christian Brochmann, Hiroaki Setoguchi
The circumarctic ranges of arctic-alpine plants are thought to have been established in the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene, when the modern arctic tundra was formed in response to climate cooling. Previous findings of range-wide genetic structure in arctic-alpine plants have been thought to support this hypothesis, but few studies have explicitly addressed the temporal framework of the genetic structure. Here, we estimated the demographic history of the genetic structure in the circumarctic Kalmia procumbens using sequences of multiple nuclear loci and examined whether its genetic structure reflects prolonged isolation throughout the Pleistocene...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815698/altered-regulation-of-terminal-flower-1-causes-the-unique-vernalisation-response-in-an-arctic-woodland-strawberry-accession
#14
Elli A Koskela, Takeshi Kurokura, Tuomas Toivainen, Anita Sønsteby, Ola M Heide, Daniel J Sargent, Sachiko Isobe, Laura Jaakola, Hrannar Hilmarsson, Paula Elomaa, Timo Hytönen
Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815647/wildlife-disease-ecology-from-the-individual-to-the-population-insights-from-a-long-term-study-of-a-naturally-infected-european-badger-population
#15
Jenni L McDonald, Andrew Robertson, Matthew J Silk
1. Long-term individual-based datasets on host-pathogen systems are a rare and valuable resource for understanding the infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. A study of European badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire (UK) has produced a unique dataset, facilitating investigation of a diverse range of epidemiological and ecological questions with implications for disease management. 2. Since the 1970s this badger population has been monitored with a systematic mark-recapture regime yielding a dataset of >15,000 captures of >3000 individuals, providing detailed individual life-history, morphometric, genetic, reproductive and disease data...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815638/new-insights-into-the-origin-and-the-genetic-status-of-the-balkan-donkey-from-serbia
#16
L J Stanisic, J M Aleksic, V Dimitrijevic, P Simeunovic, U Glavinic, J Stevanovic, Z Stanimirovic
The Balkan donkey (Equus asinus L.) is commonly regarded as a large-sized, unselected, unstructured and traditionally managed donkey breed. We assessed the current genetic status of the three largest E. asinus populations in the central Balkans (Serbia) by analysing the variability of nuclear microsatellites and the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region of 77 and 49 individuals respectively. We further analysed our mtDNA dataset along with 209 published mtDNA sequences of ancient and modern individuals from 19 European and African populations to provide new insights into the origin and the history of the Balkan donkey...
August 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815497/viral-delivery-of-gfp-dependent-recombinases-to-the-mouse-brain
#17
Jonathan C Y Tang, Stephanie Rudolph, Constance L Cepko
Many genetic tools have been developed that use green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivatives for labeling specific cell populations in organisms and in cell culture. To extend the use of GFP beyond labeling purposes, we developed methods and reagents that use GFP as a driver of biological activities. We used nanobodies that bind GFP to engineer CRE-DOG and Flp-DOG, recombinases that can induce Cre/lox and Flp/FRT recombination in a GFP-dependent manner, respectively. Here, we present a protocol to deliver CRE-DOG and Flp-DOG into the mouse brain by recombinant AAV infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815364/long-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-lb-mscs-clinically-reliable-cells-for-osteo-diseases
#18
Shirin Toosi, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Fatemeh Kalalinia, Mohammad Taghi Pievandi, Hossein Hosseinkhani, Ahmad Reza Bahrami, Asieh Heirani-Tabasi, Mahdi Mirahmadi, Javad Behravan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been designated as the most reliable cells in clinics to treat osteo-diseases because of their versatile nature. MSCs, isolated from long bone (Lb-MSCs) are rarely reported and named as RIA-MSCs because of the reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) device. The potential of these cells in the treatment of non-union bone fractures made them the ideal candidates to be studied for clinical practices. In this work, effect of cryopreservation on the proliferation and differentiation capabilities of long bone MSCs (Lb-MSCs) has been studied...
August 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815324/alcohol-and-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
Daisuke Kawakita, Keitaro Matsuo
In this article, we reviewed the association between alcohol drinking and head and neck cancer (HNC) and its subsites, using the available literature. Alcohol drinking is an established risk factor for HNC, and this association may be stronger among cancers of the oropharynx and hypopharynx than the oral cavity or larynx. In addition, higher alcohol consumption over a shorter period was more harmful than fewer alcohol consumption over a longer period, and the most frequently consumed alcoholic beverages in a population is likely to be associated with the highest risk of HNC in that population...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815278/phenotypic-genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-7b-1-a-conditional-male-sterile-mutant-in-tomato
#20
Anna Pucci, Maurizio Enea Picarella, Andrea Mazzucato
We characterized the photoperiod-sensitive 7B - 1 male-sterile mutant in tomato, showing its allelism with stamenless - 2 . Mapping experiments indicated SlGLO2 , a B-class MADS-box family member, as a strong candidate to underlie the 7B - 1 mutation. The interest in male sterility (MS) dates back to a long time due to its perspective use in hybrid seed production. Here, we characterize 7B-1, a photoperiod-sensitive male-sterile (ms) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), in which stamens are restored to fertility by permissive growth conditions in short days (SD)...
August 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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